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Liber XV

Isidore of Seville or their common origin of the Etymologies OF THE BISHOP OF BOOK OF 15

Of building, and the country

I, OF THE CIVITATIBVS. [1] The authors of the, to a City founded disagreement is found for the most part, so much so that he is neither of the city, indeed, at Rome, the origin of it may be carefully to recognize Him. For he says Sallust (Cat. 6): 'the city of Rome, just as I have heard, to dwell, and to found the beginning of the Trojans and the Aborigines and, with them. " Others say that from the Evander, presided over, according to which Virgil (Aen. 8,313):

Then the king Evander founder of Rome 'of the fort.

People other than the Romulus, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 6,781):

Behold, my son, that under the auspices of the famous Rome.

[2] If, therefore, a certain reason for so great a city does not appear, it is not surprising if in the opinion of the other there is a doubt. Whereupon they haue neither historians nor the various commentators, saying, unskilfully, we ought to condemn, because in ancient times created the very error. Of course certain, of which, or the Holy Scriptures of the nations, or the history of the origin of a certain retired, and with only a very few words must unravel. [3] The first before the flood, Cain, Enoch, in the name of the city of his Son into Naiads of work laid him up, rather than the city alone has filled the multitude of his own for posterity. [4] The first Nembroth a giant, after the flood of Mesopotamia, Babylon, the city has established this. This has enlarged the Semiramis queen of the Assyrians, of the city wall and one side of the pitch and seasoned he hath done. The word "He took from the confusion, because there he mingled with the confused state of the tongue, and be built on the tower. [5] they assert that the Jews of Shem, the son of Noah, whom they call Melchizedek, the first after the flood in Syria, founded the city of Salem, in which the kingdom was of the same of Melchizedek. This, afterwards have held the Jebusites, with the addition of the word has been allotted, which is Jebus; and thus by two names join Jebus, Salem, Jerusalem, is called for, which was afterwards by Solomon in Jerusalem, about Hierosolomonia is made. This is by the poets and by corruption the Jerusalem called by the, and after a while by Aelius Hadrian was called Aelia is. [In the] she is also of Sion, which in Hebrew means "speculation, because he had placed in the highest, being framed together he is, and comes from afar? View it. Jerusalem, [but] peace offerings in our tongue is transferred.

The noble town of, Who CONSTITVERVNT OR United.

