Isidore of Seville or their common origin of the Etymologies OF THE BISHOP OF BOOK OF 14
AND THE LAND OF THE PARTIBVS
I, From the earth.  The land is in the middle of the country of the world placed, to all the quarters of the sky in the manner of, consisting of the center of equal intervals, which in the singular number signifies the whole world, the individual parts by the plural. The reason he gives the names of the different, for the land of the said from the higher part, by which is worn by the; the ground from the lower the wet or the earth, as under the sea; the earth, however, because you take away the fruits thereof; these things, and the said aid, because he carries the corn of aid; the same and the fields, from the plowing and the cultivation of merits.  Strictly speaking, however the land to let the dry land is called the distinction of water, as the Scripture says (Genes.1, 10): 'That which God of the Earth has called the dry land.' For the natural dryness of the property is to the earth; for, just as the wet, assigned by lot to this affinity of the waters. Others say the movement of which reached is in the hollow of his, which motion moves it. Sallust (Hist.2, fr. 28): 'The winds through the hollow of the earth were broken up when summoned for some tumulique the mountains to sit down.'  Others genetalem they say the water on earth to be moved, and that these, at the same time shaking up, like a jar that, Lucretius, as he says (6,555). Others SPOGGOEIDE the earth will have it, of which for the most part in hiding all of ruin laid upon it tremble. The land also an opening of the lower or the motion of water is made, or by frequent thunder, or of a sally of the winds of the earth were hollow.
2. Out of the world.  Ring of the circle a round one, because it is just like a wheel, and so even in a short rotella is called the little wheel. For the ocean everywhere, around in the circle of his fee He holds the ends. Now it is divided into three sections: one of which, a part of Asia, the other Europe, the third Africa, appropriated.  these three parts of the world is not equally divided among the old. For Asia, from the south through the east as far to the north; Europe from the north even to the west, and thence as far as Africa from the west to the south.  And so evidently hold the two half of the world, Europe, and Africa, and the other half Asia alone, but for that reason, these two parts are made, because between the two from the ocean and the great sea, shall come into the fact that the cuts between. And therefore, if in the two parts of the East and West divide the world, Asia will be in one side, on the other and Europe and Africa.
3. Of Asia.  of a certain province of Asia in the name of a woman is appelata, which, in ancient times held the empire of the east. This, placed in the third part of the world arranged according to rising of the sun from the east on the south by the ocean, the sea to the west comes to an end to our, on the north side the Maeotian the den, and the Tanais, the river is terminated. So it has an, many and the countries of the provinces, of which the names of the briefly will unfold and the situation of having taken the beginning, from paradise.  is the place of paradise in the east, its name from Greek into Latin for garden: but of Eden in Hebrew is said, that in the delight of our language is interpreted. And both the union makes the garden of delights, for it is the tree, and all kinds of fruit trees set with trees, and also had, and the tree of life: they do not there cold nor the heat, but perpetual mild air.  From the middle of which a fountain of its outburst, the whole grove watered by, dividiturque in their origin in the four rivers. Of the place, after being cut off from access to the sin of man is; for it is trapped by the sword taking on all sides of flame, that is, a fiery girded with a wall, so that its almost may join together with the sky a blaze.  of cherubim, too, that is, the protection of angels, keep off the evil spirits upon the sword, the fragrant, it was ordered, that men should be the flame, And the angels avert the evil angels, to prevent them of trespass to the flesh or spirit of the entrance of Paradise may be clear.  India being summoned by the river Indus, which is enclosed on the western side. This, in the south as far as the stretches of the sea to the rising of the sun, and from the north even to the mountain of the Caucasus arrives at a, having a great nations, and the towns of, and the Isle Taprobanen also filled with precious stones, and the elephants, and Chrysa and the fruitful Argyren with gold and silver, the leaves of the trees Tilen also never talks about.  so it has a the rivers, the Ganges and Indus and the Bug, and lighting the Indians. Of India, the land of the spirit of somewhat large extent in the most wholesome reaps the fruits of the year two: Etesian winds of the winter time he suffers. But tench too, produces men of color, the elephants were huge monoceron the beast, a bird, parrot, too, ebony wood, and that, with pepper, cinnamon and pen of spices.  He sends and ivory, of great value, even the stones of: the beryl, the PRECIOUS STONE, and as hard as flint, a carbuncle, lychnites, and unions of pearls, which our great ladies so ardently desire. There also are the mountains of gold which men to go to because of the dragons and griffins and vast, is inpossible monsters.  of India, the Parthian flying from as far as the borders of Mesopotamia, to the generally derives its name. Because of the Parthians, for the invincible power, and the rest of the Assyrians and the nearest in situation, to his name we have gone away. For there are in it Aracusia, with Parthia, and Assyrian, Media, with the Persians, which conjoined with itself, one another, the countries of origin from the river Indus to receive it, it is enclosed within the Tigris, places, and situated on the mountains and the severer, and have a Hydaspes the rivers, and Arbee. For there are to each other separated by their own country, the names of the authors of so from their own LIFE.  from the town of his Aracusia to be named. From the land of Scythia to the Parthians Parthia and seized the coming, and that It therefore they called that by its very name. Of this to the south, the Red is the sea, Hyrcanus and threw the open sea on the north side, from the middle of the western side of the sun. The realm of in it ten, and there are eight, the stretches of the shore from the Caspian to earth, and the Scythians.  from the Assyrian, Assyria, being called, the son of Shem, who after the flood the country of CAM was the first area. This from the rising of India, he occupied the middle of the south by the touches, the Tigris to the west, the north by the mountain of the Caucasus, the Caspian Gates to where they are. This region was found to be the first to the use of purple, is the first and the hair "of bodies, they came and scents of ointments, wherein the Romans and Greeks, flow of language lust.  Media, with the Persians by the kings in their name the Medes and Persians, who conveyed them to the provinces, they commenced the attack by fight. Media from these crosswise on the west in league with the kingdoms of Parthia, Armenia, around them, and on the north side, from the rising of the Caspian sees, on the south Persia. Of this tree, the land of the Medici she brings forth, not at all than any other gives birth to the region. But there are two of the Medes,,, one small.  from the rising of Persians as far as stretching out to the Indians, on the west the Red Sea has, however, from the north, occupied the middle of he touches on the Carmania from the south, which is connected with Persia, to whom is the noblest of the town of Susa. In Persia, the first arose, is the art of magic, to which the Nimrod a mighty went his way after the confusion of tongues, and there the Persians to worship the fire has taught us. For all the sun in those parts, they who worship in their own language is said to El.  Mesopotamia, he possesses the etymology of the Greek, which surrounded the rivers of the two, for from the east, the Tigris has, the Euphrates to the west. It begins at the north, between the mountain of the Taurus and the Caucasus; of which it follows to the south, Babylonia, by the Chaldean and then, last of Arabia, EUDUIMON.  of the country of Babylon, Babylon, the head of a city, a, and from which to be named, as well as a noble Assyrians and the Chaldean and Mesopotamia to his name we shall have passed away at any time.  Arabia, it was called, that it is sacred, for this is to signify he explains, because it is the region of turifera, and perfumes when creating: that she EUDAIMON the Greeks, called by the name of our blessed. Of which the forests and for cinnamon and myrrh are due to: a phoenix is a bird it is born there, sardonyx a jewel, and a rainbow, and molochites paederota there is found therein. She is also of Saba, and was designated by the son of Cush, who was termed of Sheba. But this a narrow expanse of lands to the east, he turned to the Persian Gulf of extended, of which the northern extremities of the Chaldean closes, the setting of the sine of Arabian languages.  Syria The Syrian was some report of the same country whose name was proclaimed it from its. This is what the east of the river Euphrates, on the west of our sea, and Egypt, is ended, "the tangent of the north by Armenia, and Cappadocia, in the bosom of the south by the Arabian languages. The situation of his full length on the length of an immense, in a wide narrower.  So it has an in itself the provinces of Commagene, that the Phoenician, and Palestine, part of which Judea was without the Saracens and the Nabutheans. Commagene the province of Syria, the first derived from nouns Commagae of the city to be named, which was formerly the metropolis of there, was held to. Is on the north side of this Armenia, the from the rising of Mesopotamia, to the south, Syria, on the west, and the great sea.  