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Liber I

Isidore of Seville or their common origin of the Etymologies OF THE BISHOP OF BOOK 1

Of Grammar

I, THE DISCIPLINE and art. [1] from studying the Discipline of the received the name of: thus, and the knowledge of it can be said. For it was said to know from the disciples, because none of us knoweth, but he learns. In another way, the discipline of the said, because it is learned and full of. [2] The art of was told, is that the petty kings of the theory of their profession and abide. Others say that by the Greeks was the name of this tract under Aretas the apo ing, that is from the Virtue, which the knowledge of and therefore they called. [3] among the arts, and discipline, Plato and Aristotle wanted him to be this difference, saying the art of the things that have to be in himself and in another way, it can have the chastisement of truth, is that which of these he deals which would otherwise they can not arise in respect. For when the true discussions to something being discussed, all the discipline of shall come to pass, and when something is likely that the object of opinion is conducted in the name of the art will have a.

2. OF THE SEVEN LIBERALIBVS His education. [1] trained in the liberal arts, they are seven. The first grammar, that is, of speaking skill. The second and rhetoric, which for the sake of the brightness of eloquence and flow of language of its greatest citizens in the necessary questions are valued. The third, surnamed the dialectical logic, which discussions with the most delicate distinction he draws between the true from the false. [2] The fourth arithmetic, which contains the number of causes of their courses, and. The fifth of the music, which consists in the songs of songs. [3] The sixth geometric, a measurement that refers to dimensionesque of the earth. The seventh to astronomy, which contains the law of the starts.

3. The letters in the COMMVNIBVS. [1] the beginnings of the art of grammar of the letter common to exist, a secretary and Calculators which follow. Of which the discipline of a kind of the art of grammar is infancy, and so also Iitterationem Varro, calls it. And the letter was gentlemen of the jury are of things, signs of words, which is so much power, as of our conduct on the absentee without a voice they speak. [For the words of through the eyes but do not introduce through the ears.] [2] was found for the sake of usage of letters of memory of things. For they will not let them flee forgotten, the letters are bound up. In the great for the variety of things they could not learn by hearing everything, nor did the memory of the matter. [3] And the letter was of the said legiterae as it were, what sort of journey superiority in those who read, and / or that in the reading repeated. [4] study Latin and Greek, they seem to by the Hebrews, there was an outburst. With those for aleph has been said before, and then out of a similar enunciation has been drawn among the Greeks, the Alpha, the Latins from this with the A. A transfer of this out of a similar sound of the letter has created a strange tongue, so that we may be able to know the Hebrew language and of the letters of all languages to be a mother. But the Hebrews were two and twenty according to the letter of the alphabet, the books of the Old Testament, they use for four and twenty The Greeks, however. For the Latin tongue, that proceed between the two and twenty-three elements have. [5] of the Hebrews and began to read a letter from the through Moses: "But the Syrians, the Chaldeans, and in Abraham. And so also with the Jews and number, and the sound of agree, the characters of the sun remains in uncertainty. Isis, the queen of the letters of the Egyptians, the son of Inachus, out of the of Greece will come into Egypt, it has found, and the Egyptians has handed down. Among the other but as for Egypt to have had a letter the priests, the other the common people; for the priests had gone by the PANDEMOUS common. With Greek literature, they found the use of the Phoenicians of the first and so also the Lucan (3,220):

The Phoenicians of the first, fame, if there is believed to, have presumed to
to remain in force to mark the the voice of the rough shapes.

[6] This is the color of that which also I phoeniceus librorurn the heads of the written, there is, because from the very beginning of the letter they had. Cadmus, the son of Agenor of Greek and a letter from the Phoenicia to Greece was the first of ten and seven gave it to be A. B. Γ. Δ. E. Z. I, K. Λ. Marcus N., O. Π. Ρ. C. T. Φ. With these Palamedes added the Trojan war the three H. X. Ω. After which, the lyric poet Simonides of three other Ψ he added. Ξ. Θ. [7] Υ the letter for an example of Pythagoras of Samos was the first formed of human life; subterior the bar is the first of which signifies the age, and what is as uncertain as neither communicate their vices while she was still not through his virtues he gave. With the two roads, however, that remains, and from our youth begins: on the right of which is part of the steep, but tending to the happy life; and the left easier, but to run down with the stain of interitumque. Of the Persius that he shall so he says (3,56):

And to thee is the letter which he conducted the branches of Samos,
rises to his right showed the path along the boundary.