[6] Dionysius [i] God, who also Father Liber, the conqueror had gone over with the East Indies, by reason of its city of Nysa, according to the name of the river Indus, founded it and fifty thousand men were filled up. [7] But the Mede illness of my son occupied the middle of built, and so also to his king, of Media, has been allotted the name of the. [8] the head of the Persian city of Persepolis the reign of Perseus, the son of † † work laid him up let her visit the very famous confertissimamque wealth of whom shall and Farsistan is made. [9] The Parthians, too, Ctesiphon with Parthia in the rivalry of the founders of the city of Babylon. [10] the town of Susa, Persia, Memnon 's brother, has been established, they say. Susan, that is named from the river of inmineat Susa. There is the royal of Cyrus, with stones, white, with varied, with the pillars of gold, and inlaid with jewels or distinct, and contains also an image of heaven, a star shining, ordered the rest of the minds of men, and beyond belief. [11] The Bactriani the town of Bactria, the founders, the river of my own cognominantes him, who is called the Bactrian. [12] Carr the other side of Mesopotamia, the city of Edessa, was founded by the Parthians, where formerly he is a Roman army was slain, and thick with the leader taken prisoner. [13] the city of Edessa of Mesopotamia, Nembroth work laid him up, the son of Cush, after he had departed from Babylon, in which, and reigned in; which have hitherto been the surname of Arach, is. He himself and built a Chalannen, which was afterwards the name of the recto by king Seleucus of Seleucia was spoken of. Philadelphia, he founded the city of Arabia, the Rephaim, the people of the most ancient, which they slew the children of Lot. [14] Seleucus, one of the posterity of Alexander, of the same after the death of Alexander the occupation of the city kingdoms of the East in Syria, has created, and that of his father 's the name of Antiochus, called the Antioch, and the head of Syria established. He also Laudiciam and Seleucia, and he Apamiam the city of Edessa to collapse. [15] and the founding of Damascus of Syria, from Damascus, called the steward 's children unto Abraham. This before in the of all Syria held dominion; He had not yet flourished in Antioch, the chief there, and Laodice Apamia, after Alexander the cities which they built with know to be good. This is the future is Damascus, which he himself, his heirs of Abraham, he had said, before there was a of his promises, Isaac. " [16] The founders of the Palestinian town of Gaza on the Hivite, in which he dwelt of old, the worshipers of the Cappadocians with the slain. And he called his Gaza, because there he had the Cambyses, king of the Persians and placed his treasury, the Egyptians, in a war which they had inflicted on the tongue of the Persians for thesaurum'gaza 'derives its name. [17] Philistus Allophyli he founded the city, and by itself is Ashkelon, of which I have already spoken, to be named in the name of Cesloim, who was the grandson of Ham, and the son of Mizraim. [18] it was once a city of Dor, the most powerful, and, vice versa, a tower of Strato, after his death by Herod, king of Judea, of Caesar Augustus, in honor of Caesarea, to be named. In which the house of Cornelius, he saw the Church of Christ, and Philip apartments of the cult, the four of virgins and a chamber of the prophets. [19] the town of Joppa in Palestine of the sea coast of Palestine, they built the same, where it is shown that a rock is to imprison the steps of Andromeda is still retained; the form of a beast 'of which the higher power was the elephants. [20] Jericho is delivered from the foundation of the Jebusites, from whom he is said to have ended it and the name of. Overthrew this Jesus. From which drew up the other, Oza, of Bethel, out of the tribe of Ephraim. But this method at the time when Jerusalem, besieged by the Romans, for the sake of the treachery of the citizens was taken captive and is now destroyed; than one-third for the sake of the city was built, which even today they continue. [21] of Samaria, Shechem City, which, in Latin and Greek is called Shechem, that he made of Emor, and He named it in the name of his son Shechem. "The same is now of Naples, the city of the Samaritans. [22] the founders of Bethel, the city of Samaria, the Jebusites, which before was called Luz at the; in her sleep there, But as soon as he saw a ladder of Jacob, rests on heaven, and said (Gen. 28,17), '"Truly, this is the house of God and the gate of heaven,' while this for the reason he took the name of the place of Bethel, that is the house of God. When, however, there the golden calf of Jeroboam and make them up, is called for Beth-aven, that is, the idol of the house, which was previously was called the house of God. [23] Bethlehem in Judah, the city of David, which became the father of a savior of the world, from the foundation of the Jebusites first being called, is carried upward and E [e] phrata. When, however, there has fed their cattle, Jacob, of Bethlehem, to the same place the name of a certain prophecy of the future the finishing touches to the bread that the house is interpreted, on account of him with bread of who is there now came down from heaven. [24] of Judea, the city of Hebron, which was formerly was called Arbe, city was built by giants before the seven years, than from them, He divided the city of Egypt, might be established. It is the so-Arbe from among the number being called, and that the patriarchs, there for three and the fourth, are buried the man. She is also being called out of one of Mamre a friend of Abraham. [25] Samaria, from which the whole of the country which was about her, received the name of Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians built Samaria, and he called, that is, to keep, because, when Israel carried away to the Medes, he appointed a guard there. This alone, the siege of the capture of Antiochus the closing. Herod, which was afterwards, restoring from the foundations, to Augusta, in honor of Augustus, that is, the Greek language is Sebastia, he called. There are thirst of the Prophet Elisha and Obadiah,,, and one, a greater among those born of women there was not, John the Baptist. [26] But Herod, Tiberias and another in Judea, in the name of the reign of Tiberius Caesar hath made. " [27] Tyre, the Phoenicians in the city was founded by Phoenicians. This is the city of gold, out of which the king was brought to Solomon, in which the best dips in purple, and so also of noble birth is said to Tyrian purple. [28] the Phoenicians set out from the Red sea, Sidon, a very wealthy city was founded, than from the abundance of the fish have called Sidon. For a fish, the Phoenicians 'Sidon' they call. Also they are in Syria, Tyre, they were at Utica in Africa, the Hippo, the Leptis and other cities on the coast, he had made. [29] To him be under the leadership of Thebes in Boeotia Cadmus; This page was last in the fine, even the bending of the world in the ocean, the city constructed by, and that It called by the name to its fate in his own language. For as was the custom among many nations, the Ancient of the Phoenicians in the cause of carrying on trade at the same time from the house to go, and with the minds of the inhabitants of things conmercio occult these in front, won for himself, founding their cities, the places, which seemed to be suitable for get it. [30] From these considerations, Dido, set out on to the shore of Africa, he founded the city, and he named Carthadam, which expresses the city of Phoenix, the tongue of a new, and presently the word of Carthage, it is called the recto: Scipio, this deleted. But those which it is now, afterwards by the Romans, was founded. Carthage Byrsa former times, after the Tyre, was spoken of, and then of Carthage. [31], Memphis, the city built Epaphus of Egypt, the son of Jupiter, with Egypt, in the second for the kingdom. This is a city where the charter is born, and where there is also a very good mathematicians were. For this the magic arts of the city wholly given to the former reached its full measure of error, the steps of show. [32] He divided the capital city of Egypt, where Pharaoh was, all the standards, and Moses, in Exodus doing the things which are written. This said that the Titans are said to have constructed, that is, the giant, and named by his own name. [33] of Egypt, the city of Heliopolis, which in Latin means "city of the sun, just as the Septuagint text is believed. Now it is built, the children of Israel, in which the Petephres was a priest, it is mentioned by Ezekiel. [34] founded the city of Alexandria, Alexander the Great, of which the and the name of keeps it. For this is [the same] in the borders of Egypt, of Africa, and he appointed, and the head of the country of Egypt, to be commanded it. But the intervening between Egypt and the sea, like a cloister, and, lee shore. This is a city of Egypt, Noo, and afterwards to Alexandria, and turneth herself to. [35] Cadmus founded Thebes in Egypt that which is between the cities in Egypt that are more noble than the number of the gates, to which the Arabs on all sides subvehunt upon an intercourse. Hence the king of Egypt, Thebaica is made. But of Boeotia and Thebes, and the Egyptians are, in one, however, the foundation of the author. [36] Ptolemais, and Bernice, by the kings, named as the Egyptians, by whom, and build the were. [37] s of Caesarea of Cappadocia [38] to Tarsus in Cilicia, the offspring of Perseus, the Greeks had built:. Of what city Paul was an apostle, (Behold the bridegroom comes. 22,3): 'Is Born' he said, 'Tarsus in Cilicia. " Some people also the rights of citizenship of India, the place is called Adar. Seleucia Seleucus, founded a Isaurian, who is also to Antioch. But the son of Ilus was Apollo's in Phrygia, Troy, he had made. [39] to Ephesus in Asia, the Amazons built. Theseus moreover, Smyrna, constructed, or that the poet Homer country, rose up, and that, on his being called Smyrna the Ermus the plains of the river cuts. [40] the city of Colchis could Dioscoriam Amphitus and more certain than the drivers, have builded the temple of Castor and Pollux, the name of it from their cognominantes, for the temple of Castor and Pollux, and are called in Greek DIOSKOUROI. [41] Nicomedia, and the king by Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, was built the. Bithynia, making a Phoenicia, which was first Mariandyna was called. [42] of Thrace to Constantinople, Constantine, one of the city his own name, has instituted, in Rome alone through the merits and the power of adequate. This is the first from the founding of Pausanias, the king of the Spartans, and called to Byzantium, and / or that it is apparent only between the Adriatic Sea of Marmara, or that it is the receptacle of the earth, air and sea forces. And so also it is most to found Constantine has not faithful, and as a receptacle for himself as on land and sea would take place. And so, is now the seat of the Roman empire and of the whole is the head of the East, just as the west, and Rome. [43] the city of Thrace, Epirus city was built by Pyrrhus and the surname of. [44] Greece Athens on a Cecrops founded it and by its very name Cecropian mentioned his name. Amphictyons, this, who is also in Greece, the third after Cecrops reigned, has consecrated to Minerva and the name of the city gave to Athens, for Minerva, it is said in Greek. And so the Greeks and Minerva and the discoverer of many subjects they assert that, because both the letter and the arts of different pursuits and of philosophy itself, as it were, they had the temple of Athens. [45] work laid him up to Corinth, in Achaia, of Orestes, the son of Corinth. Corinthian they call this the Greeks, that is, the administration of the republic. [46] Thebes of Boeotia Cadmus has come from the Phoenicians founded Thebes, the Egyptians, by constructing, from him before. [47] Mycenae, and [the cities of Greece]. A Spartan making a Lacedaemon the son of Semele. Sparta, Sparta from the Phoroneus, the son of being called, and who was the son of Inachus. But this very Sparta than to be the city and the Lacedaemonians were, and from thence be said to be the Spartans Spartans. [48], being framed together by the Achaeans Achaia,: Pelops, who reigned at Argos, the Peloponnesian he founded the city: Cecrops in the island of Rhodes to Rhodes built: it Skarpanto Coan: the son of Paphos Aeos import of the Greek: Samos, the son of Magdalen of Lycurgus: But the work laid him up the Trojan Dardanus: the Greeks to Thessalonica, the son of the Thessalian, he built a and in which is also reigned. [49] to Brundisium constructed by the Greeks: there has been said to Brundisium [is] that in Greek the head of a stag brunda be said: "For thus it is as seen, and it and the horns in the language of the head and the position of the city itself. [50] In Italy, the Janiculum But from the Janus, from the daughter of Saturn, Saturn, founded and wider, because there he is named of fleeing, it had been obscured. [51] by Hercules, in Campania, in Pompey, who was a victor from the pomp of Spain, of oxen, he had married. [52], Aeneas of all after the fall of Troy, in the same coming from Italy, from their wives, the name of the Lavinium, the city he founded. [53], however, leaving Lavinia Ascanius, his stepmother, the kingdom of his own, he built Alba Longa. But Alba is so called because the color of his own; Far away, the town is because for a long, according to the length of the hill on which is situated. Out of this the kings of the Alban and even of the city began to be called. [54] Silvius Capys to Capua, the king of the Alban and has built, and was designated by the name of the Creator, though they may be are none that he speaks from the capacity of it to Capua, the said, that, on his the whole life of the fruit of the land of let him take it: the plains of people other than the places in which is situated. But is the head of the cities of Campania, one of the three to Rome, the "greatest Carthaginemque money; out of which and the province of Campania, Italy is made. [55], with those killed at the Romulus, Alba Amulius was into the kingdom of his grandfather, Numitor restore them, into that place where now is Rome, came to, and there he put the seat, the walls of built and the city of Rome, by his own name called. But that this is before it is said he built a Evander to, as in this case (Virg. Vanity Fair. 8,313):

Then my father, Evander founder of Rome 'of the fort.

