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Liber XII

Isidore of Seville or their common origin of the Etymologies OF THE BISHOP OF BOOK OF 12

OF THE ANIMALIBVS

I, AND OF THE PECORIBVS IVMENTIS. [1] for all living things first know the meaning conveyed to the man, do I call the name of a present to every one according to the condition of the institution of nature to which should serve. [2] but that the Gentiles to every one of animals out of their own languages;. But it does not, according to his tongue and his Latin in Greek, or whatsoever, among the barbarous nations they set them on the names of the man, but in the language which before the flood, were all of one, which is called the Hebrew. [3] In Latin they are the living creatures, animate and inanimate been said, that animated the life of the spirit of and are moved. [4] four, being called, and the four feet, because their course upon this: they are similar and this, when the cattle, under the care of the human, however, there are none: as an hart, fallow deer, wild asses, and so on. But neither they are but beasts, that of a lion, nor beasts of burden, as the use of men they can help. [5] that the flock, we call everything and statues, like the tongue of men are without result. Strictly speaking, however the name of these beasts of cattle is wont to adcommodari which are either suitable for food, like sheep and pigs, or for use by men, like horses and oxen. [6] But it differs among the cattle, and to victims; but in common to the For the ancients, the signification of all the animals of cattle, they said; the cattle 's only, those living creatures which they are edible, as it were pecuedes. In general, it; everything alive by feeding him was called herd, from the. [7] the names of the cattle he dragged that our work or burdens by their help in carrying or plowing be my joy. For the ox draws the waggon, and the clods of the share, a most cruel of the earth now turned the horse and the ass carry burdens, and that of men in the toil on with walking. And so also the beasts of burden are called from that which can help the men: for they are creatures of mighty strength. [8] Likewise, and herds of, or because they are fit for arms, that is, for war, or that we use them in arms. Others only the herds of oxen, do understand, from the plowing, as it were aramenta [or because they are armed with horns]. But there is a distinction between the herds and the flocks of: for the herds of horses and oxen are, and the flocks of goats and sheep. [9] A sheep wool of the tender cattle, an unarmed body, the breath of calm, from the offering has been said to him, since among the ancients [in the] first you have not a bull, but sheep for the sacrifice of slay. From all this certain sacrificial sheep, which they call them, which are among their eight are higher than the two teeth which have a pagan, in most of all a sacrifice. [10] from the powers of another weather or what was said that the greater intensity of the rest of the sheep, or that one be a man, that is, a male, or that at the head of the worm may have, of which the itching, stimulated by one another to shake, and fighting with the strike with great violence. [11] or apo tou ram BE DRY, that is, from Mars, called to be: thus, with us among the flocks of the males the males are said to: or, that this is the first herd, from the Greeks, is offered in sacrifice to the altars. The ram, which place their altars. And so is that (Sedul. 1,115):

The ram is sacrificed to the altar.

[12] although the Lamb and by the Greeks call apo tou the Lamb, as it were a pious, of the Latin But it was just to have a name they think this, because the reason that because the mother of other living creatures the recognition; so much so that even if it is a large flock, have gone astray, to the bleating of immediately recognizes the voice of the parent. [13] by eating from the Haedus called for againe. Infants just ones are very fat and taste delicious charming they are, from whence [, and to eat, and so] he took the and is called Adar. [14] an animal and a goat is a wanton and being fervent in the wild are ever towards the carnal union; on account of whose eyes look towards the lust in desire for the transverse, whence its name attached to him. For sexual cravings are of the corner of the eyes, according to Suetonius (Prat. 171); whose nature is so very hot, as the adamant stone is the stone that he had, nor fire, nor iron so expert to tame it is worth the matter, blood alone will dissolve. The great ones are said to he-goats, from the river of the Cinyphian Cinyphe in Libya and, where the great are born. [15] from the she-goats, and goats on gathering, the undergrowth of some have maintained. Others say that it acquire harsh to us. Not a few from the clashing of the legs, and so was called the crepes them and these are the wild she-goats, which the Greeks virtue of this that they have very sharp, that is, OKSUDERKESTERON, DORKA have called. Abide in the high hills for us, and though from afar, but it seems so all who come. [16] Now the same and goats: the same wild goats, Avicia, as it were, because he had on the pattern of the thickets, and the high places of birds, hold and dwell in them? To a high, so that from the loftiness of the gazes of scarce human should be open for. [17] And so wild goats and the southern part of the birds are those who, the flowing of the Nile they are gone. This, therefore, the living creatures, as we have said, in the rocks of the high places of residing there, and if at any time of wild beasts or of men feel adversity, from the highest of peaks of rocks shall be plunging themselves in their own [himself] lived unharmed through the horns of the receive. [18] of the said the Stag KERATON apo ton, that is, from the horns of; KERATA the horns of the are said for the Greek. These are the enemies of serpents, when they feel weighed down by weakness, the spirit of them they take them out of the nostrils out of the holes, and overcome the destruction of their poison with the food is repaired. Dittany the grass they have projected; have been fed for at that it receive them rid themselves of the arrows. Marvel at the sound of the pipes. [19] the ears of Shameless, diligently and carefully hear, the low nothing. If at any time or accumulate large rivers to swim across the seas, the heads of the buttock that go before them and they help each succeeding beyond the spare no paines weight of their senses. [20] Tragelaphi called by the Greeks, who, when they be such as to the same species of deer, villous and yet they have so that the flanks of his he-goats, and the minds promises, hair all over their beards, who, not elsewhere, than in those about the "pheasants. [21] are the children of young roes that are deer, [from the of the said to imply that, because the mere will of mother 's and concealing themselves]. [22] fallow deer, being called, and that out of the hand to flight by a fearful animal "and" unfit for war, of which Martial (13,94):

It is feared the boar attacks with his fang, is defended the horns of the ccrvum;
What have you dainty deer we are the prey?

[23] Hare, Lightfoot, and quickly because it is running. And so, both in Greek for the course of BIRD is said to shortly I must for the animal is timid, and has sufficiently. [24] The mines in the country of animals of the said kind of like a little dog, because dogs are to be taken with nets or be excluded from the caves. [25] The sow that was been said, that may force the pasture, that is the land brought under subjection to let him seek after food. O Verres, that he has great strength. Pig, as it were nasty. For the mire and gorges, immerse clay and mud that it is applied. Horace (The Epistle of 1,2,26):

And a friend of clay pig.

[26] Hence, too, or of sticks, called the bastards. We call the hair of age of swine, and from the age of his words: from whom also are called cobblers, as much as bristles forth his ice, that is, consuant, the skins of. [27] from the fierceness of the boar called to be, taken away and replaced by the letter f, P. And so also the SUAGROS among the Greeks, that is, the fervor, it is said. For everything that is, which is untamed, unmerciful, and, loosely, we call the wild. [28] bullock what was said that to help insure their use of the land with agricultural operations, or because among the Gentiles to Jupiter invencus inmolabatur always and everywhere, never a bull. For even with the victims of age was a consideration. Taurus, the name of a Greek, and so does these?. [29] the Indian bulls is of a tawny color, the speed of the bird, the hairs to the contrary winds being changed; circumflectunt the head of flexibility which we desire; the hardness of the rear all they desire is a weapon with harsh ferocity. [30] An ox or a BOUN they say the Greeks. This man of the Latin stars were so called because the land issue, as it were terionem. Naevius (trag. 62):

Bears the moderator here a rustic.