[8] The five among the Greeks, however, be mystical letters make. The first Υ, which signifies that human life of which we now we have said. The second Θ, which is the death of [signifies]. For the judges the same letter to the Θ their names are to set up, which affected the punishment. And it is called apo tou THANATON theta, that is, from death. And so also has through the midst of a weapon, that is, a sign of death. , Of what someone has said:

What a very unhappy before the other the letter theta.

[9] The third Τ the figure of showing forth the Lord 's cross, from which a sign in Hebrew and is interpreted. Of which we read in Ezekiel there is the angel of the (9,4): "Pass through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark in the foreheads of the men that sigh, and them that are grieved" to the rest of the sum of two and the final claims for himself the Christ. For He is the principle of, he the end, saying "I am the Α and Ω" come together for each other in turn to the Α Ω as far as devolves upon, and again, to the Α Ω repeated in this, in itself, in order to show the Lord, and of the beginning of decursuni to the end and at the beginning of the end of the course. [10] Now, all of the letter among the Greeks, and the words and numbers are conponunt they do. For the letter Alpha with them it is called in numbers, one. When, however, they write to beta, which is called two; Gamma Where they write, it is called the three in their numbers, where they write to Delta, it is called in each of the four numbers, and so all the books of regarding as one among them. [11] of the Latin to the letter of the numbers do not compute, but they arranged that only the words, with the exception 1 and 10 letter, which signifies the cross and the figure of ten in number and in this clear.