[56] Ancus by the daughter of Numa Pompilius was born: the same in the end of the city of the Tiber, which he founded and of foreign merchandise would grant an exception and delay the enemy, than by the From a posture so he called to Ostia. [57] Gauls, indeed, this family quarrel, of their dissensions, and constant, greatly alarmed by, seat of a new are seeking to set sail for Italy, the Etruscans being driven out to their own sedibusque, Milan, of other founded the city. And he called his Milan from the swine, because there he had the midst of the woolen is said to have discovered. [58] The history of favor after the Greek Messapus Messapia to the origin of a given, and she became after a while in the name of Calabria, than in the beginning of Oenotrius, who named the brother of Peucetius Peucetiam. [59] Manto the daughter of Tiresias after the death of the Thebans was brought into Italy, it is said he built a Mantua: and it is in Venetia, a NORTHERN PART OF ITALY, which is said: "Mantua, and the said protects that morning. [60] a kind of a virgin Parthenopea Parthenope Parthenope was buried there, it was called, which afterwards Augustus, the town of Naples to be evil. [61] As for the Leucaten this promontory, in which action there was a temple of Apollo, the war he has done in opposition to Antony, Augustus. Whose defeat, the city of Actium, and in the bosom of work laid him up, than from the victory of Nicopolis title of god. [62] Phalantus of Parthenius he appointed the leader of Parthenius. Tara was the son of Neptune, of whom is the city of Tarentum, and established and it was called the. [63] And when Cyrus would occupy the cities on the coast of Greece, and the storming of the Phocaeans from him all trouble being hard pressed, took an oath that, had fled as far as possible from its subjection to the Persians, where men do not even the name of their audience; and so on to the sine of the last of the ships set out for Gaul, and arms itself against the fierce Gauls, realizing , Marseilles, and founded and named from the name of the general. These Varro, says that there is TRIPLE-TONGUED, which was also in Greek and in Latin and they speak no French. [64] Arles and Narbonne and Poitiers colonists of their own institutions. Bordeaux, they say that Burgos was called the French colonists to the first he has to whom it formerly was fulfilled, the worshipers. [65] Terraconam a Scipio in Spain, built; for that reason is the head of the province of Tarragona. [66] [Zaragoza of Spain, the town of Tarragona from Caesar Augustus, and a location and of renown, attracted by the charm of the place, and be delighted all the more outstanding than the states of Spain, and a more honorable way, flowering burials of the holy martyrs.] [67] under the Hannibal the African, occupying the sea coast of Spain, Carthage over the Spartariam constructed, or that, presently after the was captured, and the colony of the Romans was made, the name he gave them a province. And now there was overthrown by the Goths, and in the desolation is reduced. [68] the Greeks were despatched from the island, and departed to their Zacynthos, Spain, and built the Africans than afterwards when the war impeached for and destroyed. [69] His presentation in the built of Merida, after he had Lusitania, and that some were as islands of Ocean and took it, giving him the name from, because there he had made the veteran soldiers. For the veterans are retired, are said to released of military service. [70], from Ulysses and Olisipona established and is to be named in which place, just as the historian of the say, the sky from the earth and the seas are distinguished from these lands. [71] Julius Caesar, Hispalis work laid him up, out of which, he and the city of Rome was Romulus, whose name was called the Julia. Seville, but the surname of the situation, because the marsh is only in the crucified on the depth of the piles of things placed, she is not ground is slippery, unstable foundations, and set aside. [72] the town to its fate, founded by the Carthaginians, who also Spartariam to Carthage, and he had made. [73] The seven from the hills of the town of the seven, who are called brothers on the analogy of Gibraltar to threaten the water. [74] LIX Tangier to the city, and is the author of Antaeus, whom Hercules is said to a struggle of mourning that surpassed the assassinated. But from the LIX Lixo of Mauritania to be named the river, where the royal was the pilasters, and the father of Shelah, that the father of Shelah inmineat against a river. [75] to Caesarea, the town of Juba of Mauretania, king of the Mauri of Caesar Augustus in honor of the work laid him up, out of which to Caesarea, he called the name of his, just as another Herod at Caesarea, in Palestine, which is now a city very famous. [76] of icosa the town of Caesarea, Mauretania, Hercules, thither, that passeth by, and twenty from the county of his discindentes to collapse. This that no one by name and by the laying on the glory, and be in private, out of the number of the cities of weakness Icosio name under heaven given. [77] was the queen of Libya, Cyrene, which is of the city in his name carried away to Cyrene has created, out of which and the interior of Libya Cyrenian invited.

2. Of building they are public. [1] is the city of a multitude of men they turn away from the bond of society, so called by the citizens, that is, by them, the inhabitants of the city [for him own servant fact that so many held together, the lives of]. For the city are the very walls, the city of the rocks but it shall not, but the inhabitants are called. [2] Three are of fellowship: the families, of the cities, of the nations. [3] being called, from the City occurred in throughout the world, which in the ancient cities in the world were done, or by urbo the part of the plow, in which pointed out of the wall and so he is it (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3.109; 1,425):

Chose a site for the kingdom, and to conclude a furrow.

For a place is a furrow of the future of the city pointed out, that is, by the plow. Cato (Orig. 1:18); 'He that the city,' he says, "hidden in a new bull 's form plows and cows, where the ridges, the wall does, where the gate so he would have the plow, and beareth the substollit, and the gate of the calls." [4] And therefore it shall, surrounded by the city of the plow, a very different sex, of bullocks, for the sake of the commingling of the families, and the image of s adventures and the fruit of his answer, but this City occurred in the plow is fashioned, is turned by the plow. And so Horace (C. 1,16,20):

Inprimeretque the walls
the enemy 's the plow.

[5], who from the opposition of a town, they said of the walls; enshrined According to the other resources, because it is fortified by, some say because to him that dwelt in that Convention may give mutual aid against the enemy. In the first place men and women as naked and unarmed, and not contrary to wild beasts that there was a garrison, nor the receptacles of cold and heat, nor may the men to each other by men, they were well enough makes us secure. [6] At last, a cave, it was natural ingenuity silvestribusque coverings for themselves and their huts with the undergrowth of arundinibusque covered huts, at which it was safer than the life of, not to them that could hurt, might be a way. Such is the origin of towns, which they should give to aid, for that reason the towns named, said:. Then the size of a town, and the walls of the village and the way differ from the castle and a village. [7] The cities of the colonies is caused by either, or the towns, or have overcome, or town, or of a village, the third. [8] The City, properly speaking, it is said, than not to the stranger, yet at the same innate alone, he had made. And for that reason the citizens of the cities from the founding of their own city, not in the colony are called. [9] A colony, however, is one which the worshipers of the new default of natives is perfected. And so also from the worship of the colony of the field, it is called the. [10] whose presence is a municipal laws of the state the state of some of lesser or greater from the ruler of the office secures. It has been said, but from the municipality of offices, that is, the duties, which only discharge the duties of, that is, the tributes of duty or by gifts, may restore to. For the liberal and most famous of the cause, and of the emperor, which set out for, there are not acted upon. For these to the dignity of the city relating to it. [11] also overcame, and the towns and villages these are the dignity of the community who by no embellished, but an ordinary man inhabited the convent of, and for the smallness of his ancestors are attributed to the cities. [12] village, but only upon himself, was named after the inhabitants of, and / or that the ways of his great, without walls. It has no fortification of the walls, though they may themselves, and are said to be inhabited at the street of the city. The appointment was made, but a village or because it is the time of the city, and / or that the ways of his great, without walls. [13] Castle, the ancient town of the place of the Most High said, "the situation, as it were high cottage; of which a plural number of the camp, the village is the diminutive [castrating the permission of either that which also the story of the inhabitants, should not allow to wandering, marched on to]. [14] Villages represent any places between the buildings fit for the inhabitants of the fields. These and the said places where men gather, from the assembly and of many in the society of one. [15] CROSSROAD place where they found the use of the convent is to be made of the country folk and the said CROSSROAD that of many places in the fields of the same conpetant; and by what people gather round, by country folk. [16] are around the suburbs of the city buildings, as it were under the city. [17] the walls were wall of the city, so called from that which must fortify the city, as defenses of the city, that is, defense of the. [18] Munius has been said, however, it came to pass as by the hand: so also is a gift. The walls of the said from the fortifications, as it were to be fortified with, because he must fortify and protect the interiors of the city. The walls have a double meaning, however, for sometimes the walls of all the buildings, be said to be improperly to the public of the city, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2,234):