Phoenix Cadmus' brother, as from Thebes of the Egyptians into Syria, Sidon, he set out with the king, and that province in accordance with his own name he called the Phoenician. "The same is Tyre, where there is, to whom Isaiah (23) is speaking. So it has an Arabia from the east on the south by the Red Sea.  the province of Palestine, Philistus metropolis of the city that we have had it is now called Ashkelon, out of which the state of any up to the king about the Palestine, is to be named. Of this from the east, the Red Sea occurs to me, in the south, Judah, who received him, the north side of the borders of the Tyrians is enclosed, on the west limit of the Egyptian, is terminated.  the name of the land of Judaea, Palaestinaeex of Judah, it was called, and from her the kings of the tribe he had before. This in former times of Canaan, said of the son of Ham, the Canaanites, either from the ten nations, who being driven out the Jews possessed the same land. The beginning of the length of his from the village to the village as far as Arfa Iuliadem is stretched, and in which of the Jews, as well as the habitation of the common is the Tyrians. And the breadth of his from the mount of Lebanon to the Lake of Tiberias is extended.  In the middle of the city of Judea, went up to Jerusalem, is as a navel of the country of the whole. The land of varied wealth rich man, the corn of the fertile, as the waters and illustrious, and the rich of balm. And so of the elements according to the grace of the Jews thought that the promise to our sires it a land flowing with honey and milk are, since here the prerogative of God gave them his promise of the resurrection.  Samaria, the region of Palestine from the town in a certain received the name of Samaria, who was called, the city of the royal once in Israel, now for its August is called the name of Sebaste. This is the region around the middle of Judea and Galilee lies, beginning from the village of Elis and to whom is the name of, deficient in the land of Agrabath. The situation of his nature as our nature and not in any He differs from the Judea.  Galilee region of Palestine, so called because it produces an effect whiter than men and Palestine. But this is twofold, the higher and lower, to himself, however, linked, Syria, and Phoenician attached to it. The land of their rich and fertile enough for the fruitful and on the fruit.  Whose land for the region in the confines of Arabia, and Palestine is situated, so called from the cities of impious from the five which are consumed with a heavenly fire. From Jerusalem, the land of more than the most productive in times past, now that is desert and burned down, for it for its wickedness of the inhabitants came down from heaven the fire, that that country round about in the ashes of the eternal, were dissolved.  of which some shadow, is the beauty of the trees in dust and it still seems confused by the very. Are produced there under the spring from the fruits of the species alone of maturity, so that engender the desire of eating and, if I will get the cracks and are resolved into the ashes, exhale the smoke as if it had burned?.  the Nabutheans Nabeth part of that region to be named the son of Ishmael. To lie, among the Jews and Arabia, and rising up, from the Euphrates into the Red Sea is stretched, and is a part of Arabia.  the land of Egypt, which before was said to Aeria, from Egypt the Greeks there, the reign of his brother later got its name. This is what the east of Syria and of the Red Sea, connected to this, the interior of Libya from the west, has being, of the great sea, the north, on the south however, far within, it leaves him even to the pertendens the Ethiopians; region of heaven unfamiliar with them and showers of rain to the earth in the secret.  around the Nile alone, it is watered by, and when a flood is full of his own and so also the rich in a lot of the corn of wheat, part of the lands, rears; that matter also of the rest so much so that a very great inpleat also necessary to trade my wares all the world. The end of Canopea of Egypt, Canopus 'from the pilot of Menelaus, after he had buried in it, the island which is Libya' s the beginning and the mouth of the Nile he doeth it.  of the east the town of Seres, of whom is and the kind of silk, and a territory to be named [is]. This is what the Scythian Ocean, and the Caspian Sea as the ocean, a bend of the east, the fertile leaves, the nobility, of which the fleeces of decerpuntur, pertaining to the other of the nations of garments to the use of Chinese goods.  the Bactrian Bactrian of the country the proper name of the river has given. Its parts are behind the Propanisi surrounded by the ridges, that are against the Indians are the fountains of the rivers of an end of the rest of the river includes the Ochus. He sends Bactrian camels, the most valiant never adterentes feet.  as the land of Scythia from the land of the Goths, and Magog, is carried the surname of the son of Japheth. Whose the land of long ago there was a mighty, for from the east, India, on the north side the Sea of Asov through the marshes between the Danube and the Ocean, even to the ends of the of Germany, there stretched a. But after he made a less than; to the right of the east part, by which silk is stretched the ocean, as far as the Caspian Sea, which is at the west; and then to the south, as far as the yoke of the Caucasus to the point where, to whom Hyrcanus in from the west, is subject to having many nations, as well, for the sake of barren soil which causes of the lands far and wide, wandering about, .  some of which inhabit the fields, that certain things more monstrous and cruel on human flesh and the blood of their live. Many of the earth are the land of Scythia wealthy, any to dwell therein Yet many, for a number of topics when, in the gold and precious stones abound, the grype their awful approach of men is rare. Now they are best emeralds, this is my fatherland: cyaneus also a stone, and a crystal that is the most pure of Scythia. So it has a great rivers of Moses, and the Phasiden Araxes.  Hyrcanus in the said from the woods, the Hyrcanian, which is subject to the land of Scythia, having the Caspian Sea from the east, to the south, Armenia, Albania on the north side, on the west Iberia. Now there is the rough in the woods, a very great immense causes of the wild beasts, tigers, panthers pantherisque. Virgil, of what (Aen. 4,367):
Hyrcanean admorunt breasts tigers.
 Albania to be named from the color of the people, because he had white hair, grow up. This is what the east, rising up, under the Caspian Sea, through the north coast of the Ocean as far as the Sea of Asov to the marshes through the desert of what was desolate, and an extension. The dogs of the earth in this of tremendous stature and so fierce press with just as bulls have, the lions have to kill them.  Armenia, an Armenian of Jason to be named from the Thessalian the elections, the Jason, they lose their king gathered the multitude of his things which he suffered used to parade close, Armenia, and took it, and by its very name he called the. Is situated between the Taurus and the Caucasus as far as from Cappadocia, to the Caspian Sea, stretching out, having the Ceraunian mountains and on the north side, and from her hills, the Tigris river is born, the mountains, and in whose they had sat as the ark after the flood is said to. There are two kinds of Armenia, however, the higher and lower, for example, two of Hungary.  Iberia, the region of Asia and of the, near the bridge of Armenia joined. In the useful colors by this plant, are born. Cappadocia, the city of their own mentioned his name.  This, placed in the head of Syria, Armenia, located on the east, he touches on Asia from the west, a minor, from the north, the sea and Cimmericum Themiscyrios the plains, whom he had, the Amazons; to the south, but the Taurus mountains, to which is subject to Cilicia and Isauria, even to the haircloth his bosom, he who looks on at opposite their island to Cyprus. The land of his nurse, before the other horses. Halys, the river flows through it, who of old, the kingdoms of distinction, of Lydia by the Persians.  Asia Minor from the east Cappadocia, surrounded on all sides from the other parts around them, and the sea, for the north by the Black Sea has, on the west of Marmara, on the south by the Egyptian and the sea. It contains the provinces of Bithynia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lydia, Caria, Pamphylia, Isaurian, Lycia, and Cilicia.  The first of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, in the beginning of the Black Sea to a part of the opposite of the rising sun of Thrace, lies there, many years ago, was called after him. For first it was BITHYNIA said, and then Mygdonia and then by the king of Bithynia Bithynia, to be named. She is also greater than the Phrygian. Nicomedia, and the city is in it, where Hannibal, fleeing a draft of the soul of poison gave up the ghost.  Galatia, how the said by the ancients, the Gauls, the people by whom, rose up, gaining a. For the French in the help of the called before the king of Bithynia, the kingdom with him, they divided the victory has been won, and so to the Greeks and then been joined in Galatians with the first, now of the Gauls out of an old name of the Galatians, are said to; region of Galatia, and of them, appropriated.  from Phrygia Phrygia, the said Europus a daughter. These and the Dardan Dardanus of Jupiter from the son of the said. Out of which Homer says that he (cf. Il. 20,215):
Who was the first Jupiter, the castle became the father of the heavenly.