Its latitude color of their skins, from the chin to the legs dewlaps, they are said, from the skin itself, as it were pellearia, which is a sign of good breeding in with an ox. Of oxen, his rare filial devotion in his comrades; now the one the other he inquires, with whom he is wont to lead off the neck of the plows, and a frequent bellowing, testifies that the affection of a pious if by any chance shall have failed. [31] Vidi said, as if boacca. For it is from the character of the mobiles of the names, as a lion a lion, but the dragon Dracaena. [32] The calf and the heifer, from the fresh and greene, are called to, that is, a green age, just as a staff. , Therefore, to be a heifer of a small and not yet given birth to: for thou who didst bring the heifer is a cow, or. [33], called by the derivation of a buffalo, that they are like the bulls; so much so that, in comparison of an untamed ferocity to the yoke their necks had not, they may receive. [34] Africa, creates these. Uri, the wild oxen, they are in Germany, and have a horns, stretching out to such an extent that the capacity of a striking of the month of the king 's of them WORKER BEE things be done. [Dict OREON of Uri, the apo ton, that is, from the mountains.] [35] gave a name to the cause of camels, or that when the victims to the burden, as the humble and meek, and shorter than the come to pass, reclining, because the Greeks common father of a low and a short time, they say, or because the curve is the back. KAMOUR the Greek is the word which signifies a curved piece. These have it in for other districts and they send, but Arabia, most of them. Differ, however, to himself; Arabic for two of every sort on the back of truffles they have, the countries of each of the other. [36] Dromeda kind of camels, the younger, indeed, of the stature, but quicker. And so also has a name that, for the SPARTAN RACECOURSE in Greek and the speed of the course is called. For a hundred thousand, and more, is wont to go in one day. That an animal, just as an ox, and sheep, and the camels, the cud. [37] is so called chewing the cud [is] from the Ruma, projecting from the parts of the throat, through which the food should be set at liberty he is recalled for certain animals. [38] from the donkey and the young ass of the said sitting still, as if asedus: but this name ", which is more fitting for their horses, for that reason he took this animal: Before the horses they caught the men, they began to preside over it to this. An animal for slow and by no means resisting, he was as soon as he did he want and spread it under a man. [39] A wild ass wild donkey of a donkey is interpreted. ONON an ass, they call for the Greeks: AGRION a wild one. These Africa, has a great and untamed, wandering about, and in the desert. Let each of the flocks, while women are over. Coming to birth and the testicles of the males and their little jealous of the bite of hacked, that the mothers caventes them in the secrets of places is obscured. [40] the said Arcadian asses, because he had been carried from Arcadia, the first are the high and the high. Minor, moreover, the young ass of the field more than he is an indispensable, because it and the labor of the negligence of bears with it and almost does not object. [41] The horses of the said, because he had when the team were joined together, level with, and Even the form of the course, and such like he was connecting. [42] caballus before the said Capo, for the sake of the hoof of that is going concavet fixed on the earth, that the other animals do not have. [43] From this and his charger, and the feet of sounds. The longevity of the horses of many things: For men rejoice in the fields of; He smells the battle; are raised with the sound of trumpet to a close engagement with the voice of the course was kindled for the appeal; they grieve the defeated to one; surpass in the rejoice with. Even if the enemy in time of war they feel, so much so that the bite of the adversaries ask for them: Some peculiar to recognize his masters, they had forgotten if they are changed of meekness; the back of some "except the Lord they admit none: them that are slain, or dying, many weep for their masters. The soil is the horse for the sake of man tears at the emotion of grief and feel the loss. And so [and] in the centaurs of horses and men are intermingled. [44] as a matter of deep distress or of horses or readiness of view of future events to gather to battle with. Your age, aged Persian horses, Hunnicis, the Epirotes, the Sicilians, and in the years to more than fifty, but shorter than the Spaniards and the French Numidians, and a general view is that. [45] In the horses of good pedigree, so that as the ancients said, the four are seen: a form, the beauty of, the merit of and color. The form of, so that the body is to be valid and solid, the height of his strength of fitting, the side of a long, narrow and round most of all the haunches, and the breast an open far and wide, the body of the density of all the muscles are knotted, and the horn of the foot of the concave surface of dry stable. [46] The beauty, that it may be the head of a small and dry, the skin near the bones sticking, ears, short and neat, the eyes large, the nostrils spreading, the neck erect, and tail, thick hair, the hoofs of solidity of their round shape '. [47] The merit of, as be of good courage, bold, with quivering members, which is of strength is a sign, from the most high and those who can easily be stirred up quietly, and / or stirred up is bound to not be difficult for haste. But the movements and in the ears of the horse is understood, the strength in the members of trembling. [48] The color of this one is chief, as a show: Badius, golden, rosy, myrtle, of a deer, CREAM-COLORED, gray, dappled, light gray, brilliant white, the white, guttatus, black. And on the following order, the different "distinct" from the black badioque; the rest of the color or gray worst speaker. [49] then he, Badius gage Now the ancients used to say, that is between the more strongly let him go, all the other animals. He is the spadix, whom they call the phoenicatum: and the said spadix from the color of a palm tree, which they call the spadicam the Sicilians. [50] Glaucus, the painted, is like the having eyes and the brightness of a certain bathed. For glaucus old said he was. But the dun color is whitish, and comes from Melos. Guttatus, the intervention of a white with black points. [51], and a white radiance, but they differ in one another. For the ordinary white with a sort of paleness is: is white like snow, but the pure, shining light poured over him. Light gray, canus the said, because out of a white color and black. Dappled is so called because the spheres, which they haue between the purple robes of bright white. [52] Varius, but that may have the colors of the ways of odd. But he that for white feet only, they have, called petili, who the front of a white, hot. [53], is commonly called cervinus, guaranen they say. Aeranen the same as the common folk call, which, like a aerial is of color. Oppressed with the myrtle, however, is in the purple. [54] Dosina But what was said that his is the color of an ass: the same, and of ashes. But there are the rustic These were of the kind of a beginning, so equiferos whom we say, and, consequently, to the dignity of the city can not pass to. [55] Mauron is black;; black MAURON For the Greeks call it. The manna of a horse but shorter than the [is], whom they call the common people brunicum. SWIFT HUNTING-HORSE the ancient said, that they can ride the carts of, that is, to lead on public roads and / or that they run, and the carts of by means of which she was wont to go. [56] of the horse there are three kinds: the one by a noble, fit for battles and burdens; other, the everyday, and for riding, to the a common, not to ride and to fit for the third, since the admixture of a different kind is rising, it is also said that because the HYBRID is born out of diverse, such as the mule. [57], however, mule, along, from the Greek word "has. For in Greek it this or that slow the yoke of the baker had he been driven GRINDING lead unto the round about the jaws. The Jews say that Ana, grandson of Esau, herds of mares by the ass in the desert, he himself hath done have gone up to the first, as a result new mules against the nature of the animal would have been born. Wild asses were also to be admitted to this end to the the asses: and the same kind he had found his bed, so that swift out of these would have been born of an ass. [58] Industry as men 's various animals were forced in sexual intercourse, and so to the mingling of the counterfeit kind of found something else, just as contrary to nature, and Jacob, he procured the likenesses of colors. For the sheep of the fetus such concipiebant of that, as the rams of the waters from above, that go up in the mirror, considered. [59] Finally, and this gives the same injunction in the herds of mares to be made it is said, that some may object, gentlemen, with eyes that of the one conceiving horses, those which are about to conceive and to create "they may be. For the lovers of pigeons and they put the most beautiful embroidered doves in the same places in which that they are present, which carried it off like a vision to be generated. [60] Hence it is that a certain child saw no bids women to look at the basest character of animals countenances, such as cynocephaloi and apes, came in the way with eyes that do not like to let them bear the fetus. For this is that the nature of the women perceive to as what the nature or they formed an idea of pleasure at the end of the heat, when they are conceived, and such, and gives birth to offspring. In truth, in the use of an animal from outside the forms of Venus, transmits within, and their printed hath been glutted snatches away their images into its own quality. Among living things the bigenera things are those which are born out of diverse, such as the mule from a mare and an ass; the burdon of a horse and the donkey; hybrida from the wild boar and hogs, Tityrus from the sheep and he-goat; musmo from the goat, and a ram on every. But there is leader of the flock.

2. Of the beasts. [1], properly speaking, the word of wild beasts, to lions, leopards, tigers, wolves and foxes and dogs and apes and the rest of the very thing which the mouth of rage in that blest his nails, except snakes. Of the beast from the force of the said, by which the rage in that blest. [2] The beasts usually call him that from natural desire to make use of their freedom, and borne along by their. For there are of the free woman of will, and this way and that which the mind is flit about and shall marry, because they are carried. [3] The name lion, leo from Greek origin, is altered into Latin. LEONES for in Greek it is called, and it is a genuine word, because on the part corrupt. The lioness, the entire Greek, and so does Dracaena. "But that the lioness the lioness had borrowed it be said by the poets. , But Leo, in Greek, in Latin means "the king, because of all shall be that the prince of the beasts. The genus is said to trifarium. [4] One of their short, mane crispa are dainty; a simple and locks, long fierce. Our minds in their brow and tail show. The power of them in the heart, the strength of in the head. Of September, the hunters of the land from the survey qno seen this, hunting spears, may be deterred by the less. Fear the noise of wheels, but more frightened by fire. [5] When they sleep, watch for the eyes; with the walk, the tail of his own on its traces, cover them not to hunter to find it. When a cub to have issue, for three days and three nights to sleep is said to a young, then to the senators or a roar, roar, trembling with fear, as it were, resting place is said to raise up a cub to the place of sleeping. [6] Where men are concerned the nature of the lions' is that, unless they can not be angry when a man injures. For it is clear the mercy of their endless examples. They spare being overthrown in; allow the captives to return home whom he met; man who had not, without great kill with hunger. Touching such things as Lucretius, (5,1035):

Scymnique of the lions.

[7] the Tigris is so called because the fowl of panic and flight, for this is what they call the Persians and the Medes at an arrow. It is a beast with various markings, and the speed of the power of wonderful by whose name the the river is called the Tigris, and it is the most rapid of all rivers. Hyrcanus in the more these is generative. [8] the said Panther, or because he is a friend of all animals, except for the dragon, or because of its own kind, and He rejoiced, and the society to the same receives the likeness of whatever pays it back. For all the PAN in Greek it is said. A beast the little wheel superpicta minutes, so that with eye circles of yellow, black or white is distinguished with variety. [9] This is the only time that 's benefit; whose excuse in this case is manifest. For when in a young mother 's womb coaluere maturisque to their births are powerful forces, they hate to the season of delays, and so laden with the young ones that veils her womb, her time as a tear with their nails: pour it out upon that part of, or rather leave the, such as pain compels him. So the replacement is corrupted and the seed of a genital organ of whip scars was infused into the seats does not cling to themselves, but been wasted, flies to pieces. For Pliny (NH 8,43) speak of an animal, with sharp claws to obey a crowded it can not be infected for things moving themselves within the cubs. [10] Pants after the Panther is the second, a race the swiftest and mottled and headlong to the blood. Leap to death begins to fail. [11] Leopard of adultery the fierce lion, and the leopard is born, and a third of the origin of are brought about; as and Pliny in the Natural History (8,42) says, with the lion, a leopard, a lioness, or the leopard to have sex with and sexual intercourse from both degenerate offspring are created, such as the mule and the burdon . [12] Rhinoceron he was called by the Greeks. In a Latin version into the nostrils of the horn. The same and monoceron, that is, and one horn, the horn of him that "one" in the middle of the forehead, four feet, so it has a sharp and strong, so that, whatever inpetierit, or fan, or perforate her. For even when the elephants Often a dispute he hath, and one that is slain in the belly of overthrow. [13] moreover, of such strength to be the power of the hunters that no shall be arrested, but, as they affirm, who wrote the natures of living creatures, O virgin of the girl in charge, which opens the bosom of his coming, with which he laid aside the head of any display of ferocity he sets down, and so to have taken my rest as if disarmed is captured. [14] an elephant by the Greeks the size of the body was called consider that they prefer the men of the form of the mountain; for in Greek it is called the mountain of LOFOS. In India, however at the voice of Barro is called, and so also the voice of his WAR CRY OF THE GERMANS, and the teeth of the oppressed. The beak, however the trunk of it is said, because he brings near to the mouth of them with the food: and it is a snake like that, fortified by the last cast a trench with an ivory. [15] These oxen, Luke, was named after the ancient to the Romans: the oxen, because there is no larger animal is, seemed to have Luke, who was in Lucania them, Pyrrhus was the first in the battle to block the Romans. , For this class animals also contained in it is apt to matters of war; in them says, the Persians and the Indians laid and towers of wood and, as it were, from the wall, fight with javelins. The understanding and the memory of autein with all speed. [16] in flocks they march; motion by which the well worth the advantage, a mouse was almost over; mate together, turned away; When, however, ready to bring forth, in the waters or in the Isle because of the dragons they send the young, because my enemies and from them are entangled in and put to death; moreover to carry the two years of her brood, no more than once the majority do not produce, but to one only; they live [but] three hundred years. With India and for Africa alone, were born before the elephants; them but now a solitary India is generative. [17] is called gryphons, that it is an animal winged and four-footed. "This kind of wild beasts at the Hyperborean is born of the mountains. All the lions are part of the body; face of an eagle with his wings and the like; vehemently hostile to horses. For men seen in the temple and in pieces. [18] chamaeleons has not just one color, but the different is the variety of consparsus, as a leopard. The appointment was made Superior of this, a true chameleon the colors which the corpuscle to the very easy to see the conversion of varied, that of other animals it is not so easy to to the conversion of the grossness of the. [19] the said GIRAFFE is that when they let it be as a leopard with white spots superaspersus, off the neck of his horse like that, the feet of those of an ox, the head of the camel, however, is there the like. This Ethiopia is generative. [20] the said lynx, because in the kind of wolves are numbered; back of the beast with spots of distinct as a leopard, but he is like a wolf, and hence he LUKOS, this lynx. Turn them toward the urine of this hardness of the stone most precious, they say, who is called the lyncurius, which was also to feel themselves have learned this is proved in this document. For the liquid sands have amassed, in so far as they were able, cover, a kind of envy of such a character was not WASTING passes over into the human use. The younger Pliny, have learned this he says (cf. 8,43 NH) is outside the one bring forth young, not to do any. [21] from the Castor and Pollux being castrated has been said. For the testicles of their medicines and be fit to be the cause of the praesenserint with the hunter in, they castrate themselves and the bites of their ability, they cut off. Cicero, in his touching such things as Scauriana (2:7): '; they had, rather to redeem this part of the body, for the sake of that which is most sought after. " Juvenal (12,34):

Those who declared themselves
He doeth the eunuch, hoping to escape damage,
the testicles.