We divide the walls, and its walls, lay open the defenses of the city;

Strictly speaking, however, are but the walls of the wall. [19] This wall however is adorned and protected by towers. The towers of the so called because there may be and terete long; fine For there is nothing in height, with a round, as a column. For the square and although the wide, or be erected, and the sight of at a distance, however, are supposed to round; it was just because of everything the image of the corner of the air for a long and disappear with the space is consumed, it seems, and round. [20] are defenses to wings were stretched out of the walls, so called because accomplished by those proponent. [21] Promurale the other hand, that it is for him with defense of the wall. For there is a wall of the next before the wall. [22] The gate of which is said to can and / or exported inportari or something. Strictly speaking, however, or the gate of the city is called or the camps, just as was said above. Quartz, as has been said of us, themselves the dwellings of the city are, and so also of the said the neighbors. The ways of the very narrow spaces which are in the streets. [23] The streets of the cities, for ever and the Roads are broader, according to the propriety speakers and Greek speakers from the broad called "; For Plato the Greeks broad they are saying. [24] Quintana part of the fifth is that the streets of the, by which the carriage can be to advance. The sewer of the said that, if they filtered by water. [25] to have done these first time at Rome Tarquinius Priscus, order that, whenever an inundation of rain to the earth he might be, through them out of the city of water be released, lest the plain of the greatest perpetuisque storms, or the foundations of the slaughter of the of the waters of the cities destroyed. [26] Imboli, or because they are subvolumina, or because under these for walking. For there are on either side of the porch of the streets. [27] The forum is place is by the training of damages is tales of the said [Phoroneus, whether from man or the king, who was the first gave the law to the Greeks]. Prorostra in these places and for that reason what are called the Punic war, the capture of the ships were taken away by the beaks of the Carthaginians, and were fixed in the Roman Forum that it might be a victory of this. [28] the Court, because there he is said with the care of the senate out of all the things controlled. [29] the hall, which is there the praetor to the stay at home to be discussed. [30] there is a general Gymnasium the place of religious practice. However, among the Athenians used to learn his position had been made where he trained as a philosopher and the study of wisdom, for GUMNASION in Greek it is called, which in Latin is the exercise of it is said, that is the meditation. But and baths, and the places of courses and of athletes, athletic sports together, because they there to men, in the study of that of his art practice. [31] was called the Capitol at Rome, because it was the city of Rome and religion top of her head. Others, they say, with the foundations of the Tarquin the Elder of the Capitol at Rome, opened the door, in the place of man 's head of the foundation wel known, by a letter he found the Etruscans, and hence he called the Capitol. [32] are parts of the castles of the city in height and in fenced cities. For anything that the safest cities in themselves, keep off the enemy from the towers they were called. And so also the arc, and the ark. [33] round the Roman from every side they think has been said of the horses, because there he had run around the boundaries of the horse. [34] And from the theater of the spectacle of renown, apo tou OF THEORY, because in it the people, standing, looking from above, and would consider the scenic games. [35] But the amphitheater of the two name, because it is compounded by the theaters. For the amphitheater is a round, the theater but is in the middle of the amphitheater, the figure of the semicircle, having a. [36] the walls of the Labyrinth is the building of intricate, such as exists with Crete was made from the Daedalus, Minotaur, where he was shut up in, in which, if any man enter without Glomus of flax, find a way out is not valid. The of the building as such is the position of the thunder of the doors within disclosed the terrible be heard the more we go down a hundred degrees; within, monstrous images, and image is there, in the the different sections of the passage of the darkness of night without number, and other things that came into the error was made, so that his out of darkness to the light, it was impossible to come may be seen. There are four [but] the vicious circle; the Egyptian was the first, the next in Cretan and the third in Lemnos, the fourth in Italy; cunstructi all so as to dissolve them, neither did ever and, indeed, they may be. [37] Farum a large tower which the Greeks of the Latin in common the use of the thing itself from the farum have called, because he had the information of flames, of them that sail be seen from far, such as Ptolemy to Alexandria, built according to the talents of eight hundred and is laid down. Experience, it is his course of ships, the fires of the night to show, be pronounced to the entrance into the haven of the shallows, not deceived by the darkness be invaded by sailing on the rocks, for the treacherous shoals Alexandria, deceitful, that we have gained access. Hence, then, in the ports to the engines of war constructed with the ministry of the praelucendi of Pharos they say. For the trench and is light, it is said the vision of OPOS. And so also the FOSFOROS in Greek is called the Morning Star. [38] snails are the high and round the towers; and of the said cycleae snails as it were, that in them, as by a circle Let us mount our orbemque to such as have is in Rome a hundred and seventy five feet. [39] is so called because baths be hot; THERMON the heat for the Greeks call it. [40] But the name of his bath, endowed by the relief of my sorrow; BALANEION while the Greeks said, that the anxiety of mind to let him take it. These and gymnasium, are said to, because there the athletes has been anointed the body and break the hands of practiced, for GUMNASION in Greek, of the exercise of it is said in Latin. [41] APODYTERIUM, where the clothes, they are assumed to bath, to wit on the putting off the from the; APODUEIN to put off for the Greek it is said. [42] is the near approach of the Greek language, according to us by corruption the tavern is said: "Now it is the place is near the public baths, where, after the washing of from hunger and thirst are refreshed. And so, and pauses and hand it is said. PEINA for the Greek famine, signifies, because he had let him take it, this place famine. [43] Tabernaeolim were called the small chapel of plebeians, and the simple in the streets, comes the shock of the tables and be shut up, and so also the Shop keepers, which is there they were wont to sat down together. Is named from the tavern and that, of boards lignisque were built, and which is now, and if it is not the species, the name of their former, however,, keep it. [44] I was told that the fish market there, be killed in flocks and herds which have been sold to mercantibus. [45], but the market conmercio named. For there was a thing to sell or to buy is the usual custom, just as the receipt of custom, where it is said the reward of their ships and the sailors' emoluments are rendered. For there he sits tributary of the oppressor come to inpositurus establishing standards of value, and with the voice in demanding with such from the merchants. [46] is a prison from which we are forbidden to go out, and the said the prison of from the restraint of her, [Fronto Hence (frag. 12): 'And pergraecari rather charming in places as the prison seemed to be restrained. "]

3. OF THE HABITACVLIS. [1] to be had from the habitation is being called, and that's huts to dwell '(Virg. Ecl. 2,29). The house of an appeal in being called, from Greek, for they say covered the top of the Greeks. Now there is the habitation of the house of a single family, As a city that a single people, just as the world domicile of the whole of the human race. [2] All the building of the temple of the ancient title of god. Others from the the temple of something to eat to have taken the name of think that, they give the example of the Plautus (Poen. 529):

If you referred to in the temple of to a meal.

