Question: Who is the intended audience of this poster and for what purpose? Is it a reliable source?
All Quiet on the Western Front
“The dull thud of the gas-shells mingles with the crashes of the light explosives. A bell sounds between the explosions, gongs, and metal clappers warning everyone - Gas- Gaas.
These first minutes with the mask decide between life and death: is it air tight? I remember the awful sights in the hospital: the gas patients who lay in day-long suffocation cough up their burnt lungs in clots. Cautiously, the mouth applied to the valve, I breathe. The gas still creeps over the ground… like a big, soft, jelly fish…
Inside the gas-mask my head booms and roars- it is nigh bursting. My lungs are tight, they breathe always the same hot, used up air, the veins on my temples are swollen. I feel I am suffocating. (pg 68-70)”Question: From whose perspective is this passage written? What evidence from the text supports your opinion?
Dulce et Decorum Est
By Wilfred Owen
Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs,
And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots,
But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
Of gas-shells dropping softly behind.
Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time,
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling
And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime.—
Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.
In all my dreams before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.
If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace
Behind the wagon that we flung him in,
And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,
His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;
If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud
Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,—
My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
To children ardent for some desperate glory,
The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est
Pro patria mori.*
*"It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country" - phrase from the Roman poet Horace
Is the author in favor or against the war? Should soldiers be required to fight for their country?
Soldiers Killed in Battle
What do these statistics tell us about the size and strength of these nations' armies? What could have caused some countries to lose more soldiers than others?
*8,500,000 total military deaths during WWI