[22] They are they, and fibers, by which the dogs are called the Pontic. Is said to bear of their own mouth, so called because it forms the of her brood, began as it were. For is said that they generate the unsightly parts, and the flesh than a mother to be born a certain licks up and keeps the members in the. And so is that:

Thus is formed the tongue, bring forth young, he took out with a bear.

But this rapid parts of face; in short, thirty days after conception. And so it happened that the fecundity of the unsightly down the precipices, to breed. Vrsorum head is not strong; greatest strength lies in its arms and loins; erect this reason bears sometimes ceasing altogether. [23] The wolf in the Greek of a derivation is transferred to our language. For to him that wolves LUKOUS they say: LUKOS from the virtues of the Greek for is called, that the madness of mutual hatred kill the rapacity, and which shall find. Others summoned the wolves as it were leopos they say, that like a lion, so be to him to the feet of the power of, and so also to suppress whatever foot is not alive. [24] The wolf is rapacious desires is borne of blood remains on the beast, and, of which they say country people to destroy a man's voice, if there was prior to the wolf shall see. And so the dumb, and he suddenly it is said: 'The wolf in the fable. " Surely, if he had foreseen; perceive it, the boldness of savagery, he deposes. Wolves, during the whole year, not more than twelve days together; carry the hunger for a long time, and after long fasts eat a large amount. Ethiopia sends that wolves maned neck, and so much that none of the various absent the color of them may say:. [25] The Latin name for dog, seems to have the etymology of the Greek; KUON for in Greek it is called. Although him a certain song from the barking of think that was called, because he sounds in and so also the play on instruments. For there is nothing to the dogs a keener and more than all the other animals for the sense they have. [26] For the only recognize their own names; and love their masters; a mistress' home defenders of a state for their own masters, they bar themselves to death; his own will with the Lord to the prey, run; of his body of the Lord even after death are not left without. The last is external to man is nature, but is not possible. In the it to the dogs there are two things: either the strength of, or the speed of. [27] The young are said to also applied, improperly whatsoever, of wild beasts of the Son. Strictly speaking, they are like young dogs, by a decrease of the said. [28] Lyciscus, however, say, says Pliny (cf. 8,148), the dogs were born of wolves and dogs out, since the chance she hath mingled. Of India the women are wont also to the dogs in the woods at night, bound to them to be admitted to breed with wild tigers, from which the insiliri, and to be born out of the same in the brood of the bravest and most dogs so strong that with the surrounding of lions in the first prostrate ourselves. [29] The fox said, as if pleasure. For there is a volume on their feet, and never the roads right angles, but is running with the bends tortuous, deceitful enemies' treacherous to deceive an animal. For while he has never for the prey, the death of fashions, and so coming down, as the birds of the dead body to the snatches and devours them. [30] is the name of a Greek monkey, that is checked by the tight nose, and so also the apes, we say, that there may be and nostrils suppressing the face of rigor after they had shamefully with wrinkles like a bellows, though they may be pressed and chapels, to have nothing but nose. Others in the Latin language called apes urbitrantur, because he had the likeness of many things which are of human reason is felt, but it is false. [31] These are the new keenly aware of the elements rejoice when the moon, the middle and they grieve for the hollow. The fetus is so, whom they love, carry them about in front of him; about the mother of those overlooked were stuck fast. None of these varieties and five, of which his tailed ape have tails; for a monkey with a tail is, which some call the monkey. [32] are villous on the Sphinx, with streaming hair, the teats are prominent, capable of learning and to forget their wild. Cynocephalus monkeys and others like him, but after the manner of the face of a dog, and so also called in Greek. [33] Satyrs the face of a very pleasing and restless pantomimed gestures. Callitriches almost the whole of the sight of from the rest of distance between them. For there are produced in the face of their beards and broad tail. [34] Leontophonos the beast a little, and they have done so because of the capture being called, it is burned, and his ashes with a sprinkling of the flesh, and set for by the lions of the paths of CROSSROAD kill, if one of them, however little, they have consumed. [35] Histrix an animal in Africa, similar to the irchins, being summoned by the squeaks of thorns, which have been enlarged at the rear like a dog, he wound sends out the pursuit. [36] Enhydros a little beast to be named from the fact, that in the waters, it is to and most of all in the Nile. What if he shall find the crocodile of sleeping, he revolves in itself in mud in the first place, and enters by the mouth of his into the belly, and plucking all his intranet, so to die. [37] called to be an ichneumon, in Greek, because he had the smell of him, and poisonous, the symptoms of food and are betrayed. Out of which dragon he says (Laud. 1,515):

PORCINE of any off the force of their venom.

But the tawny fells of Suilius is, is so called from the. Here, too, serpents follow; who, when he fights against the asp, lifts its tail, a snake than to observe the most of all as it were, menacing the begins;, when he had the force of his own transfers, deceived by the mall. [38] to the Muses, which, it is hostile to their size in mice. This cat is gone from the draft of the common people they call. Others say, that cattat, that is, does he see. For it has such piercing sight that the brightness of the light overcomes the dark of the night. And so by a Greek, catus, that is, gifted with understanding, apo tou KAIESTHAI. [39] from the madness is the said brown, and so also a thief. For a Dark and hidden inside the tunnels dug it out, and he is driving out of plunder than he finds it. [40] Melo, or that it is member of the roundest, and / or that the combs, asks, and is constantly grasp in the honey.

3. OF THE MINVTIS ANIMANTIBVS. [1] A mouse a little while, an animal. Is the name of a Greek to him; Yet truly, whatever draws from the fact Latin is made. Others say that the mice are born out of the ground of the earth, for we earth, from whence, and the ground. With these liver grows at the full moon, the sea coast as a certain kind are becoming stronger, which once again diminished the moon is giving out. [2] Sorex Latin, because the rod and in the manner of the saw cuts short. Moreover the ancient soricem sauricem used to say, as the crippled and the lame. [3] mustela, the said, as if we long; for a weapon from the length of the said. Latter for in the houses of sly, where the feeds to their young ones, he transfers the seat of mutatque. Serpents and of the hunts snakes and mice. Moreover there are two kinds of the weasel, the other one, for the greatness of wild is distant, that the Greeks IKTIDAS they call the other one, in the houses of oberrans. These false and suppose that those who say that the mouth of Mustela to conceive, pour into the ears created. [4] A mouse spiders, the spider, whose bite. There is a very small, in Sardinia, an animal, a spider, the form, which solifuga is said, that the day he flees. In metals silversmiths a man, creeping on his secret, and through lack of foresight supersedentibus the pestilence he doeth it. [5] Mole been said, that has been condemned, the house with blindness perpetual darkness. For there is a no eyes, always dug the earth, and land, he had dealt, and the roots under the corn he ate; ASTHULAKA which the Greeks call it. [6] of the said dormice to be, because the fat ones of sleep makes them, for we say that a rank growth of increase. In winter they are sleeping and in all of as still as a lying there dead, at the time the summer come to life again. [7] Erik an animal is covered in prickles, which then became called 'it is said, because he had him, when he bristles with thorns, his and closed, is protected by them on all sides against the wiles of. For as soon as something praesenserit, they first began to bristles, and into a ball, in his own arms he gathers back. Of this is a kind of prudence, for a bunch of grapes while he cut off the from the vine, lying on his back, he revolves in themselves upon her, and thus he has children, his exhibits. [8] the name of Cricket from the sound of the voice has. This man walks behind him, a land of bores, gnasheth with the nights. Is a vein of (n) be bandaged him the ant, the hair of his been thrown into the cavern, when breathed on by the dust before that he would not hide, so the ants, the embrace of it is drawn. [9] ant said, as they were to issue the crumbs of corn. The skill in many things, For I know beforehand in the future, and establishes a winter in the summer that he eat in the harvest, however, select wheat, barley one can not touch; to him, when it rains for the corn, he is driving out the whole. They are called to be ants in Ethiopia, to the form of a dog, the golden grains of sand and feet, which are elicited, which keep the lest any man should take away, to attempt to kill captantesque persecute you. [10] Formicoleon on account of this which is called, because it is ants or a lion, or at least the ant and the lion together. There is for the animal is small enough for ants harmful for them, in the dust, which in fact they hid it, and the corn, carrying the ants will kill. Accordingly, a lion, and the ant, but is called, because for some animals is like the ant, ants, that a lion is a.

4. OF THE SERPENTIBVS. [1] Snake word for all kind of serpent that can be bent and contorqui: and from thence it is a snake that gaunt, and never rightly. However, there are snakes, for the Gentiles were familiar with the minds of the places have been held ever shall be, from which Persius (1,113):

Ping two snakes: "Children, is the place of the sacred.

[2] The snake is was said by him, which is enough to worship the shades, and / or that the extension in a slippery ways of winding, sinuous slip and fall. For whatever it is said a slippery slithers when you hold, like a fish, a serpent. [3] 'Now the serpent has received the name of the secret creeps up, not by visible steps, but crept along the effort for the smallest scales. And those who were They try to the four feet, just as the lizard and stiliones, not snakes, but reptiles are named. But the creeping things of the serpents, they are, for the winds that creep, and breast. So many of these how many kinds of poisons, how many kinds is the bane of so many by so much suffering has the color of how many. [4] greater than the dragon of all of serpents, or of all the living creatures upon the earth. DRAKONTA they call this the Greeks, and so also is derived into Latin as a dragon would be said. Who, though often drawn forth from caves is carried into the air, the air is turbulent, because of him. Has a crest, a small mouth, and the art of the pipes, through which it breathes and the tongue that it exerts. Its strength lies not in the teeth, but in its tail, and the word rather than beneath the gaping jaws is harmful. [5], however, is that an innocent man from the poisons, but for this reason be made to her for the death of poisons that it is not necessary, because if a man be bound to death. By whom, are safe for the not even the elephant with its huge size; lurking on the paths of the Even in the matter, through which the elephants used to have their course, their legs fastened to the knots, and kills them by suffocation. But it is produced in Ethiopia and India in the very heights of the burning fires of his. [6] A basilisk in Greek, in a Latin version a basilisk, because the king of serpents, it is, so much so that when they saw him, let them flee, because it kills them with its scent, for and that the man or if he looking at him. If, indeed, the sight of his no bird can fly lived unharmed through passes, but at what a distance to him, his burnt up to be up and devoured in the mouth. [7] A, however, is overcome by weasels, which the men there, they infer that the holes where they in hiding; And so, having a vision, flees; the persecutes and to death. For there is nothing the Creator has made without a remedy. There is a half a foot in length,; with white stripes. [8] But the rule, just as the stings of scorpions and dry and which are waiting on, and now that have come to water, and the lymph UDROFOBOUS they do. [9], who is the same as a hissing, and the rules. With a hiss, for it kills, before it bites or burns. [10] a result the viper been said, that by force prepares for it. For even when in his belly, to groan on to the birth, young do not of nature, waiting for an early solution of conrosis their sides with the mother, they break out by force in destruction. Lucan (6,490):

A result the viper mate together, and, after breaking the body, of the knob.