For that man advantage from the Corytho the city first came into Phrygia. The king was at Troas, on the part of the north from the superiecta Galatia; from the southern Lycaonia, it is nigh; from the east of Lydia adheres to; the Hellespont from the west, the sea is terminated. Of this king is Troy, out of which it his own name Trojan son of, the king of the Trojans, the father of Ganymede. There are two of Phrygia, however: the major and minor. The major premise in Phrygia, at Smyrna has, less than the truth, he was.  s Caria Lycaonia, the river can not do evil we distinguish between the Phrygians.  Lydia, the ancient seat of his throne, but the wave has lifted a Pactolus in its unto the riches of the torrents of gold. Maeonian these points before it was said, and this, when short is the kings of the two brothers, taken by a Lydian and unable to endure the force of the Tuscan, hence, even of the Tuscan by lot with the great number of places set out for Gaul, took possession of, and Tyrrheniam mentioned his name. Lydia, from the Lydians the king 's brother, who had remained in the province, is the surname of. But from the west, are united to the lesser of Phrygia, from the rising of Smyrna, the city has, which was Helles surrounded by the river; the plains of which can not do evil, and Pactolus in its surrounds, he hit the sand of gold, secured a very rich. Pamphylia.  from the position of Isauria, is reported to the surname of the local, which open on all sides with blasts of air, may be clear. Metropolis has the city Seleucia.  in a certain of Cilicia Cilicia, has got its name, which the rising of the Phoenix, they say, antiquioremque assert to have been Jupiter. And a very great lies the plains, a recipient of Lycia to the west, on the south Issicum the sea, at their back of the mountain ridges of Taurus. This cuts between the river Cydnus. Matrons for the city has to Tarsus. In it, the town and the Corycian of which, in saffron very much and good, and he came, breathing and color of the fraglantiori more than my ear.  in Lycia and called because it is from the east is the circumstances of Cilicia. For they have a from the rising of Cilicia, on the west, and at noon the sea, the north by the precious to me. There is a mountain of the Chimaera, who breathes out the fire, extremes of heat at night, just as in Sicily, Etna and Vesuvius in Campania.
4. OF THE EVROPA.  After the style of the Europe to Asia to be translated. For Europe of Agenor was the daughter of the king 's of Libya, which was carried off from Africa, of Jupiter to Crete on it, and part of the third world from the name of his title of god. This is the the son of Libya 's cause does this, out of which and Libya, Africa, that is to say, it is carried the surname of; whence it appears that the interior of Libya first to have received the word, and then Europe.  Europe on the third part of the world was divided from the river Tanais, begins to, coming down to the going down throughout the north as far as the Ocean into the coasts of Spain; part of which the east, and southward, from the Black Sea rose up, and the whole of the great sea, joined to another, both in the isles comes to an end to its fate.  The first of the lower land of Scythia to the region of Europe, which are from the beginning to the marshes of the Sea of Asov between the Danube and the Ocean to the north as far as Germany, and stretching of what country in general for the sake of the barbarous nations, those which is inhabited, of barbarians, it is said. Of this is the first part of Alan, the Sea of Asov that link to reach the marshes; Dacia, after this, where both the land of the Goths, and then Germany, where the Swedes j and very much part of the area.  The Germans after the Scythia from the lower Danube and dwelt between the Rhine concluded to Ocean, surrounded by the river on the north side and the setting of the Ocean, but from the rising of the Danube, on the south of the river Rhine put an end to. The land of the man or the rich man with numerous and immense causes of the people, and so also of the people for the sake of the fertility of the generation of Germany is made. Hyrcania too, produces the birds, of which the wings were stretched out in the night shine; wild beasts, and also bison, and elks gives birth to uros. He sends and precious stones, crystals, and AMBER, callaicum also in green, and Ceraunia white,. There are two of Germany, however: the superior, according to the Northern Ocean, the lower on the Rhine.  and as for the provinces of the Danube from the country of the Barbarians to the sea, excluding the Mediterranean: the first is Moesia, being called, result from the harvest, and so also it called by the old barn of Ceres. But this from the east mouth of the Danube is connected, and from the east but the parts of Thrace, on the south of Macedonia, on the west of Istria, to join with. After Moesia and Pannonia, but it is. From there, the cold and the field Noricum more sparingly fruitful. After whom the Rhaetic fruitful in corn, which takes the Belgic Gaul.  of Thrace Japheth the son of Tiras, gave name to come and is reported to people other than the cruelty of the inhabitants was called Thrace, said he was. In this from the east of Marmara and the opposite is the City of Constantinople, however, turning on the north side within sight of when sick to the south, however, adheres to the sea, on the west Macedonia, is subject to him. Of whose Region, in times past Massagetae, for the people of the Bessi, Sarmatians, the Scythians and the other many nations among the inhabited; for it is ample, and therefore were very great successively to that nation. Ebrum the river of Thrace, pours forth, also the nation of numbers of the barbarians affected by it.  the king of Greece by a Greek, being called, and he who made all the kingdom of that side and it inhabits. But there are the seven of the province of Greece: the first of which from the west, Dalmatia and, from there a Co from thence, Hellas, Thessaly, from there, from thence, Macedonia, Achaia, from there, and two in the sea, Crete and the Cyclades. Illyricus, however, generally from all Greece.  Delmas Dalmatia and the greatest from the same province, the name of the city is thought to have ended it. Joining on to from the east of Macedonia, however, on the north side of Moesia, on the west Istria is ended, "to the south, but the bosom of the Adriatic is enclosed. By Pyrrhus of Epirus the surname of the son of Achilles'.  part of which Chaonia 's, which was previously Molosia was told, is the son of Pyrrhus, from the Moloso him out of the Andromache had any. But after I was slain Pyrrhus is of Orestes, he lay in ambush, Helenus the son of Andromache and took hold on to receive the kingdom of her stepdaughter, the successor of his father: of whom is a part of the said Molosia of Epirus, than Helen Chaonia 's later by his brother, whom is in hunting that through ignorance, it is said had killed you, Chaonia' s named, as it were extinguished, snuffed out as some consolation for his brother.  from the king of the said Hellas Hellenes, the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, from whom it took first in the Greek Hellenes were called. She is also land of Attica has been previously said Acte. For a certain Granis, was a native of Greece, and from her, Attis, the daughter of the name of the land of Attica is called for. Along with the other the middle of Macedonia, and Achaea and the lies there, on the north side of Arcadia joined to it. She is also true of Greece, Athens, where he was city, the mother of the philosophers of letters and of the liberal nurse, with whom Greece had nothing more famous and noble. In it there is the opinion of the plain of Marathon, and once the battle cruentissimus.  