Glossary T

takaful: same as "sharia-compliant finance". The concept of takaful is similar the concept of reciprocal exchange, or mutual insurance. What makes the structure somewhat different is that premiums are held in non-interest-bearing accounts, and any excess profit is distributed back to the policyholders or given to charity. While the takaful structure is desirable to those whose religious convictions preclude them from engaging in traditional interest-bearing structures, Takaful is also increasingly popular among non-Muslims who feel that the excess charitable aspect is a socially responsible mechanism for the purchase of insurance." Takaful has at its core the call to jihad, as shariah-compliant products do. “Shariah-compliant” is just that – in compliance with Shariah law.  AIG and Sharia Compliance  
thought: The human mind is hard-wired to work by a method we call epistemology. That is, it makes connections between perceptions, and these perceptions have one thing in common--a metaphysical identity.

That metaphysical identity is what Aristotle was demonstrating by using the "table" when he spoke of "formal causes." It is these formal causes that the human mind is hard wired to discover, and then to relate to other instances of "table."
"The formal cause (from Latin: forma=shape) denotes not only the physical shape that matter acquires when it becomes an object, but also its meaning. The form (known in Greek as eidos) of the table explains how the matter becomes an object with the meaning and shape of a table." source

The "meaning" in the above paragraph is metaphysical even though the objects we perceive are physical.

From this connection of metaphysical similarities, we construct "concepts." Concepts are the building blocks of thought. Without concepts, there could be no thinking.

Thinking is the connection of concepts in strings with metaphysical connections between the words. For example, I can say, "I set the table." Each word has a metaphysical context, because "set" means many different things, such as a set of Legos. But contextually, the meaning is metaphysical.

Though is the stringing together of metaphysical entities, or concepts, that have contextual contiguity.

  • Does thinking prove we exist? The logic behind a "Yes" answer is that a thought is contained within consciousness, which is proof that the container exists. The thoughts are contained in the entity that has consciousness. Humans contain thoughts contained in consciousness. The "container" called "human existence" must therefore exist.
    correspondence theory:
a fact, whether of nature or of man-made origin, that may be said to 'correspond' to something that is and that may therefore be said to be existent; or to something that is not, and that may therefore be said not to be existent. Often stated as p is true if and only if p corresponds to a fact. A concomitant of epistemological, as opposed to state-of-mind, identity theory; e.g., the identity of entities as they correspond to their genera or their species, or both, but not to a state of mind that would make the identity relativistic. Objective reality as "p" where "p" is that which is which may be said to be true; or to that which is not which may be said to be false.

  The "fact" that "p" corresponds to is the "q" in the modus tollens logic formula:

If P, then Q.
Therefore, Q.

To paraphrase Aristotle's explanation of "correspondence" by using the "If P, then Q" formula:

"To say of a thing that it is P when it is Q, or to say of thing that it is not P when it is P, is false;
but to say of a thing that it is P when it is P, or to say of a thing that it is not P when it is Q, is true."

: Time is nothing more than a concept, ie. an idea of what it is we are conscious of. But since it is not empirical (it can't be captured in a jar, for example, or be seen under a microscope) it is abstract.

Abstractions don't exist in empirical reality, only in the mind of conscious beings, so when the last conscious being is dead, time will be dead.

What continues, ie. the movement of the planets, constitutes time only to a consciousness, not to nature. If it existed in nature, it would be empirical.