[11], it is said, however, that a male inserted in her mouth expuat the seed of the viper; comes from pleasure, and she turned to frenzy of desire in the the head of the reception of the mouth of the sea cut off. The result is that both my parents were to die; a male, while the thickens, while the forth, a woman. From the paste, a viper, there are made, who are called by the Greeks THERIAKOI. [12] a snake being called, and that the poisons with its bite and toss inmittat; IOS For the Greeks they say the poison, and from thence a snake, the bite of a poisoned that kill. There are various kinds and species, and with different effects only for harm. It is reported that a snake, when he shall begin to suffer enchanters, who it calls forth some of their own songs in order that she produces from its cave: the former, to come out, he will not, one ear to the ground exerts pressure, and blocks and other with its tail and work, and [thus] the voices of those magic does not go forth that heareth not: to the charming him. [13] snake of thirst, a kind of asp of the Latin and bucket, it is said, for he whom it bites, the thirst is left undone. [14] Hypnalis, a kind of asp, so called because sleep kills them quickly. Decided on this, he proceeded to Cleopatra, and thus death as if by sleep. [15] Haemorrhois an asp, so called because it is the blood of those who let him labor and free from death and has been, so that the dissolution of the veins, whatever there is life, by the blood of acts of. For in Greek it is called the blood of AIMA. [16] in Prestim a snake with its mouth always vaporanti of the patent and is running. The poet remembers, so (Lucan. 9,722):

Distending her face and eager for the smoking "Prestim.

Here is distended by the strike which, put to death the grossness of enormique; extuberatum For it follows rottenness. [17] POISONOUS SNAKE, CORROSIVE a snake, it bites a man who, while they, at once, destroys him, so that the entirely into fluid in the mouth of the serpent. [18] An adder serpent was said, because he had at the head of the like he has horns of rams: the horns of the KERATA For the Greeks call: but they are of four little horns, to him, of which the display of, as it were, the meat, entice those who were acted on animals kills. For the whole body to be covered he hit the sand, nor did any of his token of it grants, except the part which has attracted the birds or the animal is admissible. It bends more than other snakes, so that the thorn does not seems to have. [19] SMALL ROLLER the serpent being called, and that so great a variety of gleams forth, and the rear of the Notes as the grace of looking up to retards the pigrior crawling on and because it is these we catch up with is not valid, a miracle of his astonished, and is admissible. So great was the fervor that even after the severity of the winter the time of the spoils of my needs to expose the body of the running. Out of which Lucan (9,717):

SMALL ROLLER And still sprinkled with frost but now a solitary
the spoils of my position, I advised.

[20] amphisbaena said, because he has two heads, one in its place, the other for a tail, the head of running out of both, a space of circular of the body. This one alone of commits of serpents, it faces the cold, first of all the proceeding. Of which too the Lucan (9,719):

And, terrible to the AMPHISBAENA the head of a twin on the two sides.

[21], as it were, whose eyes glow of the lamp. Enhydris the snake in the water living; UDOR the water for the Greeks call it. [22] a water serpent, Hydro, of whom is struck by obturgescunt; boam disease to which a person they say, because the dung of an ox. [23] Hydra, a dragon with many heads, such as it was the swamp of Lerna in the province of Arcadia. These things in Latin snake it is said, that in one, with the murder grew from the three heads that were. But this is fabulous, is true, for it is established a Hydra was a place for the waters of the evomentem, laying waste to the neighboring cities, in which, in one passage he is shut, are an outburst of many: that Hercules when he saw the terrain too has consumed, and thus water shut the beam. Cover: For by the water is made. [24] snakes the serpent, who is also WATER SNAKE, ðcerimð as it were, because that on the waters and upon the earth abides; for Kherson they say the land of the Greeks, UDOR water. Here the land through which it falls and smoke rising he does, than in that describes the Macer, (8):

Or the back of the foaming exhales poison,
or the land of smoking, which the snake glides DISGUSTING.

And Lucan (9,711):

Dragged the way of smoking snakes.

But always walks directly, for, if tortured him, while the is running, is set tinkling at once. [25] Natrix the serpent poison infecting the water it, for in the fountain has been, inmiscit him by poison. Out of which Lucan (9,720):

Natrix violator of water.

[26] Cenchrae inflexuosa the serpent, which always makes the right path. Lucan, of what (9,712):

And he was always a straight path cencliris decay shall know.

[27] Paris the serpent which is always on the tail, and walks a furrow as doing it. Of whom the same Lucan (9,721):

The furrow the content with the way the tail thou shalt bring forth.

[28] Boas, a snake of Italy, the huge size, the flocks of herds, and pursues a buffalo, or with milk and a very great WATERING binds himself with the breasts and he destroys the sugens, and from thence from the depredations of the boas of oxen, got its name. [29] the serpent like a dart flying. Out of which Lucan (9,720):

Iaculique birds.

For leap forth on the trees, and while some animal, you meet him, to throw himself upon him, and kill it, and so also bore the name of the arrow. In Arabia there are serpents, with wings, which are called sirens, which is more run by horses, but also, and are said to fly; of which is so great a man as death, than you die before you follow upon their sorrow. [30] SERPENTINE been said, that has the color of grains of sand. , Of what poet (Lucan. 9,714):

How small her painted with spots of Thebes, SERPENTINE
wear the color of burnt out and indiscriminately hit the sand,
ammodytes.

[31] a small POISONOUS SNAKE The serpent, which not only the body but the bones consumed by the poison. The poet remembers, so (Lucan. 9,723):

Overthrow the bones are CORROSIVE POISONOUS SNAKE with the body.

[32] of so great a of Dipsas of littleness is said to the serpent, so that when trodden underfoot, he does not appear. Whose than extinguishes the poison had been previously should find it that the face death shall prevent it, nor sorrow it takes on the die at all. The poet says of of the (Lucan. 9,737):

Bearer of the young man Aulus Tuscan 's blood
the head of a crooked back and bit him tread down the snake of thirst:
scarce or is the sense of the dens was.

[33] Salpuga the serpent, is one which does not seem to. Caecula said, for the sake of it is because with a small and it does not have the eyes. CENTIPEDE from the large number of feet above. [34] is a kind of reptile lizard, called to be such a way that has arms. The genera of lizards more: we as botrax, the salamander, the saura and the newt. [35] Botrax been said, that he has the face of the frogs; while the Greeks BATRACHON frogs which they call. [36] Salamander being called, and that is over against the fires of it is worth. Among all whose poison of all venomous there is the greatest force of the rest for each find their mark, this destroys the very many together. For if a tree that has crept into, are all fruits infects the poison, and those that were killed ederint, who also was or if he falls into a well, do you want the drinkers were put to death one of its poison. It resists fire, extinguishes the fires alone among creatures; for he ever lives in the midst of the flame and finishing without pain, and not only because it is not inflamed, but the fire out. [37] the upper of Saura, who when it grows old, his eyes are blinded, and enters it in the opening of the wall of the observer towards the east and the rising of the sun and to make plain he intends to. [38] from the color of the newt has a name attached to Him, for it is shield of painted with shining spots in the manner of of the stars. Of whom Ovid (Metam. 5,461):

the color and apt
It is named, the body of the drops of various stars.

Here, however, be so hostile to scorpions when they saw him as the fear of these things may bring and sloth. [39] There are also other kinds of serpents, so that ammodytae, elephantia, chamaedracontes. Finally, how much of the names, the number of merely that he died. All the snakes, by its very nature are cold they are, nor him beat him except when it warms up. [40] For when the cold, they will, they will touch no, and so also their poison day than by night more than they hurt. Grow cold of the night, and rightly so, because of the night are cold they are wet with dew. In the they bring to regard themselves as the vapor of plagues and of the body are cold are cold by nature, and so also are slow to resolve the knots in the winter, in summer are loosed. [41] Hence it is that while the serpent: the venom, whoever is struck, is amazed at the first, and later, when it itself, in that, being warmed with the poison of anger shall be kindled, extinguishes the state of man. The poison has been said, however, because he had through the veins he goeth; infused for plague, as the quickening of the body through the veins of increased dispersed in different directions and drives out life. [42] could be the poison so it does not hurt unless it shall touch the blood. Lucan (9,614):

With a mixture of noxious serpent also has the blood of the plague.

For all the poison is cold, and for that reason the soul, which is the fiery, flees from the poison will serve cold. , In natural good things, which to us and we see that this living thing of irrational in common, a certain sense of quickness of the serpent excels. [43] And so also we read in the Book of Genesis (3,1): '' Now the serpent was wiser than all the beasts of the earth. " But he says, Pliny, if we believe it, that the head of a snake even if it had escaped with two fingers, none the less he lives. And so also for the whole throw his body to head against its assailants. [44] Serpents were less capable he was seen by all. A rare thing in front of them, nor without cause, when in the front of their eyes are not they may have, but in times of such an extent did hear better than all the more quickly they will regard it. No other creature in the tongue moves with such speed so that the serpent, so much so that it seems to have a triple tongue, since one would. [45] are the bodies of snakes is moist, so that wherever they go, as to designate their path with moisture. The marks of serpents, is such as to, they seem to lack with the feet, flanks and the effort for repant scales, from one end of which the throat to the lowest looseness of the bowels disposed to receive the equal way. For the scales as if on claws, as if on legs are supported by the ribs. [46] And so if in any part of the body from the belly is as far as at the head of a blow, it crushes, it is disabled and he can not have, because where the blow should fall, let the thorn he paid, the ribs through which the feet, and the motion of the body was going on. But the serpents, they are said to live for a long time, so much so that laying aside the old off old age and the testimony was that he in his youth he to return to. [47] The tunics of the spoils of snakes are called, because that, if they, when they grow old they put off themselves, which in its youth, stripped of their return. For they are called and the spoils of GARB, because they are clad, and lost their. [48] of the marrow of Pythagoras, he says of a dead man, which is found in the spine, that the serpent to be created which, too, Ovid in the Metamorphoses, from recording the saying, "(15,398):

There are those who shut up, with the spine is rotted in the tomb
they believe to be changed human snake to the core.