4. OF THE Latin Language and Literature. [1] books written in Latin Carmentis, a nymph of the first he delivered the Italians. Carmentis, is so called, because he sang songs of the future. , However, being called, properly speaking, [is] Nicostratus. And the letter was, or are common to, or liberal. [2] The commons of the said, because many people make use of them in the common, as you write and read. Liberal, because only such as know him, and those books are written with the nature of dictandique of speaking and is rightly know. [3] there are two kinds of the letters: for they are divided mainly into two parts, into vowels and consonants. The vowels are those that the direct way with gaping jaws of the throat, without any collision in various ways are sent out. And the said vowels, which per se inpleant the voice of, and through itself by sticking that none of syllable with a consonant. Consonants are the differences in the impression of motion of the tongue or lips are made. Is also called the consonants that soul of itself do not sound, and having yoked to the spoken consonant with. [4] This are divided in two parts: in the SEMIVOWEL and in dumb. SEMIVOWEL the said the fact that something they may have to spoken and a half out of the. For a vowel from E begin to be, and they cease to into the natural sound of the [such as F, 50, 1000, and the others]. It also changes its so called, "Unless you are made subject to him to the spoken also by no means breaking the egg. For if you eliminate them, the end of the vowel sound, they shall make a murmuring of the of the letter included within the [as B, G, and 500, and the others]. The vowels, however, and be changed in a SEMIVOWEL and the old sound, and is pure and the said semisonas. [5] But among the Vocals and 1 with references on Latin Grammar and U it has various meanings. [6] For vowels are way, way SEMIVOWEL, are to be a mean. Vocals and for that reason they are, because syllables are the only set for others to do so and the consonants are interconnected. Consequently they have their consonants, because sometimes they have behind him the vowels into syllables are appointed with the same, such as "Janus" "the seer" and are considered as the consonants. [7] of the Medes, [but] account these are called, are the only naturally, because they have the sound of the medium, such as "of that" "of one" A complex noise as others are fat, such as "Janus" "idle display," They only have for otherwise you would sound, and the combined in another way. 1 Therefore, at times, however it is said of two kinds, because as often as is found between the two vowels, the consonants for the two shows, as "Troy" for there he made double its sound was. [8] This letter even, hence the 5 at times is nothing, because in some places is consistent with neither vocal nor is, that any man should. For the vowel is not, because it follows 1; the consonant is not, because Q lead the way. And for that reason, since not even a spoken, nor is consistent with it is, without doubt, there is nothing. Digammon and for the same is called by the Greeks, when by himself, is joined to the spoken and other: and which should be digammon is said, that it is almost a double F of the letter, whatever way a double gamma has, to the likeness of which to be called, involved as vowels digammon grammarians wish that, as "a vow" "Maiden" [9] Among the liquid and since some of SEMIVOWEL are said to on this account, because sometimes a single syllable in the consonants fall short of having put aside the other, and from the meter, are excluded. From these two among the Latins, melt in the 50 and R, such as "the roar of" "the breath of the" The rest of the 1000 and N among the Greeks, melt in the: to the "Mnestheus" [10] Ten of Latinus, and the seven letters of the scripture known to the old. And so also are named respect to that basis of legitimate, that is, from E and / or that a vowel in the begin and they cease to sound dumb, as are the consonants, and / or the sound of his own which is from the begin and they end in the vowel E, as are the dumb [and they are A. B. C. D. E. F. G. I, L. Marcus N., O. P. R. S. T. and U]. [11] The words as H only for the later is the addition of aspiration. And so also it is thought by most to be BLOWING ON, not in the letter and which, therefore aspiration Note: it is said that the voice of the raises. BLOWING ON for it is puffed up with the sound of more fully developed, of which, is contrary to PROSODY; the noise of being moved, did equally. [12] the letter K Salvius ludimagister the first [m] U.S. Latin he added, so that would make the difference in the sound of two letters and Q 100; and which should be superfluous, it is said that the exception "on the Kalends' is judged superfluous: For all the 100 by the express. [13] the letter Q the Greeks, nor thunder, nor the Hebrews. For, besides the Latin this no one has in another language. This in former times there was none. And so also it is superfluous as the very being called, because through all the old 100 written them. [14] 10 as far as the text for the Emperor 'time is not among the Latins, was, [and manner worthy of this at the time that was known to the name of Christ, that through it, which sign of the cross shape to, the prescription of,] but for her to enroll the 100 and S, and doubled from which it is called, because it is for 100 and S it is posited, And so from the same letters has a name compounded by the. [15] by the Greeks [But] the Latin with two letters borrowed the money, Y and Z, that is, for the sake of the names of the Greek, and this among the Romans, as far as there was no time for the Emperor 'was written, but for the Z S they laid the two, such as "hilarissat'; however, for y 1 to enroll the . [16] But of the letter to each one of three things happen: the name of, in what manner is called by; figure, which marked the symbol; power, since this vocal, which is consistent with be held. From some, and the order is added, that is, which precedes, one that follows, so that A is prior, subsequent B. But A in all nations, so the prior is of literature, is for the fact that it prior to coming to birth and the voice of the can open. [17] But such names are the nations of letters from the tone of their own language, they gave of the mouth sounds break in and have been marked or other status. And observing that when it came to them, and the names of them, they set and the figures: the figures are some of them from a decree of, and partly from the tone of letters formed the: as for example 1 and O, of which the one was just as feeble in the sound of, so the bar is thin, the other with the sound of a fat, just as, and full of the figure. But nature has given the power, the will and the order of the apex. [18] between the figure of letters and of old they said the apex, the apex has been said so far away that it is by the feet of, and in the tops of the letter shall be added to. For there is a line of the letter she lay and equally led by human. [But the shape of, which the whole is written in the text.]

V. Of Grammar. [1] Grammar is the science of correct speech, and the origin and foundation of the liberal of letters. This, placed in the disciplines after the common was found with a letter, so that now they had learned the letters, who by it, shall let them know the nature of correct speech. But from the letters Grammar got his name. GRAMMATA For the Greeks call a letter. [2] The art of was told, is that the petty kings of the theory of their profession and abide. Others say that by the Greeks was the name of this tract under Aretas the apo ing, that is from the Virtue, which the knowledge of and therefore they called. [3] The prayer of the mouth as it were the said system. For there is a speaking to pray, to speak of. Now there is the context of the words of the prayer, together with sense. Context is devoid of sensation does not is a statement, because it is not the reason of the mouth. But prayer was full of the sense is, and with the voice of the text. [4] the divisions of the the art of grammar by some fixed count of thirty, that is, the eight parts of speech: the voice of an articulated, in the letter, a syllable, his feet, the accent, the positions of the notes, orthography, the analogy of, etymology, of the Gloss, of the difference, of barbarism, solecism, vices, metaplasmi, figures of speech, tropes, prose, meters, plays on, of history.