Greece, however, there are two of the province: a Boeotian, and the Peloponnesian. Boeotia is so called That is why the. While Cadmus of Agenor the son of the sister of Europe, was carried off by Jupiter, on instructions from her father to seek nor find, the father, fearing the wrath of the courage he chose exile. For perhaps the sight of an ox, embraced a followed the steps of the throne, Where were all those recubaverat, and so the name of the place, from the ox named Boeotia, where the city of Thebes and has built, on which I once the civil war he detonuerunt, and where we were born, Apollo and Hercules are greater he of Thebes. There is the same Aonian being called, and from a source, a kind of a consecrated to Apollo and the Muses, who is in the same Boeotia. The second part of the Peloponnesian from Pelops ruled by Greece and the merits. , to the Thessalian Thessaly, from the surname of the king, which is on the south side of Macedonia, is accompanied by Pieria, from the rear of which is. Many rivers in Thessaly, [and the cities of] and the towns, which is taken chiefly between the Thessalonica: There is the once and the mountain of Parnassus was consecrated to Apollo. Thessaly, Achilles and the country was the origin of Lapithae, of whom it is said that these horses, the bit subdued at first, and so, and bore the name of the Centaur '. In Thessaly, the first of the golden of the solid fact, they also subdue the first been proved to the use of horses is.  of Macedonia, in the beginning of Emathian from the havens of Thessaly was the name of the king, but the Macedonian, his maternal grandson of Deucalion, after he had there received the principality, he changed the name of Macedonia, in a by his own name and said:. But there is bordering on the sea from the east when sick, on the south of Achaia, on the west, Dalmatia, Moesia, on the north side; the father of Alexander the Great, and the ears of the king and silver rich veins. The stone which the paeaniten they call these things is generative. Mount Olympus is in it, an excellent, who is lifted to the top of so great in the tops of the clouds of it, neither the wind nor perceived by them.  by the Achaeans Achaia, the king and the city and the province it was called. This almost there is an island, for without on the north side, by which Macedonia is connected, and is on every side the bounds of the sea. On the east, For he hath no myrtle the sea, the Cretan, from the east on the south by the Ionian, from the south and the setting of the islands of Cassiope in a lonely, on the north side of Macedonia, or the land of Attica is appended here. Of this is a city of Corinth the head of the glory of Greece. Is a river of Achaia, the Inachus.  But the sine of Achaia, Arcadia, is, as between the leaf of the plane trees to the Ionian sea, and set forth across the Aegean, which the Arcadian, Jupiter, and the son of Callisto, and the Grecian reduced under the dominion and, by its very name he called the Arcadia and the. Sicyon 'she is also, from Sicyon to the king, from whom it took the kingdom of Sicyon was said. So it has an Erimanthum Arcadia, the great river; asbeston also a stone that is never extinguished once being incensed with: even the whitest blackbirds are born there.  A Spartan s Pannonia, from the Alps, the Apennines, is to be named, which is set apart from Italy, the district of a brave man and alone, joyful, and sharp enough for the two rivers, the Dravo Savoque, protected by. We were united and, when Rhaetia of Noricum; To the east is Moesia, from the east Istriam; from the south but they have the Apennines, the Alps, on the west of the Belgic Gaul, the fountain of the Danube on the north side, and / or the boundary distinction he draws between Germany, Gaul.  Istriam turning the river he called, to take his land flows. He is the the Danube. So it has an Istria on the north side of Pannonia.  Italy, some time before by the peoples of Greece, gaining a it was called the Magna Graecia, and then from the daughter of Saturn, king 's name, and presently the spoken with greater freedom because that the same by Jupiter from the Saturn was driven to leave their homes there, unaware, and at last from the of the Sicilians, an Italian, Italy, the reign of king there after him. Whose location is more than the length of the breadth of from the west and is extended in the East, to the south, the Tyrrhenian sea, from the Adriatic regions of the North and closed, the ridges of the Alps to the west comes to an end, and the earth in all things the most beautiful, the only fertility, as most acceptable to the abundance of forage.  has a surging swell of the lakes, Avernus and Lucrine; the rivers Po and the Tiber, and the hot springs of Baiae. Syrtitem precious stones, too, produces, and coral lyncurium; boam also the serpent, I shall expose and have learned this Diomedias birds. Italy, and Spain, therefore that which the Greeks of the said western star of the Hesperus, navigate, in Italy and in Spain. In this manner are discerned; for either you say Hesperia alone, and Italy indicate that you are, or add the word last, and Spain indicate that you are, because in the west, is at the end.  part of the Tuscany of Italy "; part of Tuscany from Umbria. But from the crowd of Tuscany, and frankincense, of the sacred being called, and apo tou THUAKSEIN.  Umbria, however, of history and tell stories of him that at the time of the disaster the water by rain have left over, and for this reason the surname of shade in Greek. For it is on the ridges of the Apennines, the mountain is situated, in a part of Italy, according to the South.  Etruria, part of Italy is so called because as far as the frontiers of the boon to the bank of the Tiber, as it were ETEROURIA. For ETERON signifies the other, is called the end of Oros. For at Rome before the ends of one alone, that were holding the bank of the Tiber. Others from the Etruscan Etruria, the said they think the prince of. Also, the Tyrrhenian and the Tuscans from the Lydians, brother, who is from the part of the lot of the people he came to the out of the Maeonian Italy. This is one of Tuscany will, but we ought not to Tuscany, to say; because nowhere do we read that. But from the crowd of Tuscany, and frankincense, said of the sacrifice, apo tou THUSAI. 'S there the Soothsaying they say, is having found it.  Apulia and the district [where Brindisi, followed them than the Aetolians Diomede founders of a leader].  Campania, [has lands in winter and in summer, spring time, amidst of the year. The sun there, meek one, pleasing to the temper of, the air pure and bland of].  Gaul the more the whiteness of the people after him; Gala for the Greek milk, it is said. For the mountains and rigor of heaven on that side, they exclude the heat of the sun, with the result that the whiteness of colors, does not. From the east, this can protect the ridges of the Alps, on the west includes the Ocean, the south by the steep of the Pyrenees, on the north side of the Rhine, and the streams of Germany, which began with Low Dutch, the end of Aquitaine is; a richer and the soil, the region and for the use pabulosa fit for the living creatures, rivers, springs, also, and the WATERING, bathed with in two great rivers of the Rhine and the Rhone.  But is the city of the Belgae of Gaul, of whom is the Belgian province of the said [is]. Cisalpine, because on this side of the Alps. Transalpine, that is, across the Alps, against the north.  Rhaetia the other hand, that it is by the Rhine. And from the oblique cases of Aquitania and the waters of the river it was called the Loire, who according to many is the part of the border thereof, and that It is almost circular in girds with a.  reported earlier by the Spain Spain, Iberia the river to be named, after his death by the surname of Spain, Seville is. She is also true western country, from the star of the Hesperus, west of the said. Is situated between Africa and also France, the north by the Pyrenees mountains, the closed doors, on all sides by the rest of the parts of the sea has been concluded, equal to the wholesomeness of the climate, the fruits of all kinds of fruitful, it metallorumque the troops of its wealth of precious stones.  it Interfluunt great rivers: the Guadalquivir, mines, and the Tagus, the Spaniard, drawing the gold, so that Pactolus in its. It contains the six provinces: Tarragona, Cartaginensem, Portugal, Galliciam, Southern Spain, and the other side into the region of Africa Tingitaniam.  There are two provinces of Spain: ON THIS SIDE, which in the northern zone, from the Pyrenees as far as to the Carthage and stretching Vlterior, which in the south of The Celtiberians even to the Straits of Gades an extension. ON THIS SIDE, however, and called as Vlterior this side and beyond, but on this side of about the earth as it were, and go farther or that the ultimate or that it is not any after this, that is, other things, the earth.