That if we believe it, it comes about that the merit of the serpent, as it was by man 's death, so also is a dead man of a serpent. It is reported that the naked man that "the serpent did not attempt to touch them.

V. OF THE VERMIBVS. [1] worm is a living creature, which for the most part of the flesh, and / or of the tree, or wood or some other earthly material, without intercourse or is begotten; although it is sometimes are born from eggs, like the scorpion. But there are worms, or the earth, or of water, or air, or the flesh, or of the branches, or the wood, or in clothes. [2] A spider is a worm of the air, the surname of nourishment from the weather; things that are required long threads brings down the body, and the web were always intent never ceasing to toil, constantly suffering in his own art to be hanged. [3] a water leech has a worm, so called because the blood disappears. For he lieth in wait drank, and when the slips down the throat or anywhere where attached to it, blood draws, and has been moistened with the blood of with an undue, that throws up a swallowed them up, again to a later date, that gives suck while. [4] Scorpio, a worm is the earthly, who are better becomes a member of worms, not snakes; an animal armed with a sting, and with it in Greek name, because it should ever print a the tail and spreads the poison through shaped wound. It is proper to that of the scorpion will not sting the palm of the hand. [5] cantharides of earth of a worm [Who in creating man, applied in the body immediately, the, of his burning, bladders full of humor makes]. [6], multipes, a worm is the earthly, from the large number of feet he was called, who the contact is to fold up into a ball. It is found beneath rocks, out of the ground and the earth. [7] The slug was a worm of mud, so called because in the mire of the dust of or should grow and so also the times, and in the filthy He has an evil. [8] SILK-WORM is a leaf worm, and from her tissue of SILK GARMENTS is accomplished. But been acclaimed by this name from the fact that while he be swept clean of thread and only air is in him be stayed. [9] a worm caterpillar is a leaf in the manner of herbs, and / or [in the] wrapped up with a tendril, from the erodendo given above. Of Plautus, which it remembers the (Cist. 728):

Followed the wicked and worthless beast and the magicians, wrapped up into a vine; he implicates himself.

Flies up and does not, like the locust, as here, running through the side and the other semipasta not let go, but stays with corn, and perishable slow because of the fall of the bites of pigrisque consumes everything. [10] the Greeks call Teredonas of wood worms, which eat up by rubbing. These termites us we do say. For in this manner among the Latins, the tree of worms, which are the time of the trees were cut inoportuno bear. [11] a worm moth to a garment, so called because he holds, and to this end which insedat erodat. From thence and stubborn, that in the the same thing again and again urges it. [12] Worms of bodies, HEMICRANIA, the stomachworm, ascaride, the costmary, peduculi, the flea, the be taken in refuting, the tarmus, the tick, the usia, the son-of-a-bitch. [13] called to be an HEMICRANIA worm of the head. Lumbricus, a worm of the intestines, called as lumbicus, because it errs, or and / or that is in the loins. [14] Ä ascaride Peduculi the rib from the skin by the feet of worms of the said. And so also the peducosi which are said to peduculi effervescunt in the body. [15] fleas you are calling from the dust, that they said, are nourished rather by. Be taken in refuting the tarmus Superior is a worm fat. Tick, ricinus, a worm is a dog, so called because it sticks to the ears of dogs; KUON also have a dog for the Greek. [16] is Vsia worm found in pigs, it was called because it burns, for when it bites, so much so the place burns the bladder in order that there be fulfilled. [17] of a certain son-of-a-bitch of a likeness to the grass he was called, of which the stench of the has. [18] Strictly speaking, however a worm is born in the flesh, rotten, the moth in the clothing of; rocket in the Hole; MOTH on the tree; the tarmus in the bacon. [19] The worm does not like a snake with scales, with visible steps or crept along the effort for, because there is lacks the firm spine, as of a serpent, but in a straight line of the corpuscle of his contracted in administering the parts of the step by step, explains the movement of that stretched to be contracted, and so driven by the glides through.

6. OF THE PISCIBVS. [1] from which the fishes of the said, and beast, by feeding him from the, of course. [2] Reptiles for that reason these things are said which is bound to, because he had crawling they have the appearance and the nature; though he into the depths of inmergant, yet crawl in swimming. And so also the David, "(Ps. 104,25): 'This great and wide sea: there are creeping, of which there is no number.' [3] are a kind of Amphibian sorts of fish, so called because he by walking in the use of the lands in the waters and swim in the office they may have. AMFI is made of both for the Greek, and that is, because in the waters and in the lands they live: that seals, the crocodile, the hippopotamus, that is, horses, river. [4] cattle it and to the beasts and the fowls of the names of the men before they set than a fish, because as I saw before and knowing the are. Little by little, the fish he later was known the names of the kinds of institutions are either from his resemblance to land animals, or from the species of proper or morals [or color, or in figure, or sex]. [5] from resemblance, on earth: that of the calf and the frogs, and lions, and black and I fed the blackbird in a different color, on the back and neck, and painted, and a thrush white speckled, and the rest of the things that were near to the species took vengeance on the names of land animals. Always follow the character on earth: like a dog, in the sea, called away from earthly things to the dogs, that shall bite, and wolves, and that the voracity of others' Twas I will pursue. [6] from the color of: that shadows retire, because they are the color of the shadow of, and wrought with gold, at the head of because it has the color of gold; a variety of, and the various, whom commonly they call the trout. For the shape: that of the world, and the whole because it is round at the head of it is established; as often happens, what amounts to eye on the sandals of shoes,. From her sex: that muscle, that it is a male whale; ": for females conceive by intercourse is said to these wars. Hence the muscles of the snail, mussels, and oysters conceive their milk. [7] whale but they are of huge size of the beast, and to send out from the water called the casting; to others for the beasts of the waves of the sea, higher than the throw; BALLEIN for the Greek is said to send forth. [8] all the other sayings TO TA KETE Ket Kai, that is, on account of savage. For they are the kinds of huge sea monsters and the bodies of the mountains, and equal to such as have a whale Jonah he received, of which the bowel was of such a size to figure possessed of the lower world, the Prophet says (2,3): 'He listened to me out of the belly of hell. " [9] The horses of the sea, that the first part of the horses are, and at last a fish in the dues are paid. Boca oxen, they say, is perils of the deep, as it were boacas. [10] called from the color of blue, for blue? Green with black, so that the sea is. [11] The dolphins they are sure of the word, that the voices of men try to win and / or that with the music and in flocks, meet together. Nothing is in the faster the sea of these; fountains for as a rule the ships fly past. When, however, praeludunt in the waves and the waves themselves headlong masses of the forest, find their mark, the storms seem to signify. These, properly speaking, of Simon are named. There is also a kind of dolphin in the Nile, glowing, on the back, who crocodiles kill by cutting into the tender of its belly. [12] Pigs, of the sea, for they commonly are called the swine, because when they seek food, in the manner of their lands are set to dig deep under the surface. In regard to the throat of the mouth, for instance, the office of, and unless he hit the sand, are plunged beak, having fed on does not collect them. [13] from the hearts of the Crow 'with the voice of one, because it grunts breast, and his own had been deserted with the voice of prisoners were secured. [14] The tunny Greek bear his name. These are the go in time in spring, they enter on the right side of the, on the left they come out. This from thence, are believed to penetrate more deeply into the eyes of that they may see on the right hand than on the left. [15] The sword of the mean that these mucronate with its beak he is: for this reason, sinks ships by piercing. [16] Serra to be named, because the serrated crest; he hath, and the ship subternatans cuts. [17] Scorpio, one, because it injures the While the hands is taken away. They say that the ten crabs, with a handful of basil who is there now fastened all the scorpions are gathered together to that place. [18] A spider is kind of fish, so called because he may strike the ear it has a mode of which the spur struck down. [19] crocodiles from yolk color of the said, everything grows in the Nile, an animal in the four-footed land and at sea in good health, for the most part the length of twenty cubits, their awful teeth and claws were in full armor and so great that, although the hardness of the skin of the mighty blows from heavy stones behind buffet. At night, in the waters, on the ground the day is at rest. [20] supports our eggs in the ground: in male and female taking turns to guard. Certain fish with having a serrated cutting open comb to kill the tender of its belly. [The only out of the animals to move the upper cheek, it is said.] [21] called to be an hippopotamus does, that it is resembles a horse, the back, with a mane, and neigh, with its beak the patient on the back, BOAR'S with the teeth, the tail of the winding. On the day in the waters resides, and feeds on the corn in the night: the Nile, and this is generative. [22] Pagrum, which the Greeks call the FAGRON for that reason that it has the teeth of hard, so that the oysters in the sea be maintained. [23] Dentix in favor of multitude and greatness of teeth to say. Hare, is so called from its resemblance to the head. [24] the wolf by the, as was said, by greed for he called, a fish to catch; in short, is said to grains of sand and surrounded by a net to plow the tail, and so preserved through the net. [25] he was called mullet, which is soft, and the most tender. The food is reported restrain the lust, the eye of the blunt line of people who are strong, however, which are often feeding on the fish smell. Mullet in wine, and threw his body these, and from there have drunk of a weary disgust of wine. [26] that the mullet has a name that albeit he is very agile. For when it is it feels fishermen in lying in wait, immediately pulls back, then passes through the net so as to fly a fish, you can see. [27] Melanurus, because he has a black tail and wings, black, and black lines in the body; Melania For the Greeks they call the black. [28] Glaucus, from the color of what was said that part is white; GLAUKON the list for the Greeks they say. This rarely appears in the summer, but only in there are clouds. [29] grayling has received the name from the flowers: the flower of thyme is called for, for while some is a species of the taste of pleasing and pleasant, yet just as the flower of the fraglat inspires, and his body odors. [30] the said supplies of food, because that "He alone is said to be meat to chew the cud; in short, other fish do not chew the cud. They say that to be a talented, but that one, for he is not included within the Nassim was hostile, nor to break out the front of the head with twigs and that he ate, but turned away, so extend the blows of the tail with the door and so backward to return to, whom it struggling, If by chance another of victuals from outside see it, caught him by the tail with his teeth to help efforts to break out. [31] with a spear dart from the missile has got its name, which is the same shape. For terrestrial was first found, than in those of the deep. For dart countryman is a missile from a weapon, from the spreading has been said. [32] South of the fish, or because the wave of the mouth of the waters, receives, or because at that time [here] arises at the time when the fish tend to the setting of Pleiades they have begun to. [33] Ham saxatilis beaten with the right and left sides of the crimson perpetual with embroidery, and other "points out the said hooks because it can not except a hook. [34] Echenais, few, and half a foot small fish, the name of that the ship he took to adhere to its Head. Ruan, although the wind, their rage, storms, the ship, however, as it were rooted in the sea, nor it seems to stand to be moved, not keep, but only had to adhere to. This delay of the Latin have called, because he should compel them to stand the vessels. [35] Vranoscopus is called from the eye, at the head of which has being, of which he intends to be always above. [36] Millago named, because it flies out over the waters. As often as it is seen flying out of the water, tempests to be changed. [37] KIND OF SHARK the said, that it is a sharp scales. And so also the skin of his piece of wood of the pole. [38] The city of Syria, is said to Tyre, which is now in old time, Sarah was called from the the fish, which abounds in those who are there, which he in his own language 'of Salisbury,' and, out of which it is derived of this likeness to Sardis sardinasque little fishes to be called. [39] to the liquid as a pickled herring pickled fish pisciculiis fit, and so also, is so called. [40] Aphorus small fish, who, because of the scantiness of it can not be with a hook to be taken. Eels gave a name to the likeness of a snake. [41] The source of this out of the slime, and so also when he is captured, is so smooth that presses the how much more strongly, so much the more quickly it slips away. Now the report is the River Ganges, eels of the east thirty feet long. Eels wine, and threw his body who drink of it tedious and of wine. [42] by a sea dragon in the gills the spines of the tail is related to the spectators, who, while he has hammered at in whatever direction it hits, it brings poisonings [whence the and he was called]. [43] muraene MURAINAN they call the Greeks, because he had conplicet itself into circles. The female sex only to be give and by a serpent, to conceive; because of this from the fishermen with a hiss, as if they were invited by a serpent, her and captured. But the twinkling of an STICK with difficulty to death, with a rod at once. To have a soul on the tail, it is certain that, for scarcely beaten on it, you will kill and a tail at once. [44] Guide to Superior polyp, that is to say, multipes; For many things it has links. This man is a genius in your grasp the arms of eager for a hook, no death, there have not yet pulled away round the bait. [45] The torpedo is being called, and that the body of sinking down into him, do so if each one it touches the living. The younger Pliny tells us (NH 32,7): 'the sea from the Indian electric ray also far off, and at a distance, or if the A rod of the spear adtingatur, even though would prove too strong arms of the sinking down into that any part of the course to the feet that are swift in binding up. " So great is the power of the breeze that even her own body, been bestowed upon the members. [46] Sepia is said, that which has been cut hedges and ditches easy to be: in the kind of foul one cohabit; For it conceives as the mouth of the viper. The ink is so much power the lamp is taken away be seen the addition of the Ethiopians are light, what the prior report that. [47] Lulligo. Of Mauritania in the ocean, they say that, not far from the Lixo the river, so great a multitude of water ¯ y lulliginum that even submerge the ships they may be. [48] and a shell of cochlear That is why the being called, and failing, the moon, because they are hollowed out, that is, to be. For all that its closed shells of the sea animals and the members of swell phases of the moon, loss of to be. For when the moon in the, it increases a moisture, but when he shall come in default of the, the fluids are diminished; physicists, for this they are saying. But the position of the shell is the name of the first, but by a decrease of snails, as it were conchleae. [49] are many kinds of shells; between which and the margaritiferae, which are said to ðoceloeð, in whose flesh a dear to the calculation fully confirmed. Touching such things as these are they that say that book of the natures of the beasts that [him] that at night the shores of desire the good, and from the celestial with the dew of the pearl of great conceive and so also the ðoceloeð are named. [50] is of the sea snail Murex, prosecuted by the sharp point and rough, which is named by another name is shellfish, with the sword for the sake of that circumcised in the tears of purple hue, send forth, out of which such dye as purple, and from thence he is so called because these things purple dyed it with clay from the humor is elicited. [51] Cancer, to be called, because they are the kind of shell: oysters hostile to living things. " For live on the flesh of those oysters by extraordinary cleverness; for just because its shell is a strong power can not be opened, he searches for the bars of oysters when the shells to open them, and then the crab secretly drops on a small pebble, and hindered, and gnaws the conclusion of the flesh of mussels, and oysters. Is it right they say that the crabs, fastened with a handful of basil who is there now are all the scorpions in the place would they unite. There are two kinds of crab,:, river and of the deep. [52] The oyster was spoken of by the clay, the softness of the flesh within which to both; for the Greeks, the clay they call PURPLE. But neither of oyster, the flesh of his feminine they say. [53] The muscles are, as we have said (ß 6), of cochlear conceive from their milk mussels, and oysters, and as it were the males of the said muscle. [54] Pelorides from the promontory of Pelorus of Sicily, where they abound, are their name (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,687):