6. OF PRAYER OF THE PARTIBVS. [1] The parts of speech, Aristotle was the first two handed over to them and the word of the name of, and then been given over defined the eight. But all to those two they return, the principal, that is, to the name and the word, which signify the person and the act. The rest of the appendages of and that of these are the origin of drags along. [2] For in the name of the pronoun is born, to whose duty performs the part, such as "the speaker the other," out of the adverb of the name of the created, as the "learned, learned" from the name of participle and to the word, such as "I bequeath to, reading" The combination of the preposition and interjection or the surrounding of of these in the fall. For that reason and not a few was defined by five parts, because these are superfluous.

7. Regard to the name. [1] The name of the notamen has been said as it were, by his name that we are to make notes of things. For did not the the name of you will know the knowledge of things is left undone. Their proper name, so called because they are special. For it was only the person of stay of one they mean. The proper species of the names the four [are]: first name, the name of, the surname, nickname. First name has been said the fact that the set as to the name of, such as "Lucius," "The fifth" [2] The name of the was called, because they note the genus, as "Cornelius," Cornelius' For they all in that kind of. The surname, because by the name joined to another, to the "Scipio" NICKNAME as if they were coming, the name of, such as "Cretan Metellus," because he subdued to Crete. For he came in from external circumstances from the nickname for any reason. But the common saying his surname was the fact that the name of the superadiciatur knowledge of the cause, either that which is with my name. [3] of an appellative name from the are called, because the common they are and in length of the signification of their abode. This, placed in the species of twenty-eight members of a division from which the corporeal one, because it seems to come or are touched upon, such as "heaven" "the earth" [4] "incorporeal things, because they lack the body; and neither therefore is not to be touched can be seen, such as" the truth "" justice "[5 ] "general" because of many of things are, such as "an animal" For both the man and a horse, and the bird are living things. [6] particular cases, for part of the shows that "man has been" For the species of an animal, man. [7] at the Beginning, because the first position they have, are born for no other reason, such as "the mountain of" "A fountain" [8] derivative fact that, from be brought down by another name, so that from the mountains "in Montana" [9] the diminutive, because it weakens the understanding that they might " Greek, "" scholasticulus "[10] Sound the diminutive, that so it sounds like a diminutive, but with the understanding they are the principal, such as" table "" The story of "[11] all of Greece, for out of the whole declined in Greek, such as" Callisto "For by [and] the Greek and Latin he says. [12] The whole in the Latin, for out of the whole are turned into Latin. The greeks said "Odysseus, the" Latin "Ulysses" [13] Media called because on the part of Greek, you do on the part of the Latin language. And for the same genuine word, that they corrupt the last syllable, staying than the former, while among the Greeks "Alexandros" "Menander: '; with us to" Alexander "" Menander, "is named from a bastard, a bastard, just as it is said anyone who is from a very different kind is born. [14] synonymous, that is, plurinomia , because it is with most of the names of a single signification, to the "land of" "the ground" "the earth" For the same thing are all things. [15] Homonyma, that is, uninomia, because it is the signification of the name in one great many things, such as "heap," Now, now the mountain of the writ , now swollen with the earth, now at the tomb. For it is with one kind of the signification of different things. [16] Relatives said the fact that the person be referred to another, such as "Master," "lord of" "his father said" [17] And those who are stated to be something in what manner he have, having the signification of the opposite have been said, to the "right" It was said that for the right not be, unless the left one man he was. [18] Moreover, from the fact the names of the units of the quality one, because it by the things is what kind of man is shown, to the "wise '," a beautiful man "" a rich man "[19] of quantity, because they are dragged from the size of, such as" long, "" Shortcut "[20] patronymic are said to the fact that till they were brought by their fathers to the" son of Tydeus' the son of Tydeus, "Aeneid ', Aeneas' son, though he be from their mothers and his forefathers are drawn. [21] Ctetica, that is, the possessive, from the possession of, such as "Evander sword" [22] epithets, which in Latin are called adjectives or laid upon it, because he had to the signification of a the exchange of the names of the added, and when to the "great," "learned" that you add, Persons, such as "a great philosopher," "a learned man," and he is full of the senses. [23] from the act of Actual, go down, such as "the leader" "king" "running" "nurse," "the envoy," they come from a nation of the Clan, such as "Greek," "Roman," we [24] go down to our land 's from his native land, such as "the Athenian," "The Theban "Places from the place, such as" SUBURBAN "[25] Verbialia they say, because of the word are born, to the" reader "[26] participial, which is thus it sounds like a participles, or to the" reading "the Words of the like, by the Word of the likeness of the said, such as" Mark, "As for the and the word is in the imperative mood, the future tense, and the name, because it receives in comparison with. These are all species drawn from the term "appeal go down. [27] The second part of the name can be compared. The construction on called because of another 's comparison of the other prefers. The steps of which there are three: a positive, COMPARATIVE, [and] HYPERBOLIC. So called because it was the first a positive and is included in the contrast with the degree, to the "learned" COMPARATIVE from the fact that compared to positive in preference to him, to the "more learned than the '; for more, I know how you learned man. The superlative the fact that superferatur COMPARATIVE, such as" the most learned'; for more, You know how more learned than the. [28] that the genera were said to have generated, "as the masculine and the feminine. The other names are not are, in general, but this reason and authority of the names he would. Neither of them will, so called because this has not been nor are we, that is, neither masculine nor feminine. For the Common, so called because of two kinds of single name communicates, such as "here's the, and" When this was a dog, "[29] the opposite of which is epicoenon, since both are under one class of sex makes a claim, such as" of the fish here "For it is the uncertain sex, that neither the nature of even with their eyes can be seen the , but experience is the sense only. have all kinds of has been said that, because all kinds of serves, of the male and the feminine, [and] neither side and to the common and to every one. [30] That number called to be that through him or the names of the singular or plural are shown. The figure of, because these made up either by simple or are. [31] The case of the said fall in death; by for those are the bent in the names of are varied they also fall. so called because it in the nominative case thing is named by him, such as ", this Master" genitive, since through him we are seeking of any kind, such as "the son of the master of this" and / or that signify a thing, such as "the book of the master of this" [32] The emissive, because through him, "We show that to give something to anyone, such as" Give this man the master of "The accusative, since through him to accuse someone, such as" I accuse this teacher, "The vocative, since through him we call some , such as "O Master," The ablative, because by him, "We carry anything out to any one signified, as" Away, away from the master "[33] Hexaptota the names applied to the fact that in the six varieties of the cases they have, as it is a" one "Pentaptota, which only in five cases are varied, such as "learned" Tetraptota, which only in the four cases to swerve and to the "side" Triptota, that only at the three, as "a temple of" Diptota, which only in the two, as "Jupiter" Monoptota, which, in one instance they are using so much, so that "frugal"