From hence the building, because it was to be eaten before it came to pass. [3] is the royal hall of her house, or long range of the dwelling of the porch, four completed. [4] The court of the temple is a great, or greater, and broad is the house; and it was said the court of the [him] that the rows are added to it to him three without. Others, as it were by the court of the fire, and they said a black lamp;: for there is a black from the smoke. [5] from the Palace to the prince of seeing that Pallas has been said of the Arcadians, in whose honor the town of Pallanteum constructed by the Arcadians, and the palace, in his own and therefore they called the name of the founding of the Palace. [6] That is why the little chamber was called on this occasion. For when they had been raped by the Romans and Sabine, from which, with one before the other species of noble birth, with a great wonder of them all was hurried on, it Thalamoni be led to be given to the oracle, the answer was and as he was this marriage they had retreated, happily, it was decided that in all the wedding the name of the little chambers repeated. In his own language for the Egyptians also the places in which they couch, and succeed one another at their marriage were, 'the chamber on' they name. [7] has been said from the communion of dining room to eat, and so also the congregation of the monastery. For the ancients public and in the common dining, in a feast there was no singular, to prevent them in secret delight of luxury, was engendered. [8] the dining room is the dining room, on beds of the three at the table has been said. For among the ancients in the place where he expounded, the machine of the feast, three were strewn with the bed ', in which the guests feasting. Kline or a bed for the Greek RECLINING say, "from which the definition is complete would be said that the dining room. [9] The den of us is so called because it hides them and keeps a confidence. The Bed Chamber, however, as they had, sleeping, Thou liest down and there we rest. But the bed of cubandi there is room. Retreats for, that it is a secret place, that is, without the approach. [10] the guest room has been said that which of there, by diverse ways resemble each other. The hospitality of the word is Greek, for a time where a person lives in the hospital, by law, and again passing over from thence is transferred from. From thence, and marked out, because it is changed. And so also we read, "'the camp metati are,' for they changed, but not so, there remains of the army, but [by the] passage into it. [11] the walls of Crassus his colleague, he threw in the market place matter, namely, that they might be the places in which the spectators to follow up, which from his name are called "Moeniana. These and solar animals, because he is only. These things let others After the stones, some the matter of moeniana colonnades built, and the doors and said that they were houses. [12] of old wooden floors of the house were made whole. From there remains the name of the stories. Hypogeum is built under the earth, the building to which we have a cave or a den of is denoted. The solar for being the only and the ear of may be clearer, such as it was the place in which David Bathsheba, the bathing, looked, and, fell in love with. [13] to Jerusalem, when Antiochus, were to lay siege Hyrcanus, ruler of the Jews of David, opening the tomb of three thousand talents of gold, from thence, from worldly, out of which three hundred and Antiochus, and so gave him the siege be left behind; that you were made out of envy, and most grievous things, that from the remaining sum of money is said to have instituted the first to hospitals, to whom the coming of the poor take up the and of the pilgrims, and so also the word he used them. For from the Greek into Latin, the protection of KSENODOCHEION of strangers, appropriated. When, however, out of the streets are ill to bring together, but NOSOKOMEION in Greek is called, in which, consumed by sickness and hunger of wretched men the members of their nursery.

4. OF THE SACRED of the building. [1] are sacred rites of the places of worship instituted with the divine, as for example those matters in which the altars of litantibus in the usual way the chief priests are consecrated. [2] of holies, by the old temple are the exterior. Holy of saints in the place of private secretary of the temple, to whom there was no access but only for the priest. Is named from the holy of holies, because the more hallowed are the oracle of the exterior, and / or comparison of the more hallowed because it is holy they are, just as the Song of Songs, for excel in the canticles of the whole. And the holy man from the blood of the victim is called a, for nothing that among the ancients was said to the Holy except that the blood of the victim, or is consecrated to the consparsum. Also, the holy, because the entrails to be sanctioned by the. Now it is instantly inrogatione to confirm and to defend from the violence of punishment, so also the laws of the wall of the holy of the holy and are said to be. [3] mercy-seat [as it were the oratory of the mercy seat; is the propitiation for the appeasement of the]. Oracles have so called because he they are made from thence, the responses of;, oracles, from the mouth. [4] are the secrets of the shrine of an oracle; were said to and to pass into from that which is absolutely not, that is almost within. The oratory was consecrated to prayer, there is only a, in which no man ought to be an act of some but that for which it came to pass is, and so also got its name. [5] the habitation of the monks of the Monastery of the of one is. For MONO among the Greeks alone, the garrison of STERION; that is, a solitary dwelling. [6] the Abbey from the Greek and the Latin seems to be compounded by the. For there is a dwelling for the most part living in a community; For the Greek word koinonia common "is said. [7] of the Temple the name of a general; For the sake of places whatsoever, the ancient temples of the great were saying, "the said, and temples, which covered ample. But to the elect, and the place of the east, from the contemplation of the temple of the people have said. The parts of which all four of them: the rising of the Antica, to the going down the back, the left hand to the north, his right hand to the south, gazing out. And so also when the temple was built at the east, watching the sun at the equinox, so that the lines from the rising of posted to the west, parts of the sky might be made equal to the right and left, that as we consult the right, and pleased with the pray to the east. [8] the temples of the words from the fauns and, uibus was built at the temples of error of the gentiles, counseling responses of the demons from which to hear. [9] said, "the temples of the ancient shrines that have the fountains, to whom before the entry of diluebantur, and be called from the temples of refuting them. They themselves are now the temples with the sacred springs, of regeneration, in which the faithful are purified: and well they are the temples of had a presentiment of it was called, for they are in the wash away sins. [10] The fountain in the temples of the place has been regenerated, in which the seven degrees in the mystery of the Holy Spirit are formed, the three in the descent at the going up, and the three: but the seventh is he that he and the fourth, that is like unto the Son of man, extinguens the furnace of fire, the stay of the foundation of the feet of water, in which the fullness of the Godhead bodily. [11] before was called the Basilica of the kings of the dwelling, from which they have and the name of, for the KING and the churches of the king of the king 's for the dwelling. But now that reason the Divine temples of the basilica are named, because there the king of all to God, worship, and the sacrifices are offered. [12] the place of the martyrs of the Martyrdom of Greek derivation, because he was the shrine of the martyr is built, and / or that the tombs of the holy are there, that of the martyrs. [13] of Aram are called have said that the victims of burn incense there. Others from the altars in prayer, they say, that is, which the Greeks ALTARS, they say, and thus against KATARA supplication soever be made it is said. Others prefer it from the depth of the altars, but badly. [14] But from the depth of the altar is established to be named, as it were a high containing an altar. [15] the pulpit, that in that of the psalmist or the reader be seen in public was placed by the people can be, in which the more freely they listen. [16] A tribunal, because he had from there by the priest be attributed to the precepts of living. For that place is high in the branches is made king, to hear of the universe from which they may be. At another time the tribe of the tribunal a denominated, the tribes of which the power is to be convoked. [17] reader 's pulpit from there I was told that the word is predicated, for the word in Greek is said to SKIT, which gives the same injunction, and is located at higher [as in the case set for the psalmist or the reader be seen in public by the people can be, be heard, more freely].