And behold the north wind from the seat of narrow Pelorus.

[55] on the analogy of human nails claws or so called. [56] The tortoise said, because he had the covert, muffled in it becomes a witness in the chamber of the manner of. But there are the four kinds: the land, the sea coast, lutariae, that is, in the mire and marsh as the living and the fourth was kind of River Gods, which in the fresh water they live. Some relate, the incredible fact that ships sail more slowly than the tortoise carrying the right foot. [57] from the urchin by land the echinus has got its name, whom they call the iricium the common people, whose great OSTRACON of two kinds, in the manner of sharp thorns, chestnuts, when still covered in fall from the trees. The flesh of his soft and vermilion, like that, ðurisð in three ways: as a tortoise and the snail and mussels from Pelorus. For that which we eat and where there is in the flesh of mussels from Pelorus is made of both. [58] chatter, the frogs from being called, and inasmuch as about the whole place resounded with genital marshes, and sounds of the voice cries, importunate they light. Some of these are water creatures, are said to, that certain things on marshy ground, a kind of a toad, because of this, because they live in brambles, of all the larger. Other are called the transverse, since among the reeds and bushes; live, green, the smallest of all, and; to change "and are without a voice. [59] Agredulae little frog in the dry land or in fields, the loitering, and so also called ". Some say that dogs to bark, which shot in the living should be given and a frog. [60] from the Sfungia to invent, that is, nitidare and to wipe them, the said. Afranius (415):

I grant it to thee, to thee, I will form the neck with a towel,

that is, will wipe. Cicero, (for the descending heat. 77): 'symbolized the blood of sfungiis,' that is to say extergebatur. But an animal is taught to be an inherent with the blood of the rocks. And so also cut away the blood, while it drops it. [61], since other living, like to run to and fro in the waters, and it as fish by the other, and fixed, and those which stand, as mussels, and oysters, echinus, sfungiae. Of these some are male and is so called because they are a thin flute spissioresque; and some female, which are greater are the pipes and constant, otherwise more stringent than the, which the Greeks call the tragic actor, and we now we can say the unwashed on account of the harshness of his. [62] soft pencil are called their own race, because he had adapted to be at the tumors of the eyes, and useful for wiping the ophthalmia. Of White sfungiae the care of they are made, during the summer for them in the sun were swept, and as the whiteness of the Punic wax, they drink. [63] of all animals in the waters of the living are the names of a hundred and forty-four Pliny (32,142) he says, you will divide in the following species: monsters, serpents of the earth and water, crab, fish, shapes of the locusts, peloridum, the polyp, the sun, arms, and to lulliginum, and to him the like; most of whom are a sort of natural order of the intellect of his times, they acknowledge, but some have [in their places without a change roam the]. [64] In the Fish, however, the mingling of other women, the men also conceive and bring forth its young ones, and others are lay eggs without a male reception of the concept, which, in pursuit of the same, steeped in the cast of all his seed and that things that have been breathed on by this task are generated come to be, but that those that they have not been steeped in sterile continue as they were, or rot .

7. OF THE AVIBVS. [1] the name of one of the birds, but that kind of would be different. For, just as they differ in appearance, so also the diversity of nature. For the other are simple, like doves, and others are astute, as the partridge is hunted, and others are at the hand of themselves are subject to, as a hawk, and others are that they shrink from, as Garamantes, and others are pleasure in man, like the swallow, and others are in the deserts love life a secret and separate, so that the turtle, and others are the seed of the ground been found, the fact that, as a goose, and others are and robbery, to eat flesh they intend, for instance the kite, and others are enchoriae, in the places of which await the ever shall be, as [soap-wort], and others are foreign, which they return, to their own times, as storks and swallows, and others are gather together, that is, capable of flying in flocks , as starlings and quails, and others are but solitary, that is of the solitary account of the snares plunder, as the eagle; a hawk so they are, and whatever you and others are twittering voices,,, like the swallow, and others are the sweetest of songs, so that the swan and the blackbird, and others are the words and they imitate the voices of men, so that parrot and magpie. [2] But other things as the general, so and the manners of many such instances; how many kinds of birds, for they are not to be able to find each one. Now every of India, and Ethiopia, the land of Scythia, or any man to break through the deserts of those who, their gender or the difference, knew him well. [3] Birds of the said, because he had certain ways they do not have, but run to and fro through pathless deserts, and rushes on. Other than that, that the wings do hearken to the deep, and to the heights of the wings of the oars, will ascend the. [4] The birds of the flying over them from the. For how do we to fly, to walk from thence, and we do say. Thieves be called a means for part of the foot or the hands of, and with the birds of the middle of the palm of a part of of their wings, are moved by whose motion the wings were stretched out and from there the birds of the. [5] are said to of all the young ones of birds were born, but four-footed animals and the living creatures are said to young ones were born, and the man a small chick. Recent born, then, young ones, because they are which you have profaned. And so, my apparel, black, black dress is made. [6] The wings are those in which wings were stretched out in order to fly, exhibit the use of the fixed stars. Called upon to vote, but the wings of the birds that, if they nourish their arms, and foster the chicks. [7] from the depending on the feather, that is, from flying over them, so called, and so also to pay. For birds the help of have the same wing is moved, when they entrust themselves to the air. [8] Feature piluma as it were, for just as the hairs on the body of a quadruped, so there is down with the birds. [9] the names of many of Birds from the sound of these made up is established to be: such as cranes, and the raven as the swan, a peacock, the kite when the howl, O, the cuckoo be any more and so on. The diversity of the of the voice for the man in what their taught were named. [10] an eagle, to being called, sharpness of its eyes. For so great is said to be looking ahead has given, as when the feather motionless upon the seas, nor with human is to be issued be open to the gazes of, out of the small fish to swim so great sublimity, see, and his torture is down like a prey once seized shall be dragged to the shore, with her wings. [11] For to face the rays of the sun and gaze, does not bow for it is said, and so also her young ones, put oil in suspense, charged her with rays of the sun, and not be moved: Let him find some to hold the line, to worthy of the genus is conserved; that if he bend to gaze, but, as it were degenerate casting them away. [12] The vulture, a noted slow because of the flight of their is considered to the greatness of the flight of praepetes to bodily life does not have. They say some of these sexual intercourse is not mixed with, and without a conjunction to conceive and to generate; and children of their almost even to a hundred years to proceed. Vultures, however, as and of an eagle, even beyond the sea the dead bodies they all agree; capable of flying higher than for much more, which are hidden by the mountains, and saw in those from on high. [13] Gradipes among the Greeks, the bird is called the slow among us, because he had been detained in the flight of a grave by no means, as in the other birds, the speed of his seat with her wings. [14] of the name of the cranes with the voice of their own they took the sound of For in such a whisper. But this in hastening to seize, follow one of of the letter. Touching such things as Lucan (5,716):

The dispersed and disturbed the text is lost with her wings.