8. Of a pronoun. [1] pronoun has been said, because it is for time of the name is placed, lest we disgust while he gives the same injunction to make the second time by the name of the. When we say, "Virgil wrote Bucolics" add the word "pronoun," he wrote Georgics'; and thus the variety of takes away the meaning and disgust and ornament is obtained. [2] is caused by either pronouns, they are ended, or infinite. This ended the so called because the pronouns, that define a particular person, to the "I, 'it, I fact, as soon understand. Are said to an infinite number, because they are not a certain person. For it is said about the absent, and uncertain, such as "what the" "which is" "that" was less successful than are called finite because the they do in remembrance of the marks of of person, as "he" "this" it is certain he of whom it is said. [3] are called possessive or the fact that at times we take possession of show. For while the I say, "my" "your" I have some right to be define, or yours. Relatives are said to, because they are referred to the question you, such as "who is it?" He answers, "it is" demonstrative, of demonstrating, because they have the signification. Some in fact we show that these present, such as "here" "This" "this is': what the articles of three things, and are named . [4] now a joint of the said, that the names are bound, that is, being connected, when we say "Here he prays" "" In the pronoun, and now a joint there is this difference, then there is a It is an article, when the name of the joined to another, such as "the wise man here" But when, not joined to another, a demonstrative pronoun that it might be the "here and these things, and this is a" [5] But all things are pronouns, or are, or eldest DERIVATIVE. The original of the said to be, because the origin of draw not from any other source. These things are one and twenty. This ended the three things: "I know" "You," "the other," an infinite number seven: "what the" "of the sort", "Such a" "how great" "so great" "How many?" "All" was less successful than the six finite: "this" "he" "Here" "it" "the same" as "of its" possessive or five: "My" "Thy" "it's", "my" "your" the rest of the DERIVATIVE they say, because any one of these having been deducted, and these made up exist, such as "any man" "Can any one" and so on.