V. OF THE of Libya.  is so called because Libya and from thence WEST-SOUTHWEST WIND A flat, that is, the Southwest. Others Epaphum they say, the daughter of Jupiter, who, Memphis, in Egypt, has created, begotten of his wife, the daughter of Cassiope the interior of Libya, which was afterwards in Africa, the kingdom of possession of them. After whose name the land of Libya and to the state.  Africa is of greater name him what they think that, as it were exposed to the sun, that it is the heavens opened, or without the sun, and the horror of cold weather. Others say that appeal is made from Africa, one of the posterity of Abraham of Cetura, who have been called an African, which is mentioned above (9,2,115) made mention.  It begins at from the ends of the south of Egypt, going along by the Ethiopia all the way through the mountain of Atlas. But, on the north part of the Mediterranean joined to the sea is closed, and in the Straits of Gibraltar to an end, the provinces of the interior of Libya, having a Cyrenian, Whose land, Tripolis, Byzacium, Carthage, Numidia, Mauritania, Sitifensem, Mauritania, sailing, and with the heat of the sun Cush,.  of Cyrene, Libya and in the portion of the first of Africa, is considered by the city of Cyrene, metropolis, which is in the borders of his, to be named. This is the land of Egypt from the east, on the west and the Greater Syrtes and the Cavemen, the north by the Libyan sea, on the south by Ethiopia, and various countries of the barbarians and the lonely inaccessible, which, even serpents, basilisks, were appointed.  in the Greek tongue Whose land from the five cities to be named: that is, Berenice, Ceutria, Apollonia, Ptolemais, and Cyrene, of whom those Ptolemais, and Bernice, by the kings, named as they are. Now there is the circumstances of Cyrene in Libya 'Whose land, and [in the] borders of his appointed for you.  the Greeks into the province of Tripolis in his own language sign it out of the number of the three great cities; Oeae, the direction of Sabrata, Leptis great,. This has to the east and the Greater Syrtes and the Cavemen, the Adriatic Sea on the north side, on the west Byzacium, on the south and Gaetulians Garamantes far as the ocean pertendentes the Ethiopic.  Byzacena the region of the two has been allotted the highest rank, name to the town, comes from one of which, Adrumetum is called Adar. Tripoli of these things is, an open miles or more thousand two hundred and complete, conceived of oil, and clods of earth and so there, VERY FAT to throw the seeds of the growth of grain grow again almost twelve per cent.  Zeugis, where Carthage great. She is also among the true Africa, Numidia and Byzacium and situated on the north by the sea, joined to the Sicilian, and to the south, even to the Gaetulian the stretches of the country; that which is nearest of which are laden with fruit, but later, however, full of wild animals, and serpents, and wild asses, and wandered the desert magnisin. But of Gaetulia of Africa is part of the interior of.  by the inhabitants of Numidia, wandering everywhere, so being called, and for no certain that they might have the seat,. For in their language of uncertain seat and roving 'Numidia,' they are said. It begins at Amsiga from the river, inZeugitanum defines the limit, having the Syrtes, from the rising of the minor from the north by the sea itself, which he intends to Sardinia, and from the west, Mauritania, Sitifensem, on the south of the Ethiopians nations: the fields of the region VERY FAT. When, however, is the wild, wild beasts take, where the ridges steep, horses and wild asses in the weather that; most notable marble also is predicated, it is said that the Numidicus. So it has an the principal cities of: Hippo, the king and the Rusicadam.  Mauritania being called from the color of the people; MAURON black for the Greeks call it. For just as the whiteness of Gaul the more the people, so the name of the blackness from the Mauritania has been allotted. And at first his Sitifensis is the province of Mauritania, which had a town of Sitifi; from whom it took the name of the region is said to have ended it.  of Caesarea, Mauritania, however: the colonies of the city of Caesarea was, and the name of the province out of it it was given. Vtraeque, therefore, conjoined with itself, the province of Numidia, where they have from the east, the great sea, on the north side, on the west the river Malva, from the south of the mountain Astrixin, who puts the difference between the earth, and one who bears children of sand, lying far as the ocean.  Mauritania sailing from Tangier to the metropolitan of his province, the city is called for. The last of these of Africa arise from the seven mountains, on the east, the river, having a good Malva, the north by the Strait of Gades, Athlanticum the Ocean to the west, on the south Gaulalum the Gentiles, even as the ocean, in wandering through the Hesperian: one betting the region for wild beasts, apes, the dragons and the ostriches. And elephants in old time also full of, whom he had single now gives birth to India.  Garama Garamantes, the head of the country was a town. Now there is between the Cyrenian and Ethiopia, where there is the fountain which is cold and hot at the heat of the day, the cold of the night.  Ethiopia, from the color of the said people, which the neighborhood of the sun burns. In short, the force of the planet 'is produced: the color of men, for it is there, the tide heights, for any part of it is, the hinge is in the south. In regard to the West is a land of hills, however, in the midst of Sandy soil, on the east side of the desert, however: whose location is to the west of the mountain of Atlas to the east, even to the ends of the of Egypt, is stretched, and to the south, the Ocean, the River Nile on the north side is enclosed; the nations were very great, having it for a different countenance, and the horrible and monstrous species .  also of wild beasts, and creeping things is full of abundance. There for the beast and the rhinoceros GIRAFFE, the basilisk, the dragons were huge precious stones, from whose brain be pulled out. Iacynthus also, and there they find a chrysoprasus; of cinnamon there is deduced.  Two of Ethiopia, and they are: one about the rising of the sun, and the other about the setting of the Mauritania.  Outside the three parts of the world, but across the ocean, the fourth part of the interior is in the south, the heat of the sun which is not known to us; in whose territory they are recorded to the dwelling of the Antipodes fabulous. The next is The provinces of Spain Mauritania, Numidia, and then, of the king of Carthage, and after that we receive the Gaetulia, after that of Ethiopia, the burning sun, burnt up the places.  It should be known that "some of the province, indeed, the first of the name of the author; these are called; afterwards from the province of the nation is the name of it came to pass. For it is from an Italian, Italy, and on the other hand be an Italian from Italy, and so we use the very names of the race, as was the name of the author gives the same injunction, from which is derived the name of the country. From this it happens to be named out of one and the name of the country, and the city and the nation.  And which of the cause of the province of the word they obtained them. For the Principality of the Gentiles, who belonged to the kings were, some, him in his right might reduce the conquering of the Roman, from a distance part of the province have called. To the Father, so called because in general is an of all, who were born in it.  And the earth signified, as we said before, (13,3,1), the element of the earth of the its different parts, that Africa, and Italy. And for the same places, for various places, and extent of country is in the world many countries, contain in themselves the provinces, as in a body is a part of the place of one, the many things in itself contains the members is, just as, and the house in a number of chambers, holding itself: so they are called, and the places of the earth are in distant lands, of which the parts are of the province, just as in Asia, Phrygia, in Gaul, fear, of Southern Spain in Spain.  For Asia is the place, the province of Asia, Phrygia, the region of Phrygia, Troy, Ilium, the city of Troy. Also part of the country are the provinces of which the congregation calls the common people, as it is in Phrygia, Troy, just as in the French Cantabria, Asturia. By the rectors of The region is called, the parts of which are territories.  The territory of the tauritorium but was called as it were pounded, herd, and of the plow. For the ancients led to the furrow and of the territory and possessions to the limits pointed out.
6. When: OF THE.  The island is so called because they are in the open sea, that is, in the sea. Hence it is also very famous and the greatest moment, And very many of the old I discovered by clever study, are to be noted.  SPREAD HERE AND THERE Britain island in the ocean the sea was divided over the whole world, derived from nouns cognominita of His own nation. The latter, against to have view of part of Gaul, of Spain, is situated; Its circuit of four-eight times, seventy-five thousand each from the many and great rivers in it, the springs of hot metal to a generous and abundance of the various: the stone there many jet and pearl of price.  the strait of Thanet the French island of the ocean, from Britain the estuary of the separated with a thin, fertile soil, the plains, and anointed with fresh oil. Is named from Thanet from death of serpents, whom he does not know while she was, thence by land away and carried off in any of the nations were borne in procession is; snakes at once kills.  This page was last island of the ocean of Thule, between the north and to the west side of the above Britain, from the sun, having the name of, for in it the summer solstice, the sun is doing, and her the days of no one is any more. And so also the wearisome, and the concrete is its the sea.  within the island of the ocean the Orkneys Britain set for the number of thirty-three, of which twenty are desolate, were thirteen to court.  