V. OF THE Repositories. [1], properly speaking, is the place of the sanctuary of the temple as the sacred rites which are replaced; PLACE IN A TEMPLE, as is that in which placed the offer, as their bedding also are said to sit in which men are accustomed to be. From the inflicting, therefore, and to bringing back the sacred sanctuary of, appropriated. [2] be offered to the other hand, because there he had the gifts of which are deposited in the temples to offer accustomed to be. [3] treasury, was called to be prior, coined bronze treasure it up there. For this long ago in the use of gold and silver was not yet the thing signified: from whose metals, although the money would have been happened later on, the name of the public treasury, however, remained a metal from him, from which the money [the name of] the beginning of he used them. [4] is the place where safe is of the arts of any sort of instruments, are given. The Magazine the other hand, where so much the weapons in their arms. And so Juvenal (13,83):

All that he has weapons that the armories of the air.

Sayings of, however, both from the arms of, that is, his arms, which it is exercised. [5] Library is the place where he laid aside the book; PAPER for the Greek book, THEKE repostorium it is said. [6] DISTRIBUTING called because it heed of the food necessary for the papal residence from there, that is, brought forth. [7] storehouse, infers from that in the ministries of the tables, and / or what was necessary for heed of the food remain. Among the REPOSITORY and the cellar, but this is the difference between what the cellar of a few of days, REPOSITORY time the distance from it. [8] or the cellars of the barns from the Greek, word for word from the word of repostoria reconditoria or may be called in, because he had worked with the men, in the fruits of a common store. And so also the name of the Greek enthecam laid up for them a very great substance of the thing may be.

6. OF THE workers. [1] out as a slave is the place where some work is done. For the Greeks the word of loyalty to his works, the garrison of STERION; that is, the laborers' station. [2] also, and the very houses of correction by a Greek, whose name was called, where the guilty are assigned to the any kind of work perform a work, as is their wont gladiators, and the exile, of marbles and cut the bonds, however, are bound watches. [3] HAREM in Greek, because there he has been said of meeting the work of the women to the exercise of lanificii being the case. For a woman in Greek GUNE called in Greek. [4] pilistrinum the mill as it were, because it had previously tundebant a grain of hair. And so also among the ancients, but does not molitores bakers of the saying, pinsores as it were, from the pinsendis the grain of wheat; a millstone for the use of as yet it was but a grain of hair pinsebant. And so also Virgil (Georg. 1,267):

Now roast corn by the fire, now grind it on the stone.

[5] Clibanus [a gentle slope from the the said, as they were in the erection of it is collected; for the ascent of the hill to the expressibility of bends]. [6] through a derivation from the oven spelled, and has been said, because the bread was made from the fact there, it is cooked. [7] the winepress has been said because there he had been extracted, and be trodden hue of the grape to represent them. [8] Forum is the place where the grape is trampled underfoot, so called because there, the grape is to be issued, and / or feet, for the sake of which is there to save her: wherefore the WINEPRESS it is said. This, however, the name of many things, means that: the first species of room in the city of the forum to exercise fair, for I, the second, where the magistrates, usually, and one third, which we have previously we have said, whom, nominated, WINEPRESS. The fourth, area of the plane in the ships, of which Virgil (Aen. 6,412):

Laxatque seats on each side.
A lake of so called because it runs down there, the fruits of The goddess.

7. OF THE ADITIBVS. [1] was accessible by going the said, by whom he goeth in and we are admitted. [2] it is the entrance or entrance to his house a private one, or a period of the house adjoining of the public. And the porch in that they had called because the door of their clothes, or by having access to the roof, clothe, or by to be held. [3] The gallery is that the passage of more than one in which it is must be followed, as if the gate, and of the porch, because it is the is opened. [4] from the Gate of Janus, which is called the, to whom in all the gentiles or the end of the entrance of so dedicated. And so Lucan (1,62):

And an iron still, the threshold of waging of Janus.

But, primarily, into the houses; However, in the doors of the gate, they are called, generally. Is a door, through which it imprisoned by some entry, from the ostando has been said [or at the door, because you have shown something within]. Others to be called, because they say the door of the Oster he delay for there we have the enemies We put before us: on this side and Ostia, the, because ostibus are not opposed. The doors and the enclosure of the valve, but things are those which the doors out, up the doors, within which they revolve, and his double are conplicabilesque. But generally the use of names of these things have become. [5] The bars may be shut from the fact that the said. [6] The windows are too narrow by which a party is the exterior and interior shed abroad [is], in a manner in the granaries, we see, that so called because he investments, but gifts the light: the light itself for the Greek trench and it is said, or since by their means is located within a man sees. Others think that the window of the house of so called because he minestret the light, the name of the blend, from the Greek and Latin speech; trench and for the Greek is light. [7] The hinge is the place where he turns, and the door is always moved in, called "apo KARDIAS ing, that as the heart of the whole man, so he shall rule, and a company of the door moves. And so also is the proverbial: 'In the hinge of a thing to be. " [8] The thresholds for the doors of so called because he be such as to a limit in the cross, and through her, like as in the field, or enter therein, whether within or outside They must go. [9] the posts, and the pilasters, as if after and before: the pilasters, and because before the stand, and / or because before that the nearer we come to them, before he let us go into the house; that comes after the the posts of the door they stand.

8. OF THE PARTIBVS AEDIFICIORVM. [1] The foundation has been said that the house of a certain estate. The same and rubble, from the slaughter of sense, and which there should arise a stone, thick with the murder. [2] Thou shalt bring forth, is so called because it is always two things are equal, and / or and / or by by the side of the forehead. For whether it is a quadrilateral or HEXAGON, who said he will be out of an catch sight of. [3] For otherwise the structure was made is ugly. Walls, we say that the ruins of the walls was as it were, for they are the walls of the standing without a house, without the inhabitants of. [4] The angle, and two walls of a one be united. Heights of the said to be, because, in ancient times were covered by the thatch roofs, as I now of a country. Hence the height of the top of the battlement to the roof it is said. [5] Camera are the volumes of inward looking, and was designated by the winding; KAMOUR the curve is for the Greek. [6] are the things that the chamber ceiling, and ornament the subtegunt, which also are said to panels of the ceiling. Principally, it is said lake, as Lucilius (1290):

Numa reflects and lakes.

The diminution of ceiling he is doing, as Horace (C. 2,18,1):

Nor ears
he smiles in the house of my ceiling.

This it is, the diminution of the other panels of the ceiling, and by the roofs of ANTISTICHON he doeth it. [7] apse the Greek language is in a Latin version a bright, having taken the eoquod the light of it shines out along the arc. But whether the apses of the apses, or if we can say, this kind of ambiguity of the word some of the doctors by that. [8] The tortoise is the chamber of the temple oblique. For the tortoise in the manner of the old roof of the temple used to and which should be like the heavens So it was the image of to pay it, which is certainly a convex. Others to be such a shell of the tortoise in the portion of the place of the court against those coming. [9] The bow of the of the said strait is the conclusion that they are curved: they and the wheel. [10] among the Greeks, the origin of the floor they have worked out by the art of painting; Pavement, little ones, and the mosaics of MOSAIC for divers with the dyed colors. And he called his paviantur floors of the fact that, that is, cut down. And so also the terror, for it strikes the heart. [11] is the floor of the Ostracus testaceous, because he had broken a witness to save her with a mixture of lime, the clay PURPLE For the Greeks they say. [12] Conpluvium has been said that the waters in those parts which round about, they agree in this. MOSAIC which are taken from the homes were swept, from the dice were named, that is, the square of pebbles, by a decrease of. [13] The sockets of the PROP are of the pillars, which rise up from the foundation laid upon it and to the fabric of the weight of the wait on. 'The sockets of the', however, the name of the Syrian was the strongest of the rock is his speech. [14] The columns of the length of the spherical in shape and being called, and in which the weight of the fabric of the whole is raised. Ancient reason was the height of the third part of the pillars of the latitudes. The genera of a round shape, four in number: Doric, Ionic, Tuscan style, of Corinth, the measure of the thickness and height distance from each other. The fifth class is those which are called the Attic, the corners of four or more, of the sides things being equal intervals. [15] the Capitol is so called because they are the heads of the pillars, just as on the neck of the head. Letters of the apostles are the things that they are assumed to over the top of the columns, and it is the Greeks with [that is to say supermissa]. The tiles, which may shelter them sanctuaries; and, tiles and, that let them receive showers of rain. [16] of small bricks, and, that wide on every side, the four are to be formed round the tables. Canal from that which is hollow in the manner of reeds. Of course along the channel better have served the feminine than the masculine I utter it. [17] The flute is so called because of the waters are the waters of the base and of sending, for GOWN be sent "is in Greek. The forms used past for the magnitude of water and the capacity of manner are made.