9. Of the Word. [1] The word has been said the fact that it sounds the air, let him scourge him, and / or that this side of it is to frequently in prayer. But there are the words of the signs of the mind, which men one another, speaking their own thoughts clearly show. Now, as the name of the signify a person, it was said it came to pass, so the Word of person. In the person of the Word of the agent and of the patient is the signification of. For "I write to 'the person it came to pass. Again," I write to' indicates that the person it came to pass, but of that from which he suffers. [2] are then two kinds of words: of grammarians, and rhetoricians. Period fall into three seasons: the past, pressing on, time to come, to the "made" "make" "will make" that illustrious rhetorician to the words of the prayer of the whole are said to, as it were, "he took us the words of the good" "He had good words" where not only words, which fall into three times, but that all the "prayer is the. Of words, the species are of the form, of measure, combination, and the genera of [, and for seasons]. [3] the form of words thereof to the said the fact that for every one of us to the matter is informed. For through these have shown us what to do. [For] was spoken of by Meditativa while meditating on the sense, as "lecturio" that is, to read what I want. Inchoatively after the meditation on the from the beginning, and the information, and to the "that kindles the frequentative more often from the prospective action, as" READ "" I often proclaim "sense of the forms of the hold, the declination of the modes of. For you do not know what it is to the declination of the, unless he first learned it, what it is to the senses. [4] The modes of the said by him, just as they are in their own signals. Indicative for what bound it is said, have no meaning because the evidence, such as "select the" IMPERATIVE, because it has the sound of inperantis, such as "the law of" the optative mood, because by Him we opt for an act of some, such as "I would be reading the" the conjunctive, because it is conjoined to it something, just as speech is full of . For when you say "we with the shouts of" depends on the senses, but if it say, "That with the shouts of, why do you say nothing of that do you think?" Is full of the senses. [5] is an infinite [mode] is said to him that in times of defining the person of the Word does not define, such as "to cry out" " had cried "To whom, if the associate to a Person:" I ought to cry out, you ought to, ought to be "done as it were finite. Inpersonalis it is said, that it needs the person of a noun or pronoun, such as" we read in ': you will add the person of "from me" "from you" the words "from that one," and fully felt. But the infinite is the mode of the person of words only, in need, for instance, by inpersonalis or the person of the pronoun of the name. [6] is said to conjugation the fact that through it to the sound of abundance of the one be united. For He teaches in the syllable than the age to come let him go out, lest through ignorance a man say "I read" for the "I will read" The first of these they sent to the future and the second time in the "good 'and on the" Make me to "the third in the" am "and on the" ar "[7] The genera of for that reason of the words of one, because it produces an effect. For the active and you add, and creates from itself a passive voice in R, and there you take away from the passive to R and the active she is in labor. And on that because they act by an active are said to [ur], such as "a varlet" [and] a passive, because they suffer, such as "beaten, '; neutral, because neither do they act and will not suffer, such as" I lie "" I'm thirsty "is only when we you add, the letter R, do not sound in Latin. Commons because they are said to both act and are acted upon, such as "I embrace" This is in like manner, having laid aside the letter R, Latin they are not. deponents they are called, because they establish the of the future time from the meaning of the participle of the passive, which goes forth on the "gods" to "to glory"

X. OF THE of the adverb. [1] The adverb has been said is the fact that the words of let him come near, as for example, "'Tis well the law of" "OK' is an adverb," "the law of the word. From thence they therefore it was said an adverb, the word that it has always been joined adinpleatur. For the word of fills only are the senses, such as "I write" I left without adverb of the word, being has the full meaning, as "today" you add, those words, "I write to this day" and a team of poured forth the word of the senses.

11. OF THE of the participle. [1] Participle sense, and which of the name let him take it, and of the parts, of which particapium. A For the name of the kinds of claims, and in destiny, by the Word of the times and their meanings, by both sides the numbers and figures.