But high places they desire, may appear as if the more readily to country shall I head. [15] But he chastises with the voice of which prompted his column: As soon as raucescit, succeeds to the other: the watch of the night, but are divided, and the order of courses by the families of the watches they do, that hold the small stones in his fingers, which they accuse sleep: that care must be taken, by the shouts indicates. Age in their Color reveals, for the old age, they grow black. [16] storks on being summoned by the sound of which rattle on, as it were cicaniae: the noise and of the mouth rather than their voice, to be, because with its beak, shaking them they do. These give a true report, and a social counts, the enemy of serpents, the seas fly across the Asia gathered together his column in the defend it. Leaders of the crow precede them, and they themselves were like the army of execution. [17] removes about the daughter and his affection to them, for their nests so completely ruined the a pit to the constant incubation of the feathers he shall put off. As far as the time of the inpenderint in the education of its young, so far from the one another, and they themselves are maintained their colts. [18] a swan is a bird of which the Greeks call KUKNON. But a swan called because it is a white feathers, the whole: for no one remembers the black swan; Holon, a whole is for the Greek. The swan song from the known by the name, because the song sung the sweetness of the voices of a sling. So sweetly to play, because a long, curved neck, he hath, and it is necessary that the voice of struggling through the for a long and winding journey a variety of tones. [19] They report that in the northern parts of the prophetic many swans they fly to some of a good singer, and happily a very harmony with them. But the Latin name and swans is true, for they are called in Greek KUKNOI. The sailors indeed made himself a good prognosim to do this they say, just as Aemilius, he says (4):

Cygnus is always in the most abundant in under the auspices of the bird;
sailors set great store, because it does not plunge into the waters.

[20] it is said the name of the Greek soap-wort, that the animal in the likeness of the wings of a bird, seems to have;, however, from high above the earth is not elevated. Her eggs to foster disregards it, but only fostered the powders of projectiles are animated. [21] called heron, ardea steep as it were, that is, for the sake of the flight of the high. Lucan (5,554):

And that she dared to Ardea, to fly.

Fear for the rains, to above the clouds and fly up, to think of the clouds, the storms can not do. But when the volaverit higher than the weather is portended. It in many Tantalus they name. [22] Phoenix, a bird of Arabia, so called because the color of phoeniceus has one, or that it is in the whole world a singular and sole. For the Arabs the singular 'phoenix' they call. This five hundred years, no more a living thing, while he lived to old age itself to be seen, the collections of the incense strokes, instructs the funeral pyre for himself, and turned to face the rays of the sun of the wings of the burning fire to himself with applause and voluntary nourishes, and so again from his cincribus will rise again. [23] Cinnamolgus and she is a bird of Arabia, and consequently the so called because in the high places, groves, covered it with their nests from the bushes with their cinnamon: and that they can not be there, for the sake of men to ascend the height of the branches and fragility, them, too with lead, they desire their nests darts, "and so much that they establish the cinnamon, and the price of the greater part they sell; [him] that more than others for cinnamon the merchants of my conduct. [24] Parrot of India, the shores of the infant born be green in color, gold chains, a pink, a large tongue, and all other birds in a broader. And so also the words of an articulated expresses the fact that so that, if you do not see it, a man to speak you would think. But from the nature of his greetings, saying: 'have to,' or chair. The rest of the names of the institution learns. Hence it is, it (GOOGLE 14,73):

Our parrot from you I will learn the names of the others;
this I have learned by myself to say: 'Hail, Caesar. "

[25] the sea, Alcyone, and the said the bird, the bird of oceanea as it were, because he had in ponds in winter nests of the ocean makes the chicks leads out: by the sea of watchful is said to a stretched out over the sea winds, the silent tranquility of the seven days for a continued to calm down, and its young both in the service of education very nature of things for him. [26] the Egyptian, the pelican of a bird, dwelling in the wilderness of the river of the Nile, from which he took and the name of, for the land of Egypt, is said to Canopus. It is said that, if it is true, that it is to kill their children, and puts them to mourn for three days, and then wound its very self and by the sprinkling of his own blood to give life children of Israel. [27] down the Stymphalian birds from the birds of the islands of Stymphadibus called, where it very much abounds; adversities, as if Hercules is the use of arrows. For there are in the islands of the sea, the birds of the inhabitants of. [28] Diomedias the birds of Diomede were called by their comrades, which some say, the birds of the story into the same have been converted; like the form of coots, the greatness of the swan, with a fair complexion, hard and large with their beaks. There are, however about the Apulia in the island of Diomede between the rocks and stones on the shore as they flew; they consider it among their own, and the strangers. [29] For if the Greek is, they fawn on approach nearer, and, if the stranger, and affect a bite wound, the mournful manner, as it were the voices of his own They were greatly disturbed or change of the destruction of either of the king. For Diomede from the Illyrians to be killed. But these birds are called in Latin Diomediae, the Greeks them ERODIOUS they say. [30] Memnonides the birds of the Egyptian, and was designated by the place where he Memnon come to nothing. For groups, they fly to some out of Egypt, are said to Troy, according to the tomb of Memnon 's, and hence they call them Memnonias Ilium. And in the fifth year they come to Troy, and with circumvolaverint for two days, the battle on the third day on entering upon this in turn tear the beaks of himself with his nails. [31] the birds called from the Hercynian Hercynian forest, of Germany, where the are born, of which the wings were stretched out so much so as in darkness the night shine forth the fact that despite having obtained the darkness is the dense, to draw for the defense of praeiactae interluceant of the journey, the way our course, be open to the information of shining feathers. [32] Onocrotalon the Greeks call a long beak. [, Two of which classes of these: other aquatic, the other of the wilderness.] [33] You will go, a bird of the Nile of the river, which clears its very self, with its beak and poured the water into an Old Woman. This feeds on the eggs of serpents, the dearest of them meat for their deportans built their nests there. [34], and great enough for the same men as Gaul, who their parents to feed and are said to lay up. Coredulus kind of a winged creature, as the heart of man eating. [35] jackdaws a bird, as it were monetula, and this, when he found the gold, it robs us and it hides them. Cicero In Defence of Valerius Flaccus (76): 'I do not spend more gold for you as it committed to the jackdaws. " [36] for the time the bat has received the name, because he had the light at the evening break of day, fleeing in headlong motion of the acts of the round, and the members of his arms suspended on very small; an animal of the mice similar, not so much with the voice of resounding than the squeaks of a distinct appearance and also a flying at the same time on four, that in the not to be found by other birds and is wont to. [37] eliminate nightingale a bird: hence the name he took, with its song because it is wont to signify the rising of the day had sprung up, like a nightingale. And for the same acredula, of which Cicero, in the diagnoses of the (frag. 6):

And the morning exercises acredula song.

[38] apo tou Vlula OLOLUZEIN a bird, that is, from lamentation and mourning, the names of cries out for since the starts to weep, or imitates, or a groan. And so also with the sadness of the augurs if the lament, is carried in silence and to show the prosperity of the. [39] The owl gets its name from the sound of the voice has a name compounded by, the bird the deadly, loaded with the, indeed, of feathers, but a grave is always hampered by the laziness: in the day and night around the graves, and ever living in these caves. " Of which Ovid (Met. 5,549):

Foedaque the bird is made to come tell the mourning,
a coward owl dire omen to men.

In fact, among the augurs to portend evil it is carried, for when the evil seem to have in the city of the desert, to signify they are saying. [40] it says for the Noctua him around with that at night, and by the day which is not be able to see, for the brightness of the sun at sunrise, its sight is it grows weaker. But that this is the island of Crete, it does not have, and if we come from any other source, he immediately dies. Noctua however, is not an owl, for the owl is the greater. [41] the same is a night raven night-owl, of that night was in love. It is a bird which shuns the light to see the sun and can not endure. [42] OWL a bird of the night, he had a name out of the sound of the voice; cries out for when the gnasheth. Lucan, of what (6,689):

Alarm, bubo, the owl of the night SCREECH-OWL that of the dead.

This bird is commonly ames it is said, the little children from the love of the Lord, and so also the milk of coming to birth and is said to provide. [43] but Corvus, or corax, derived its name from the sound of the throat, has, by the voice coracinet. It is said that a bird of this He had published a food to the young not fully to give this to them before he could have the same wing through the blackness of color recognize the likeness of its proper, but when the feathers, tetris but has looked closely at them, acknowledging the more abundantly in the whole feeds. Here the dead bodies of prior to it in the eye ask for one. [44] The crow, a bird deeply rooted among the Latins, the Greek name is called, which they say, augurs the symbolism of the concerns of men to act, to point out the ways of the ambush, to foretell the future. Believe that all this great a crime with that the God of crows, that their plans had to commit. Among the many omens attributed to the voices of even the rain, to portend, and so is that (Virg. by Georg. 1,388):

Then the raven, too, 'Twas full of calls down the rain with his voice.

[45] from the chatter, jackdaw, is so called; not, as some would have it, For that you should they wish to in flocks, since it is evident from the noise, although called by. For there is a kind of chatter, and the voices of the importunities of. [46] as it were pies to poetry, that the words of at this most critical of the voice expresses it, as a man. Through the pendulous branches of the trees out of season for the chatter, and sounding, and if they can not in the word of the tongues of to explain, the sound of the human voice, however, they reflect. , Of what someone aptly said (GOOGLE 14,76):

Pica, loquacious, at least the Lord salute thee with the voice of:
if I do not see, you will say is a bird.

[47] from the Pico Pico took the name of the son of Saturn, because he had used it in the under the auspices of. For they say that this bird has something divine about it proof of this is in any tree nidificaverit, a nail, and / or any other thing that fixed, it can not be for a long time to cling he could not immediately falls off, where those things settle. This is the Mars' s woodpecker, for one is the magpie. [48] The peacock, the name from the sound of a vocal expression has, whose flesh is so hard is that the stench of scarce and feel, and could not be easily may be cooked. Out of which some have thus he says (GOOGLE 13,70):

Are you surprised, as often as gemmantes explains the wings,
if you are able to hand over this neighborhood of a fierce, harsh one, the cook.

[49] Pheasant from Phasis the island of Greece, from which point is he was carried away, he was called. Bears witness to it that the old couplet (GOOGLE 13,72):

I am the first asserted that the Greek for ships:
known to me before the Phasis, was nothing but a.