Scotland, the same, and the island of Britain, Ireland, the next in the space of the world is too narrow, but the situation, more fruitful. This from the south to the north wind is stretched. The parts of which the former and Iberia intend to Cantabrians the Ocean, from which the said and Ireland: Scotland, however, that from the Nations of the Scots is worshiped, it was called. There there is no snake, few birds, the bee zero, so much so that the dust from thence who has been wafted pebbles or if a man in another place with spray between the hives, swarms of the combs, deserted by them.  at the end of the island of Cadiz is a province situated in Baetica,, which separates Europe from Africa, in which the columns of Hercules are to be seen, and from whence the Tyrrhenian Sea inmittitur jaws of the ocean tide. Now there is from the land by a hundred and twenty paces divided, than the Tyrian set out from the Red, occupying the sea [in the] of Gadi, in his own language, that is the seventh, called by the name, because he is surrounded by the sea. It is found in the kind of tree that is like a palm tree, of which the glass was wet GUM Ceraunia set forth precious stones pays it back.  of the island by his name Fortunatus which bring all things to signify the good, happy, and, as it were of the fruits of blessed with plenty. Of his own for the needs of Nature and of precious ready to bring forth the fruits of the forests; from chance, the ridges of the vines of the hills are clothed; the place of the harvest of herbs to the manner of herbs and is commonly called. And so the error of the Gentiles, and cares of this world only for the sake of the fecundity of the poets that the same are a paradise of thought. Of which are located in the ocean, but against the left of Mauretania leaves the setting near together, and to each other separated by the sea between them.  Gorgades island of the ocean, opposite to promontory, which is called the Horn of the West, in which they live Gorgons and a woman could a swift, shaggy, and with the sharp body: and by these their name of the island. Distant from the land by two days' sail.  of the island called the Hesperides, Hesperus, from the city, which was into the coasts of Mauritania. For there are no more races living at the Gorgadas Athlanteum the shore of the sea into the interior of its folds; in the gardens of which the story they imagine the golden apples, watch all the dragon, one who preserves. He is reported, and there from the sea, the sides of the sinuous INLET so much so that the crooked angueos slip away far from the spectators; the design.  I will at Chryse and the islands in the Indian Ocean, situated, so much so a fruitful abundance of the mines of gold, that most of them have silver and the surface of the writers', and so, and the words, were given.  of India, which lies below the island of Ceylon to the East, out of which begins to Indian Ocean, in the length of an open eight hundred and seventy-five miles, and the breadth five and twenty thousand six hundred furlongs. Is rent river flows between us, all the pearls and precious stones, was filled with: wild animals, and part of it was filled with the elephants, the part of men they hold. In this island in one year, they say that there are two summers and two winters, and grew green and flowers twice a place by itself.  of India, the island of Tile, the green leaves at all times. Thus far are the islands of the sea.  Again, as far as the Dardanelles of the island to the to its fate into the sea, are great had been established. The island of Cyprus from the city, Cyprus, and which is in it, received the name of and by itself it is consecrated to Venus, and Paphos in the Carpathian Sea, neighboring the south, once famous in riches, and most of all of the air. For there was a finding that first part of this metal, and was the advantage gained.  is a part of Crete, of Greece, the Peloponnesian against joining his. These the first from the temperature of the air it was called the Macaronnesos, and then from the Cretan Crete, said in a certain country, who, they say one thing to have been the Curetes, by whom he is Jupiter, there was the hiding and nourished up in the. Now there is the rising of the island of Greece between the tract and the sunset is very far advanced, having extremes of heat on the north side of Greece, from the south the Egyptians, steeped in the waves. But there was a hundred and the cities of once noble and so also the Hecatompolis is made.  The first of the oars, and arrows also was famous for, he cast the first letter of the laws of, the first who taught squadrons of cavalry; the study of music depends on Dactyls of Ida in it the land began. A very great goats, deer and requires of wolves, and foxes and other wild beasts harmful to nowhere begets; there can not be the serpent, not a night passed, and if it be found, it dies a death that at once. Now it is with a generous of vines, and the trees: the grass of dyctamnos in Crete is born and Alima, which bite daily to prevent a famine. But the bands of envenomed it begets and a stone that is said to Dactyls of Ida.  the island of Abydos, in Europe, placed upon the Hellespont, a narrow and dangerous, the sea, separated, and in Greek ABUDOS called because it is an entrance of the Hellespont of the sea, in which the conduct will become known from their ships to the bridge he did, and crossed over into Greece.  Coos adjoining of the province of the island of Attica, in which the physician Hippocrates, was born, which, as Varro is a witness, by the art of lanificii on the ornament of the first famous was for the women.  the Cyclades and the island of Greece in ancient times were, which on account of the Cyclades and claim that is so called because, even though a longer distances from Delos is tossed out in the, all around, however, they lie about the Delos, for the Greeks KUKLON the world are speaking about. Others, again, not that in the world, arranged according to, but because of the rocks are they about the same, the said they think the Cyclades.  This, placed in between the Hellespont he will prefer to the sea across the Aegean were constituted for are enclosed with a Myrtoo also on the sea. There are, however the number of fifty-three, holding the south of the North on the five hundred thousand, from east to west two hundred and thousand. The Metropolis of their man, Rhodes.  the island of Delos in the midst of the Cyclades in place. And the said Delos, it is said, that after the flood, which Ogygi to mark the times, when the world many months continuous inumbrasset the night, all the lands before the rays of the sun is illuminated to; sortitaque name from the fact, that the first would have been made manifest, with eyes that, for Delos, the Greeks clear they are saying. She is also Ortygia, because there, that the first birds were seen, quails, which the Greeks call ORTUGAS. In this island is "Latona gave birth to Apollo and Diana. But Delos, and the city is is said, and the island.  the first man, Rhodes the Cyclades from the east, which rose in the chapter it is said to be an invention, while there, the city might be established, from which both the city and the island of Rhodes to the state. In this city is a colossus of the Sun was the target of brass between seventy cubits tall; There were also others in the same a hundred and the number of the island of less than colossus.  one of the Tenedos, the Cyclades is situated on the north side, on which I once from the Hold fast to what the city was founded. And so of that name of the city of the island, or rather was, for Tenes that this defamed concubuisset with his stepmother, [and] this, fleeing the island of made himself master of the worshipers of empty and so also the Tenedos, is made. Thus, Cicero, (2 to Verres. 1,49): 'Holding in Him, whose named Tenedos, in the name of. "  unaex Skarpanto to the Cyclades to the south, right over against Egypt, from which the Carpathian and the sea and was named for the sake of being called, the fruits, a quick maturity. For there is a between Egypt and Rhodes. From this island, and they are called carpasiae ships, a large and spacious.  one of the Lady of Cythera the island of the Cyclades from the its western region is situated, of which was the name of Porphyris; before. But, Venus Venus, so called because it is there, broke out.  one of the Icarus the island of the Cyclades, which gave a name to the Icarian sea. Along with the other Myconum Samos, and is inhospitable to the projecting rocks, and none is the bosoms of a harbor. But it is said there, a shipwreck of Crete Icarus fallen, that of the outgoing and placed on a name of the place of man.  records that Dionysius the island of Naxos, the said, as if Dionaxos, that the fertility of a vice all the other win. Now there is ten, and from Delos is eight miles distant separated, out of which it is carried in times past of Jupiter against the Titans to have been set out.  strain from the number of the Cyclades, roundest, all with one of the islands, and so also to be named.  The history of repaired for the transport be said of (i) one was born Philomela and Pluto, from Philomela Pareantum begotten, he who was of the island of Paros in his own name, and the town he called: it first and the younger of, and then the said light fell on Paros. Virgil, of what (Aen. 3,126):
For the pure marble of too, produces, they say that of Paros. He sends or Sarda, indeed, more excellent, the marble stones, and among the precious stones, for the most vile.  the island of Chios in the Syrian tongue, because there he is called the LASH is begotten of Syrians for mastic 'Chios' they call. , Samos, there is an island in the sea, the patient, where Juno was born, "from which the Sibyl, Shamir, and was Pythagoras of Samos, of whom is the term" philosophy "was found. In this island has been found are given in the vessels of the first of earth, and so also are called "vessels of Samian.  the king of Sicily, from the Sicilians, the surname of the Sicilian is, and then the Italians from the Sicilian brother Sicily. But before the said Trinacrian AKRA for three reasons, that is, promontories: Pelorum, and to Lilybaeum of Pachynus. For it is a Greek of Sicily, which in Latin is triangular in its form it is said, as it were divided into three square. This is what the strait of Italy, a little discreet, the southwest wind the sea outlook, and the lands laden with fruit, with gold in abundance, and of the flute, however, the holes can penetrate, full of the winds, and by the brimstone, and so also of the mountain there, there are divers Aethnae incendia.In of which is the strait of Scylla and Charybdis, by which the boats, or crushed, or swallowed up the .  But there was once their country of the Cyclops, and afterwards the nurse of tyrants; the fruits of the fertile, and the first seeds to all lands is entrusted to the plow results on broken ground. Syracuse has a Prince of the cities, and the Fountain of Arethusa, Alpheus, the river 'begetters of the great ones of the horses "(cf. Virg. Fair. 3,704). In it, the island was found the first is the comedy.  Achaten the very first, in the stone Achates and gave the stream. Is in travail, and her sea coral; it begets and Sales Agrigentum solubilis in the fire, with crackling in the waters. Entire circuit is enclosed his three thousand men, furlongs. Sallust (Hist. 4,26) of Italy, he says, "to have been linked to Sicily, but the middle the space has been divided, and the force of the sea, in anguish of you had known.  the ten Thapsus, less than two miles from the island of Sicily, lying in the remote and more plain one, from which and to be named. Virgil, of what (Aen. 3,689):
Thapsumque as I lie.