9. OF THE MVNITIONIBVS. [1] or the fortification of Fortified by the hand, there is, so called because it came to pass. The band being called, and / or that coartet are all things which originate from within, that is, is conclusive, or that must keep its object the strangers and travel to forbid. [2] is a valley that the bulk of the earth is lifted up, as the pretext for the custody of. It has been said from the rampart of the valley, however, for the valley of clubs are, over whom the rampart, protected by a. And the valley of the said that the vellantur and let them be fixed. Their distances apart are the heads of the spaces between the wall, that is the rampart, which is made of trees that, and so also the spaces they say other things, too, from the trunks were, of course. [3] is the earth, heaped up AMASSING of each thing, and so what ditches and they can be filled with the valleys. Earth, heaped up the earth is said, properly speaking, it was set fast in fact cast a trench which is placed nearer, but applied, improperly and the fortifications of the walls, and we say that all things up a mount. [4] The long walls are to be places of the wall which is enclosed within some of the vineyard; a long MAKRON For the Greeks they say. [5] was formed, or formacium, in Africa, and Spain, the walls of the call out of the earth, for in the form of tables, surrounded on both sides, the two rather than a inferciuntur are instructed. Lexicon retain their hardness incorruptible, by the winds, the fires of rubble, to all the stronger. [6] of plants and are the bulwarks of Fences, and so also to do so. Pens of sheep, or the fortifications of the fold, RAILS. There is a Greek is the name of the 100 [the letter] was stripped off; to the courtroom while the Greeks are called the animal receptacles.

X. Out of the tent. [1], Tents tents of the soldiers are, to whom in the way of the heat of the sun of showers and storms, and cold injuries are afraid of. Is named from the hangings of the tabernacle which is distended with the cords were weighed interstantibus tables, which tents to bear. [2] A tent of so called because it will last, and the piles of cords, and so also are said to this day, to allege. [3] butterflies are called from their resemblance to the little ones and flying of an animal, which is chiefly abound in flowering mallow. These are the birds here for when they had kindled the light of which come together, and from the fire as they flew about the next they are forced to death by.

11. OF THE SEPVLCHRIS. [1] The tomb has been said from the after he had buried. But before each man was buried in his own house. Afterwards, are forbidden to the laws, known by the odor not infected by the very bodies of people alive were infected with. The monument of him for that reason that the mind is called to notify to the memory of the deceased. For when you do not see the sepulcher, it be that it is written (Ps. 31,12): 'he cut out as it were dead from the heart. " But when you see ", warn the mind and the memory of you in remembrance, to be dead, brings back. Monuments, therefore, to the memory of the mind for the admonition of the said. [2] A burial mound called as swollen with the earth. Sarcophagus the name of it is a Greek, because he had there the bodies of dry it up; SARKS For the Greek word made Flesh, the FAGEIN to eat it is said. [3] are the sepulchres of the Mausoleum of the kings of the monuments of or, from the Mausolus [e] the O ye kings of the Egyptians, the said. For instance, because the death of his wife of wonderful size and beauty he repaired the tomb is in so much so that even to this day all the pearl of great price in the name of the monuments of his Mausoleum denomination. [4] Pyramids and the square of the kind of place of the sepulchres fastigiate in height beyond all that the hand of which can be made, from which the shades came out, and the measure has a shadow are said to no. Now by such a rise to a building with a broad and begin to be finished, ie in a narrow as it were fire; For a pure fire is said to. These land of Egypt, has. For these mighty among our ancestors, or under the hills or in the mountains, was buried. The drawing with it is to be set on the dead bodies or the pyramids, were made, or the huge pillars erected.

12. RVSTICIS of building. [1] The House of the piles of agriculture is very apt, and the dwelling of the undergrowth of arundinibusque context, in which they may protect the men from the [vi] of cold or heat an injury. [2] which is a lodge hut to make their own shelter, keepers of the vineyard to be of his, as if tegurium, or for the sake of the rays of the heat of the sun and by declining to, or whether they be from there, whether human or kind of small animal, which are wont to set a trap for the corn of her children, drive them away. Capannam they call this the peasants, that the only one in no harm. [3] think that there is a certain Tescia the huts, some places with steep and sharp rocks. [4] the Numidian Magala buildings of peasants oblong, the sides of the curved roof, as if they are keels had been laid, or round in the manner of the furnaces. And the said huts magaria as it were, for 'witches,' a new town of the Punic they say, an altering of a single letter in stead of R. 50 buildings, mere huts, magaria.

13. Out of the fields. [1] The field is said to be called in Latin because he was the action is brought against an entity. Others named the field more clearly from the Greek as they believe. [2] And so also the town in Greek coragros † † it is said. Villa from the rampart, mound of earth that is to say, to be named, which is wont to have set a limit. [3] of the field far and wide possessions, but these patent of public or private, whom mancipation first you have not, but everyone took possession of as best he could and they took possession, and so also called in Greek. [4] The estate is so called because it is founded thereupon be established, or patrimony. A farm, however, and in good taste, and the building are to understand that a country bumpkin. [5] had an estate or, say that of all father of a family is foreseen that most of all, that is, it appears, as it were foresaw; or that, The ancient fields, of the war which they had taken, they had as booty to the name of the. [6] And all the field, as Varro teaches, is divided were four: for either ARABLE the field that, that is, sationalis, or set with trees, the trees that might be a fit, or the pasture, he that animals only, and herbs, I am free; or of a flower, that they are in harmony with the bees of the garden and flowers. This is also in the four books of Virgil Georgic he followed the. [7] wild fields, the countryside is full of old used to say, that is, the woods and pastures, and the field, again, who was tilled. For the country, is that by which honey, which the milk, which may be given in the flock, and so is named and a rustic: "These things the first of peasants and at leisure good fortune. [8] the field is the crop in which crops are planted, and so also Virgil (Georg. 1,47):

