Y-DNA weighted population map of West Asia

While contour maps clearly display the frequency of specific Y-DNA haplogroup lineages, they do not take into account the difference in population numbers within a region or country. By using relevant data from various sources, the following map shows the frequencies of the undifferentiated haplogroups in West Asia. The details of the map are found in the table underneath, and the sources are listed on the "References" page.

Despite this project's attempt to reveal an accurate insight into West Asia's Y-DNA lineages, the lack of data from certain ethnic groups or regions has made it rather difficult. Immigration and emigration over the past hundred years have also blurred the general picture, with regards to each region's Y-DNA composition. To address these concerns, the use of data from specific ethnic groups for each country was determined on the following grounds:

  • Had to be native to the country within the past 100-150 years (with "native" being defined only on historically attested grounds)
  • They had to constitute at least 1% of the overall population (in order to alleviate any time constraints and lacking data on certain ethnic groups)
The Y-DNA data used in this weighted population map is exactly the same as with the Y-DNA Contour maps. Again, all of the data was derived from the research papers listed in the "References" page, with the application of my judgment only coming in when deciding the breakdown of para-haplogroups within populations (such as P(xR1a) among the Turkmens of Turkmenistan, as per Zerjal et al.).

To maintain a level of consistency, the colour used for each Y-DNA haplogroup is the same as that shown by Family Tree DNA.

Y-DNA population map of West Asia (Pie charts)