 of the island of Sicily, Aeolian called from the Aeolus Hippotae son, whom I have pretended that the king was the poet of the winds: but that the Varro says, of these was the ruler of the islands, and for out of their vapors, and by the smoke the breath of the predicting the future of the wind, he was seen without knowledge? From the winds have retained his own power. The same Vulcaniae of the island and they are called, that the very Aethna as by fire.  There are the nine who have to their proper name. The first of these a certain Lipare Lipari, he called, who had it before the Aeolus ruled: the one part is called the Holy Island, that it is the hills, the most conspicuous; the rest of the the other hand, that is to say Strongyle, Didymus, Eriphusa, Hephaestus, Phaenicusa, Euonymus, tripods, the resounding voice, for the night, burn, or Aeolian Vulcaniae they are said. Some of these are from the beginning they were not, after which the publishing of the sea as far as [to] now do yet remain.  and sixty of the Massilians Stoechades of the island from the mainland and about sixteen miles, in the front of the province of Narbonne, by which the river into the sea, the Rhone, it rushes out. Sayings of the Greek for STOICHADES, with a work of in the order, are placed in him.  Sardis Hercules was engendered with a host of Libya and he set out from the took possession of Sardinia, and by reason of its name of the island gave a name to. This, placed in the face of the African sea, a human foot, in the Orient than in the west, broader than the prominent, about things being equal, the sides of which are in turn the south and to the north, out of which of them that sail before the commerce of the Greeks it was called the ICHNOS.  it is clear in the length of the land of a hundred and forty thousand, and the breadth of forty. In the to them, nor the serpent is begotten, nor a wolf, but solifuga only, is small destructive to man. Poison and there he is not born, but grass in abundance, and by the writers of the poets in question, BEE-EATER like that be of men, and as a gaping jaws, they laughed at his contracts at him. Sardinia, the origin of their warm, healing in the sick by giving, thieves of the blindness, if given the sacrament of his eyes, by touching the waters.  the beginning of the inhabitants of the island of Corsica Liguria calling them they gave it out of the name of the general. It, for some the name of the Ligurian Corsa woman, when a bull from the flock, the shores of man whom they almost ruled the, used to swim across the body as well as by the interval was increased, to return to see me, he desired to to know for themselves their not known to, a bull to Artabazus going away as far as from the rest of the boat to the island of devotion. The Return of fertility of the country of the island there, knowing that the Ligurians ships they went out, and in the name of the woman of the author and the duke of title of god.  But this KURNE the island in Greek it is said, from the daughters of the inhabitants of Hercules Cyrno. Virgil, of what (Ecl. 9,30):
Yews of Corsica swarms.
Sardinia, is divided into the of twenty thousand men from the sea, surrounded by the Ligurian sea to have view of the bosom of Italy. But there is many promontories angulose, a special joy to one betting to eat and, catochiten The stone, which the Greeks call.  Ebosus of Spain, the island is so called because from the Zanio not be far from me, as it were abozus; the seventy less than two miles distant from it. The land of serpents, they run away. Opposite to this is Colubraria, which is pregnant with is the Lamb.  The Balearic islands of Spain, there are two: Aphrosiades and Gymnaside, the major and minor, and so the common people and that these, and Minoricam They call the Majorca. In these the first was found with the islands of the stones which are sent out with a sling, from which the Baleares, and said; BALLEIN said to be sent for the Greek, whence and Ballista, and, as if sent from heaven, and CATAPULT. Virgil (Georg. 1,309):
Of a Balearic sling.
7. OF THE PROMVNTORIIS.  for the Common, is an island that it may protrude. From thence, and the places of them is said to promontories. Thus, out of the Sardinia, Sallust (Hist. 2, br. 2): 'In the East and West broader than the projects.'  of Sigeum this promontory of Asia, where more clearly the Hellespont is spread abroad. It has been said of Hercules, but for the sake of Sigeum to Mytilene, because it is prohibited from the Laumedonte lodged with the king of the Trojans, pretended was going off, and then advanced against the Troy came with silence, which is called the Sigeian.  past Malea to this promontory of Greece, that which goeth into the sea, and through thousands and fifty extends where the waves are so cruel is that the pursuit of sailing by it, may be seen. But this is from the scarce this promontory in the name of the king of the Argives took to wife.  and Pelorum in regards to this promontory in the north of Sicily, according to Sallust (Hist. 4,39) has been said by the governor of Hannibal, after he had buried there.  off Pachynum this promontory in the south of Sicily, looking, from the weather of the thickness has been said, for PACHUS is, fat and thick with: the south winds for thorough ventilation.  to Lilybaeum this promontory of Sicily, in the setting of the sun, looking up steadfastly, being summoned by the city of the same name, which is there has been in place.  Borion this promontory in Numidia, was called so that the north is intended. This a King Hippo afterwards said, because it is the for the sea was interrupted. This promontory of Spain, Gibraltar.
8. THE LAND OF THE MONTIBVS CETERISQVE VOCABVLIS.  Montessunt tumors of the lands of the most high, the said that they are projecting out. And some of the causes of their own, are called to, out of which should not be marked, are they that the opinion of greatest fame and name.  the mountain of the Caucasus, from India to the Taurus to the full length, for a variety of languages of nations, in every direction he goes by different names, appropriated. When, however, to the east, in a higher rises in the sublimity of, the whiteness of the snow for the Caucasus, called in Greek. For the tongue of the east 'the Caucasus, "signifies the white, that is, the very thick snow lay candicantem. And so also the him to the Scythians, to the same mountain, Be thou, who joined with it, and therefore they called Croacasim. 'Casio' them for in the eyes or the snow of the whiteness it is said.  The Taurus mountains are by most of the same name, and in the Caucasus.  Mount Lebanon, the Phoenicians in the most high, it is mentioned by the prophets; from the gifts of incense, the said, because there is deduced. To whom the latter part, which is upon him, on the east side of the looking back on the Antilibanus is called, ie, against Lebanon.  the mountain of Ararat, Armenia, in which the ark after the flood they had sat as historians bear witness. And so also in the same place of the trees to this day I see the footsteps of his.  Acroceraunii the height of the mountains for the sake of the thunder, and are called to be a single shot; KERAUNOS for in Greek it is called a thunderbolt. There are, however, and between the Armenians and Iberia, beginning at the Caspian Gates to the Tigris to the fountain of the river.  Hyperborei the mountains of Scythia, the said that in addition to, that is, no more, them flat major, Boreas.  Riphaei at the head of the mountains of Germany, are, from the eternal named by the breath of the winds, for RIFE in Greek is said to be movement and ORME, apo tou RIPTEIN.  of Macedonia, Mount Olympus HIGH too much, so the clouds so that under that should not be thought. Out of which Virgil (Lucan. 2,271):
Clouds left the sky.
The appointment was made, however Ololampus Olympus, as it were, that is, as the heaven,.  Here, Macedonia, and dividing it from the mountain of Thrace. Athos, on a mountain of Macedonia, and he higher than the clouds, with so much high as in the shadow of his beam to Lemnos, which is from him seventy six thousand men, is separated.  the mountain of Parnassus of Thessaly, according to Boeotia, and the top of the twin, who is he lifted up himself to the heavens. Here in the ridges of the two split: Cyrrham and selected a rough, and so also, is so called to him, since in each of the ridges were worshiped by the Apollo and freely. These slopes were from the two brothers and Cithaeron is called Helicon. For Helicon Helicon was named after his brother Cythaeronis.  Again, the mountains were the Ceraunian of Epirus, from the frequent lightning 's flash of the said. KERAUNOS for in Greek it is called a thunderbolt.  as it were called the Apennine mountain of the Alps Pennine, because Hannibal was the same when he came to the Alps to Italy had opened ". And so also Virgil (Aen. 10,13):
Casteth into a open, but the Alps;
for these can not afterwards to Hannibal when he broke the vinegar, the Spanish war; Juvenal (10,153):
, And the mountain broke the vinegar to drink.