[50] Gaul the act of castration; among the rest of the ground for the birds to this testicles are removed. The ancients called castrated men galli. For just as from a lion and a lioness, Dracaena by a snake, so the cock from the hen. Whose members are, as is reported some, if melting may be joined together with gold, are consumed. [51] ANS by persevering to swim in from the fit for got its name. From this it kind of things some are said to his sister, that above the rest, they are to nourish. [52] ans he gave the name of the goose through a derivation, and / or on the analogy of, and / or that the very is constantly swimming. The watches of the battle cry of the night by persevering to witnesses. No other creature scent of man as a goose, and so also of its noise, the ascent of the Gauls were taken, in the Capitol. [53] Fuligo been said, that smacks of his flesh with rabbit; BIRD For the rabbit, it is said, as among the Greeks is called BIRD. Now there is a bird stagnensis, having their nests in the middle of the water in the rocks or, as the waters and surrounded it with, is delighted maritimoque always the deep. While a storm is praesenserit, when fleeing from playing in shallow water. [54] from the cormorants and drowned in the name of this constant to a standstill. Often, however, and descending into the air, the depth of the head of a sign under the waves, collect them and, foreseeing the sea, a storm is to the shore with a clamor, they tend. For in the to be on the sea now the heaviest of weather, when, flee to the shores to sink. [55] The hawk, a bird, armed with a spirit more than the hoof, the greater the power of the body in a lesser bearing about. He is by receiving it, that is, from a capture, as the name of he used them. It is a bird then snatched away by other birds and was eager for, and therefore is called the hawk, that is, seizes by force. And so also the apostle Paul says (2 Cor. 11,20): 'For you suffer, if a man understands the expression' for, as saying "if a man seizes, 'also said' if a man take '. [56] It is reported that her young ones about the hawks to be impious, for while he shall see them, to be able to try the flight would have all provide food; but her wings, and, rushing headlong in their up from its nest, and from a tender age to the prey, conpellunt, lest perhaps adults should grow slothful. [57] Capus is said by the Italian tongue, may be taken. They call this, our love of falcons, which is curved fingers. [58] The kite is soft and the flight of their strength and, as it were a soft a bird, from which and, is so called; rapacissimus however and always waiting in ambush against the tame birds. [59] ossifrage which is commonly called the bones of a bird from the deep, and breaks the leaves. And so also the breaking from the bones got its name. [60] The turtle dove is from the sound it is called; a bird modest, and are always in the ravines and of the mountains in the deserts bordering on the deserts when residing in. Their houses and their life, society of men, fled, and keeps to the woods. [This is in fact in winter deplumata were hollow trunks of trees in the perbibetur to dwell.] Of which a dove on the other hand loves the human lodgings; who live in the houses, always flattering. [61] of the said Columba, "because the the neck, to change its color at each revolution the birds tamed, and in the host of men associate, and without bitterness; which the Ancients called by the sexual, because he had their nests they frequent the place and take on love with a kiss. [62] wild dove [because they are Farsi, from with the food, which they Titus as they call the common people] follow the character of a bird is called the chaste, that the count of purity, for it is said that the loss of a bodily solitary, he proceeds in the company, nor any more carnal intercourse require it. [63] As the partridge has a name from the sound, the bird and the unclean deceitful; for a male into a male rises up, and forget their sex lust of steep place. So far, moreover are deceitful, that one might vented his eggs should cherish her, but the trick does not; in short, when the young of their own they have heard the voice of thy mother 'and by its natural instinct is to leave the efforts to foster that, also on the same She gave birth to return there. [64] quails from the sound of the said, which the Greeks ORTUGAS is so called because they were first seen in the Ortygia the island. This reach the scene have fixed times, for the summer, being driven away, crossing the seas. [65] the flock of which is said to landrail is leading you. It approaching land, when he saw the hawk snatches away, and therefore the care of a leader is to tamper with all the race of the external, by which we take heed of this early danger. The meats have extremely acceptable for the seeds of a deadly poison; and therefore they did forbade them to eat the old. The soil is for this animal, like man, and perishable enduring severe illness. [66] Vpupam the Greeks call him that man's dung, it considered, and may be fed from the dung, stinking; a bird foul and disgusting, with plumes and their unconsumed helmet, always in the Tombs of the human, and when residing in the dunghill. Whose blood, whoever inunxerit himself to sleep and went forward himself strangling the demons will be provided. [67] Tucos, whom they call the ciculos the Spaniards, at the voice of their own "named." These are regarded as the time in coming, the scapular region flock of kites, being taken for the sake of the flight of short and small, but do not be ready to faint with long spaces of the air they are consumed. [68] of these grasshoppers spittle is a bear. The sparrows are birds of the minutes, from the smallness of being called, and so also, both small as small. [69] The medula Merula, in ancient times was called, because he had play a. Others called the merula, they say, because only the flies, as it were mere flying. Since these things are black in all places, that in the Achaia, but there is white. [70] Erundo been said, that he take food which is not reside there, but in the air let him take it in food and let him eat a babbling a bird, by winding the winding and blinded eyes, round about of pervolans, to building, built their nests there and in the bringing up its young; is prescient and also had something, that never forsake nor woo the decay shall know the peak . From dire when the birds of not attacked, and yet never the spoil was. Mary fly away, and there he stays during in winter. [71] from the slowness of the thrushes with these words; severity of the winter for the confines of himself attesting to it. SMALL THRUSH as it were greater than the bream; of which is thought to generate the dung of bird-lime. And so also the early days it was a proverb among, 'The evil of a bird, defecate to himself. " [72] called to be an Furfurio which before he had spelled, and reduced to a powder feed. [73] FIGPECKER been said, that eat up more the fig tree. At that the old verse, is spread out (GOOGLE 13,49):

When the fig tree to feed me, I may be nourished with the sweet grapes,
why it did not give the name of the grape to me?

[74] Goldfinch, which is fed with thorns, and the thistle; among the Greeks, from whence also we goldfinch was told, is from the AKANTHAIS, that is, with thorns, to whom she is nourished for. [75], however, say Augurs, and in the gesture and in motion and when on the wing and with the voice of birds, the signs of a had been established. [76] Oscines the birds they call, which is an omen of the mouth of cantuque doing it to the raven, the crow, woodpecker is not found. [77] Other than that, which seem likely to do to show the flight of their, which, if, in defiance are, inebriate are said, the restraint on that, that is, forbid, if the good fortunes, praepetes; praepetes and for that reason, because the former things they pray all the birds that fly away. [78] A third of auguries they do with the birds of the species, than that common call, commingled from both, that is, when the birds and flight, from the mouth of auguriant. But on the faith does not have. [79] But, of all kinds of birds, is born twice. For the first eggs are produced, then the heat of mother 's body given form and life. [80] from the eggs is so called because they are so juicy. And so also the grapes, as humor, because inside may be full. For that which is outwardly moist, she has no moisture; moist, is the inner part. Some [but] they think, the egg to have the origin of the Greek of the name. They, however, say that OA, 5 the text been taken away. [81] and since some of the empty eggs are conceived by the wind but they are not generated, except those which have been lying with the masculine conceived and the seminal penetrated by the spirit. Force of that high quality of eggs, say, that wood will not burn, soaked in them, and even a clothing against from burning it. Also agglutinate with plaster mixed with the fragments of glass: it is carried.

8. OF THE MINVTIS VOLATILIBVS. [1] of the said Bees, either because they bind the feet of one another, and / or virtue of this that are born without feet. For he was afterwards, and the feet, and wings on which they receive. This quick of mind of producing honey in the office and assigned them inhabit the seats, filled with an inexpressible by the art of the dwellings of conponunt, from a variety of flowers the honeycomb hide amid the wax with countless offspring textisque They fill their fortress, the army, and they have the kings of the battle as a move, the smoke goes they flee, and irritated by noise. [2] most of these have had experience of the dead bodies of oxen, to be born. For the election of calves, the place of them beat the flesh of them that were slain, as [from] has rotted in with the blood of worms be created, who was afterwards become bees. Properly speaking, however, bees are called "grew out of the herd, as scabrones out of the horses, out of the glosses on mules, wasps for the asses. [3] Costros Greeks call them, who are in the ends of the infinitely greater honey, are created: to whom some think that the kings of the. The camp is so called because they led them. Art of Fugue is greater than a bee, scabrone less than another. But the Art of Fugue The appointment was made that the other men's labors you may eat as it were a beech tree; For what does not feeds upon the great suffering. Out of which Virgil (Georg. 4,168):

A lazy bees are drones and they keep off the herd, from the stalls.

[4] Ä Wasps Scabrones invited by the Capo, that is, [A] horse, that out of them, be created. Now, as are born scabrones putrid flesh of a horse ', so again, out of these beetles often are born, and so also of were called. [5] of Taurus the beetles are called tick the land and the like. There is a small buprestis an animal in Italy, most like the beetle, longipedum. Among the herbs, an ox, fails most of all, whence its name has, so devoratumque, touching the gall is inflamed by that may break. [6] of beetle is a kind of GLOW-WORM to him, since walking or flying the light shines. [7] from the color of cockroach called, and the surprised, for even dip the hand, and so also they say the color of PURPLE. But this is an animal not bear to see the light, the contrary of the fly, for a fly lucipeta, and shuns the light is entwined with purple; For it was only in the night walks. [8] butterflies birds here for most of all are the things that abound in flowering mallow, and who, worms, [from] their dung, they do to be born. [9] the Locust, which is longer than it as it were, the feet of SPEAR; So it is that the Greeks than his land and the sea coast, as well ASTAKON call. [10] ciculorum grasshoppers are born from the spittle. With these proceedings in Italy were changed by the Reggio, nor anywhere elsewhere. [11] a fly came from the Greek, just as, and the mouse. These benefits, as well as bees, buried alive, in the water several times after the span of one hour come to life again. [12] DOG-FLY in Greek it is called, a fly that is to say dog, for a dog is called in Greek KUON. [13] from the Culex the sting of what was said that the blood disappears. For it holds good in the mouth of the tube, in the manner of the stimulus, by which the flesh of that drink the blood of bores. [14] flies stinging insects are extremely fine, with stings, been greatly concerned. By which third plague pride of the Egyptians was overthrown, the people. [15] GAD-FLY an animal of the herds, with stings, been greatly concerned. GAD-FLY But it is a Greek of the Latin and horse-fly, and is generally Tabanus is called Adar. [16] Bibiones in wine, are they that are born, whom commonly mustiones with new wine from the call. And so also the Afranius (407):

When to me, talk to and you begin to look at the,
out of the mouth in the eyes of your bibiones march.

[17] windpipe it is said, because it belongs to is nothing else than the throat.
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