She vows field only answers the covetous

[9] OF A COMMON PASTURAGE the field is He that from the bribery of the fields was left to feed the neighbors in common. [10] ALLUVIAL the field little by little, the river is he whom you into the field, pays it back. [11] Arcifinius the field there is one that the said lines by trustworthy measures not so held, but are confined to the coasts thereof the barrier of its waters, in the mountains, trees, and so also in the odd moments these lands and nothing intervenes. [12] is the first Novalis been broken up for a field, or he that every other year, is free from novelty, to himself the cause of the forces. Novalis For once it has with its fruit, will be, and once empty. [13] excolidus rough to the field as it were, because now he is gone out from the worship of, just as exconsul, from the consulship: that just left. [14] Vliginosus the field is always moist. For moist, it is said, who some time to dry. Vligo For the humor of the earth is natural, never receding from it. [15] COLLATERAL they are, properly the matter of which a cobbler out of the praecidens as it were superfluous casting them away. From there, and odd moments, of the field separated from the perch of whom refuse to as it were barren or on marshy ground. Also in the CUT which divide one of the field yet do not effect a century, that is, two hundred acres. [16] Tables of Area is said to equality. Is named from an area from the plain and equality, and so also containing an altar. Others called the threshing floor of triturandis they say that for the corn scraped off, and / or that it is not triturentur on it but let the dry land. [17] meadow abundance of life which he is part of the grass can protect the herds, to whom The early Romans, named after St from him you should at once be ready for it, was no serious labor of the mind of culture. But the value for meadows to be, which they can be cut. [18] the marshes of the said pastoral goddess from the chaff, the chaff that, that is, the food, they are to nourish beasts of burden.

14. OF THE FINIBVS AGRORVM. [1] the end of that, because of the field they are cords of the dividend. Of measures for the line at the partition of the lands they are stretched out so that is bound to equality of dimension. [2] the word of the old boundaries called the transverse, for the cross said, "all the old files: of whom shall for the doors and on the thresholds, by means of which they are moving up the outside or inside, and the limits of, which by them into the fields without, let us on. From hence the word "he took the clay, the girdle of the public against whom slaves oblique on both sides in purple. [3] Terms of the said measures which of the land, and make clear to distinguish. For in these the ends of the testimonies are understood, and of the land is taken away from the intention and the match. [4] limits the greatest ones in the fields there are two: the hinge and the farmer. The hinge, on the north side, who had success from the hinge and is a heaven, for without doubt in the northern sky is turned earth to live. Farmer is the one to the east in the west by the transverse directed, who, who, for the fact that the form of 10 farmer do to the state. The field is divided for twice the figure of symbolized by the number of all. [5] The ark of keeping their being called from the: For the ends of the field to approach the guards to prevent them. Trifinium called because it binds by the goal of possession of the three. From hence the quadrifinium, that the four. The rest of the limits of too narrow for a distance from one another, between, and that the names of the suit yourself to unequal may designate.

15. OF THE MENSVRIS AGRORVM. [1] Size of the weight of whatever it is, the capacity of, in length, at the height, breadth, and his sentiments comes to an end. The great ones in the parts of the world, therefore, the parts that in the provinces, the provinces in the countries, the countries in the places, the places in the territories, territories in the fields, the fields with their hundreds, and centuries into an area of land in the regions of the acres, and then in the climates of the act, the poles, he suffered, the steps of, the elbow , the feet, the palms of an ounce of, and fingers division; for so great was their cunning. [2] is a part of the finger of the least of measures of peasants. From there, having a three inches an ounce. The four fingers and the palm has, the foot of sixteen, he suffered of five feet, they had suffered two pole, that is, the feet of the ten commandments. [3], but the perch when carrying the said, as if the porch,. For all which went before the measures are in a body, like the palm tree, to foot, and suffered, and the rest: only the pole is carried. For there is a ten feet on the pattern of the temple of the of the reed in Ezekiel there is one measuring. [4] is the least for the act of, the breadth of the four feet, length one hundred and twenty. Also the varieties of climate on every side they have feet and sixty, So (as it follows the figure). Acts of the square on every side, a hundred and twenty feet, comes to an end, so (seq. Fig.). This Baetic arapennem they say, from the plowing, of course. [5] Acts of the doubled by the acres of land, he does; from that which is the union of an area of land got its name. Acres of land, it is evident that two hundred and forty feet in length, the breadth of a hundred and twenty, so (seq. Fig.). Done in Baetica, the peasants of the province they call acnuam. [6] the same as a pig the Baetic thirty feet in breadth and define the length of eighty (seq. Fig.). But that a sow is what it is extant in the plowing, which is has been buried, the ridges. Candetum the French call it in the garden of the City and select the space of a hundred of the feet, as it were Centetr. The feet of the country people and the square of a hundred and fifty candetum just call. Moreover, the field has suffered stadialis 125, that is, 625 feet; eight times as counted by the measure of which, milestone, he is doing, and five thousand and which consists of his feet. [7] But the field is the century of two hundred acres of, who, in ancient times was called for a hundred acres, but afterwards is the square of the name of their former appertaining unto him. In the number of they are many: For centuries, the name of to change they could not.

16. OF THE ITINERIBVS. [1] Size of the streets of miles of us we say, furlongs, the Greeks, the French leagues into the sea, Cocosi of Egypt, the Persians Parasangae. But there are each their own space. [2], a mile mile-stone is terminated; and it was said a thousand mile-stone as it were, we may of five feet, having a thousand. [3] leuga comes to an end with steps that a thousand and five hundred. Stadium is the eighth part of the mile, then the constant with steps that a hundred and twenty five in all. Hercules the first place I had decided to say, and was to determine and within that space that himself, at the one spirit, he had finished a as well as a stage in the journey called for at the end of breath for at the same time and stopped. [4] The Way is to go to the vehicle by which He can; and a way from the vehicle and the attack of the said. For two acts lays hold of, and for the sake of her as she goes to meet vehicle and who came. [5] And every one is the way or the public or private. 'Public', is one which is only in the public, which is that the way of, the act of the people is clear. These things or to the either the sea or to the towns part of. The private law is the town of which have succeeded it was given. [6] of the common people as it were strewn on the feet of the said beaten up. Lucretius (1,315):

The feet of the couches that had already worn down of the common people of the roads.

She is also delapidata, that is, paved with stones. And the former are the ways of the stones of the Carthaginians are said to stravisse; them by the Romans came later All the pains that hath ordered the world, for the sake of the rectitude of the people in traveling, and do not would be useless. [7] is the earth, heaped up the middle of the eminence of coaggeratis paved paved with stones, from a high mound, that is, the said coacervatione; the way of military historians than they say, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 5,273):

What manner of man was caught, often the way on the rampart and a serpent.

[8] The way of going or is going to be the way that he can in all directions by a man. But the way of a diverse and PATH have no meaning. The way of [For] is the place of easy passage for the, and so an appeal, and the soldiers went to. Eyre, however, is going long of the way, walking and toil of itself as that by which you wish to arrive at. [9] The path of the half of the journey is, from the semiitu given above. The path of the of men, is, the paths of wild beasts and of the cattle. [10] Path is the way of cattle, between the mountains and beaten up a narrow, hard skin from the feet was called, either by the very hard in the hard skin of cattle. The path of the cross are in the fields, the roads, or the right path, so called because the transmit. [11] are being moved, did Difficult by the roads, and this of this life; going different ways. The same way places are, that is, some quite different and divided of the way, or which are the ways of the transverse from the side of the road. [12] with the two roads, because there is a twofold way. Lies for, since more people fit in it of the way, as it were of Diana, for the quadrivium. The Circuit of the place of the buildings between the neighbors, of the two legs, and to the faculty of half a foot to the left for going round the, and from the said traveling on foot. [13] the trace of wheel wagon at a time, the said, by the circle of the wheel. And the act by which a flock is wont to be kept. Steep the way of a winding walk. The tracks of the feet standards in the plants expressed, so called because these ways are pressed on to be investigated, that is, understand it also.