And from thence, the terrain too, which broke and the Apennines the Alps, they were called.  A mountain Aethna from the fire, and brimstone, the said and so also the Hell. But it is evident from the side on this, by which the flat major, East or Africa, to have the caves full of sulfur and even to the sea had been brought over the recipients of the cave, which themselves to the waves in the wind, they elected, and driven by the fire, who bringeth forth from the sulfur, and hence He exists which seems to the burning fire.  the Pyrenees and he himself is the thunder, with frequent fires, is so called; for in Greek it is called a pure of fire. This is he which between France and Spain and as if on purpose the fortification of the intervening.  of a single from the Solurius it is said, which is to all the mountains of Spain may be seen alone, higher than any of [either that which, when the sun before the the radius of his which he himself may be discerned].  the mountain of Gibraltar in the most distant borders of the ocean, which separates the from Africa, Europe, whom do they say that the end of Atlas. Out of which Lucan (1,555):
Hesperia, Gibraltar, has filled the highest of Atlas.
Athlans was the brother of Prometheus, and the king of Africa, of whom is the art of astrology, are applied primarily to worked out, and therefore been able to resist was spoken of the sky. On account of the instruction, therefore, of knowledge, and knowledge of heaven, his name shall be transmitted to the mountain of Africa is, who is now Athlans whose surname is: who, because of her height as a frame of the heaven and the stars seems to hold up the. , properly speaking, the Alps are the mountains of France. Touching such things as Virgil (Georg. 3,474):
The Alps of the air;
the aerial by the words, expressed by the Word by the Word. For the tongue of the Gauls 'Alps' the high mountains they were called. For this is the exhibit of the walls of Italy which substitute for it.  praeminentiora Hills are the peaks of mountains, like the neck of.  But the yoke of the mountains it was called from the fact that they said, of his nearest relative joined.  A burial mound is a mountain of the writ, as it were swollen with the earth. Also he piled up in a tomb of earth, where there is no is remembered.  down on the low valleys are the places, as if plucked. From hence the valleys to sink down and parts of the world between the mountains.  is a plain, land of the plain. The appointment was made, however fields, and this is short, on their feet, he lifted up himself, nor, as the mountains, but an open and the duration of his full length and in lodging, and so also it is said in Greek PEDION. But took a Greek etymology of the name of a; Chamaam For the Greeks the writ they say.  The soil is everything that sustains, from the firmness has been said, of course. And so also the Vergil says out of the sea (5,199 Aen.):
Out from under the bottom.
 of the Forrest are vast and wooded areas, where trees leap forth into the deep.  The pass is a narrow approach of the places are between the steep mountains, and places a narrow and short, so called from the jaws of the likeness of, as it were Foce.  in which the rough places of the wind on every side, they run themselves, and can break them. Naevius As he says (trag. 58):
To the mountain where the winds subdued his place.
 the situation for the country is on the rough harsh to us. And so also a scab it is said, from the harshness of the body.  Thirty years of wild beasts and dark places of the dark dens of wolves are. And so also are said to set up brothels and haunts of, to wit, through the contrary, because it is hardly conspicuous.  is the place of a sacred grove, trapped by the trees with thick, only by the light, I take away. You can make the conlucendo from the lights, be said to be frequent, which is there for the sake of religion of the Gentiles and cultivation of were made whole.  The helpless because it is not being called, them being sown and for that reason are being deserted as it were, so that the country is the forests, and of the mountains, contrary to the most fertile of the lands, which are a very fertile soil of its soil.  Devi, and the secrets of the country is a hidden, as it were out of my way. They themselves are, and where there. From there the secrets of aviaries and various places, and from the way of the remote, or so great ACCESSIBLE birds. And so is that (Virg. by Georg. 2,430):
Berries are red from what was desolate.
 Varro, pleasant places of the said and said, that they display only the love of and to himself entices us to be loved. Verrius Flaccus, that without any thing and are not without the gift of these offices, as it were amunia, that is, without fruit, the fruit of exsolvitur thence no. Hence, too, nothing more outstanding than not under the they were called.  exposed to the sun the sun, the places, which they rejoice, as it were ANEUFRIKES, that is, free from cold, or of Heaven was opened and that they are.  But the dark places, as it were covered in the sky, which are sunny and contrary to.  be said to be a slippery place controlled by any one, because there he falls; and slippery, that is said not to slide, but in that which slips away.  Summer for the country is the shady, to whom are afraid of cattle during the summer is the heat of the sun. States (1,363 Theb.):
Have opened wide, And the shady summer Lycaeus.
 are the place where the naval ships were fabricated. This and the weaving is called Adar.  Station is where there are standing to the time of the ships; the harbor, where the weather is wintry; the importunities of, however, in which no refuge, as if there is no harbor.  but the gate is by the approach of the place of the winds away, where we bring out in opposition winter quarters are wont to be, and to bringing back from the gate of the said commercial relations. This from the old to trade my wares baiolandis Baiae called it, in that the declination of the Baiae from the Boya, so that from the family of the house,.  Beach is the land of water, and near the sea: and it was said, because the shore is crushed by the waves, and / or that the water is washed by the. Cicero, in the Topics (32): 'He has forgotten that eludes the "Wherever the waves."  the water of the place which the Circumluvium FLOW; ALLUVIAL consumption out of the waters on its banks. Margin is a part of any of the place, for example, of the sea, and so also got its name. Sea Coasts of the sea as it were the lowest.  entry and the mouth separating it from the going forth of the said of the river in the sea. The container is connected the land of perpetual and not in any discrete the sea, which the Greeks call EPEIRON.
9. OF THE INFERIORIBVS.  Grotesk is a ditch under a land, which can be sure to foresee; SPELAIA in Greek, caverns, and in Latin.  it was called a breathing all the places of the spirit of a ruinous, to what the Greeks call CHARONEIA or 'ACHERONTEIA. Even the breath of Varro, says this kind of a place; from the fact and the breath of the places are said to edit the spirit of Where the land is.  STEEP SLOPE chasm, the deep earth, as it were going. Strictly speaking, however hiatus for the opening of the mouth of a man is, shifted it from the greed of the wild beasts of the mouth of which open to the unit.  The depth of the and the of which, properly speaking, as it were is the bottom. But the depth of improperly to either upward or downward it is said, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,58):
Mary and the sky and earth, and the deep.
 for too great abyss the height of the name was and it was said a black abyss is a deep pit as it were, namely, from the depth. , Hell and hell, and the depth of the recess. Apo TOUSTUGEROS of Styx, that is, from sorrow, the words, because he sad and / or that make sadness produces an effect.  the place of the grave into Cocytus, of which Job speaks in this manner, but the hellish s received the name of the interpretation of Greek, and from grief, and the groans.  Tartar all you find there or because he was troubled, apo TOUTARTARIKSEIN, or, which is more true, apo TESTARACHES, that is, is from the trembling of cold, which is to be cold and I can be stiff, that is, because it lacks the light of the sun, because the vapors are nor there, Who, by the sun the light of drugs are produced, nor the breath, the members of his motions to move, but in an unbroken the stupor of TARTARIKSEIN to tremble, for with horror from among the Greeks, and it is read. For there where the 'weeping and gnashing of teeth' (cf. Mt. 8,12).  Gehenna is the place of fire and brimstone, whom they think to be called the valley of idols from the consecrated, which is near the wall of Jerusalem, being filled with the dead bodies of the dead in times past for there we have the children of the Hebrews inmolabant his demons, and with the place itself was called the Gehennon. Of the future, therefore, the place of execution, where the sinners are to be tormented, signified by the name of this place. Now there are two to be of hell and of the fire and the cold weather.  Below this is called is that within him. Now, as according to the body, if their weight grasp the right order, the lower are all the heavier things, so according to the spirit all the more bitter for them are inferior, and so also the origin of the Greek tongue of the name, the nether world whom he is appealing, from the fact that we had nothing to echo is said to have a sweet.  Now, as the heart is in the midst of an animal, so also is carried into the midst of the land he is said to. And so also we read in the Gospel (Matt. 12,40): 'In the heart of the earth. " Of the Philosopher of the grave, however, say that for him it is said that souls on this side there, they are borne.