Appendix of Y-DNA population map

 Country (Region)
 Trk_E Turkey (East)
 Turkey is predominantly "Turkish", with Kurds forming the largest minority group. They account for ~95% of the nation's population (2008 est.). Cinnioglu et al.'s study did not specify whether the samples from the eastern half of Anatolia were Kurdish or not.
 Demographic information from Turkey is difficult to ascertain, due to the uncertainty over the frequencies of minorities residing in the country. Therefore, the pie chart for Turkey is based on data from studies that either sampled the country geographically (as apposed to by ethnic group), or irrespective of deeper ancestry (i.e. samples listed simply as "Turks").
 Arm Armenia Armenia's population is homogenous, with 97.9% being Armenian (2001 est.); the conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh may have caused some of the Azeris residing in Armenia previously to make the migration towards Azerbaijan.
 Azeris form 90.6% of the population in Azerbaijan, with the largest indigenous minority group being the Lezgins at 2.2% (1999 est.). The Lezgins also reside in Dagestan, a federal republic in the Russian federation.
 Grg Georgia Georgians make up majority of population, at 83.8%. Communities of Azeris and Armenians also exist, at 6.5% and 5.7% each respectively. (2002 cen.) Many other smaller ethnic groups reside in Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, but the haplogroup distribution among some (such as the Talysh) are currently unknown.
 Syr Syria The majority of Syria's population are Arabic speakers, and constitute roughly 90% of the population. The largest minority group are the Kurds, who account for 9%; the remaining 1% is composed of Armenians, Turkmens and others. (2007 cen.)
Nebel et al.'s study on the Kurds of Iraq was applied to the Kurds of Syria; the close proximity of the two allowed for a relatively safe assumption to be made.
 Irq Iraq As with Syria, Iraq's population is composed mostly of Arabic speakers, with the largest minority group again being the Kurds. Studies from Iraq have not included divisions between religious groups, with a generic "Iraqi Arab" and "Iraqi Kurdish" making up the data for the pie chart.
 SdiSaudi Arabia
 Saudi Arabia's native population is largely derived from the Arab bedouins who led a nomadic lifestyle on the Arabian peninsula. With the discovery of oil came migrant workers from South Asia, other Arab nations and expatriates from Western countries. As they do not constitute as being indigenous, however, the Y-DNA data from these workers are not included in the chart for Saudi Arabia's lineages.
 Qtr Qatar As with Saudi Arabia, the natives of Qatar largely descend from bedouin nomads. Due to the influx of foreign workers from across the Middle East, South Asia and Western countries, the Qataris constitute only 40% of the population (2009 est.).
 UAE United Arab Emirates
 The Emiratis are yet another ethnic group with bedouin roots, and they too are the minority when compared to the migrant workers in the UAE; according to the last census, they made up only 19% of the country's population. (1982 cen.)
 Irn_N Iran (North)
 North Iran has been defined as the land above the Dasht-e-Kavir desert (by Reguiero et al.), which lies partially in the province of Semnan. The data on North Iran was split between Tehran and "North Iran" proper, which accounts for the provinces from Kordestan to Khorasan. (2009 cen.)
 Irn_S Iran (South)
 Likewise, South Iran has been defined by Reguiero et al.'s study as the region underneath the Dasht-e-Kavir. Despite occupying more land, the total population of "South Iran" is half of the north, a trend which has been maintained since ancient times (as the north is much more fertile). (2009 cen.)
 Ukr Ukraine Although only a fraction of Ukraine's territory lies within the scope of this project, Ukrainian Y-DNA was held with the same value as that found in Central Asia. The country consists of 77.8% Ukrainians, with the largest minority being Russians at 17.3%. (2001 cen.)
 Rss_E Russia (European)
 The steppe region of Russia was sampled in various studies, and these provinces had similar population densities. Therefore, the data from each region were averaged to give an approximate Y-DNA values for this region.
 Rss_B Russia (Bashkortostan)
 The Republic of Bashkortostan is a federal subject in Russia, and the people are mostly Russian, Bashkir and Tatar by ethnicity. Data on the Tatars is limited, and the chart for Bashkortostan is derived from Wells et al.'s results from Tatars in Kazan, Tatarstan. Bashkortostan also has a sizeable population of Russians, and they have been included also. As no yDNA data on the Russians in Bashkortostan is available, a statistical average of the "East Russians" was used instead.
 Rss_A Russia (Altai Republic)
 As with Bashkortostan, the Altai republic has a large Russian population and data from "East Russia" was applied. Besides the ethnic Russians are the Altaians, with Kazakhs also forming a minority group.
 Kzk Kazakhstan Kazakhs (a Turkic-speaking population) make up 59.2% of it's people with Uzbeks, Tatars and Uyghurs also live within it's borders. The sampling data from Kazakhstan is limited to Wells and Zerjal et al., and data on the Tatars and Uzbeks has to be derived from nearby regions.
 Tkm Turkmenistan Turkmenistan's native population, the Turkmens, make up 85% of the people; Uzbeks are another 5%. Data on Turkmenistan is unfortunately limited to two studies (Wells et al. & Zerjal et al.).
 Uzb Uzbekistan Ethnic Uzbeks are the majority in Uzbekistan, with Tajiks, Kazakhs and Tatars accounting as the country's minority groups. The most accurate ethnic census used was carried out on 1996, meaning a certain amount of variation would have occured in the past 13 years (as of 2009). However, the population totals used for Uzbekistan's chart are up to date and derived from the Uzbek government's website.
 Tjk Tajikistan Tajiks are the majority of the population, with Uzbeks and Kyrgyz forming the minority groups. Roughly 30% of the country's population lives in urban areas, and these settlements are largely confined to the western half of the country. The other half of Tajikistan is the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region, where the locals speak other Iranian languages outside of Persian/Tajiki.
 Kyr Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan's citizens mostly live across the top diagonal of the country, stretching from the Ferghana valley of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan along the border with Kazakhstan. No geographical yDNA data on Kyrgyzstan's populations are available, and all the samples were taken from specific ethnic groups instead.
 Pks Pakistan Pakistan has a sizeable population, with Punjabis, Sindhis, Pashtuns and Balochis making up most of it. Ethnic minorities that are widely discussed on Internet communities, such as the Kalash or Hunzas (Burushos), make up a very tiny proportion (less than 0.1% collectively).
 Ind India The data compiled on India was based on geographical classifications, which were derived from Sahoo et al.'s regional divisions of the country. As with Turkey, the chart for India does not represent the entire country, and only the portion shown on the map.
 Npl Nepal Nepal's people are divided into a number of castes, and current studies have not researched the differences between them. Nevertheless, data on Nepal's Y-DNA is available, and have been implemented into the chart.
 Chn_U China (Xinjiang)
 The Xinjiang Autonomous region is within the territory of China, and represents the country's western outlier. The current population is mostly Uyghur and Chinese Han, with Kazakhs and other Turkic speaking peoples making up most of the minority groups. Due to the region's difficult terrain and limited Y-DNA data, the percentages are centred around Altay (representing "North Uyghurs"), Urumqi and Yili. The percentages of Uyghurs and Kazakhs in all three regions were pooled together, and the population sizes then determined the final figure. The Chinese Han are not included in this chart, as their increase in population is recent and has been charted since 1949, making them contemporary settlers in Xinjiang.
 Chn_T China (Tibet)
 According to China's Bureau of Statistics, Tibet's native population is overwhelmingly Tibetan, at 95%. Although the number of Tibetans is a tenuous issue, the lack of other reliable sources makes this figure the only one that could be used for Tibet.
 Mng Mongolia Mongolia's Khalkha are the undisputed majority, at 94.9%, with Turkic-speaking populations forming another 5%; most of these Turkic speakers are Kazakh by ethnicity.