12. OF THE CONIVNCTIONE. [1] The combination of the said that the sense of opinions be united. For this in itself is of no avail, but in conjunction with exhibits of the words of a kind of glue, as it were. For either the names of the unites in, such as "Jerome, Augustine, and ': or word of, such as" he writes, and read "The one, however, you of all things, or join, or to separate the. [2] But the conjunctive proposition conjunctions of the said the fact that the sense or the persons be joined together, such as" I and you let us go to the forum "gives the same injunction," and 'meaningless' has joined together. A disjunctive proposition of the said, because the circumstances or the ones that separate persons, as was "I, or you let us make" subjunctive is reported, that add to "have" For we say "as God, with men regique '; we do not say," and the palace, both of men "[3] Expletivae spoken of; carry out a thing, because the proposed, as for example, "if you do not want this, at least make it do" more generally are named, because they are assumed to everywhere [and add], such as "I will do it, therefore," "this is shall I do then" [4] are said to causal from the cause of the fact that to think of something to do, as for example, "I killed him, because it has a gold"; is the cause. Called rational from the reckoning, by which each one makes use on the act as not to "way to put him lest there should be be known:? Poison or sword?"

13. OF THE of the preposition. [1] preposition been said, that the names be placed before the and in language. The accusative and dative prepositions from the cases, in which they serve, so called. Loquellares, however, because no languages, that is to say the words is always hang together, nor any other part are the only are worth, in order that "May the gods" "Heaven decreed it" A complex are the words of the figure of then made that the "DIVIDE" "distraction"

14. OF THE interjection. [1] The interjection being called, and the words of the interval of that, that is, arisen as yet, moved with the affection of the mind expresses the fact that just as when it is said with exceeding joy from the "Ha" from the pain the "Ah, for the words" from an angry man "Oh, you've" from the dread of "unto him," who have a voice with its own language of any sort of, and did not into another language is easily transferred.

15. The letters in the APVD on Latin Grammar. [1] [How many are there of articulate voices. And the said legitera the text as it were, because he had to give those who read and / or in the way of reading repeated.]

16. OF THE syllables. [1] a syllable in Greek, Latin, or you have got the conception of it is said. For a syllable was spoken of apo tou SULLAMBANEIN, that is, from the concept of letters. SULLAMBANEIN For it is said to conceive. And so that the true is a syllable, which is born out of several letters to remain. For a spoken one syllable for the applied, improperly, they could not properly be said to be, which is a syllable, not so much to be said than the ideal of the times. Is caused by either a syllable are short, or a long life, or common property. [2] short, and being called, and that I never can be produced. Far away, because it is always produced. The commons, however, because it is for the writer since the necessity of will by force, and are produced and are corrected. The Law given away. It is called the long syllable, and transient they say, because of the words by various types of delays, or single, or double the amount seem to have the spaces of time. Dipthongae syllable, the Greek name of the said that in those two vowels are joined to those. [3] From all this with us are the true four: the "ae" "oe" 'au "" EU "" to him' is so much celebrated among our ancestors was. Now a syllable with HALF A FOOT in meter for that reason that which is named it is half a foot. For the foot of two syllables it is established. When, therefore, there is one syllable, like a half a foot is. Dionysius cloth length of syllables, the most suitable medium of all the forms into each one he did, and for this reason there is honored with a statue.

17. OF THE PEDIBVS. [1] are the feet, which are fixed length of syllables, the times they attend, nor the space of at any time by a lawful they fall away. The feet of the said the fact that they should walk by them to meters. For the feet, even as we stop, so meters have their course as if on foot. And all the feet of a hundred and twenty four things which are: DISYLLABIC four, and eight trisyllabi, tetrasyllabi sixteen, thirty-two pentasyllabi, hexasyllabi sixty-four. Down to the feet of four syllables are said to, and the rest syzygiae they were called. [2] But they have to have particular reasons: they have feet of the names, for what reason so it is called. PYRRHIC DANCE has been mentioned, or that this constantly in combat, and / or childish in the game, more often practiced. Surety is said because it sounds a long train. For a certain extension SPONDEE it is said, that is, the sound of, who poured round the ears, offering a sacrifice. And so and in those who were singing the legs in the sacred of the Gentiles, spondiales call him. [3] TRIBRACH was said by him, however it is, that do quickly and changing the song is, and is as a wheel quickly in the meters and may have free course. TOP for the Greek is said to the wheel. [4] iambus was spoken of the fact that to speak against the Greeks IAMBOZEIN said he was. Of this kind for the songs of all or rebuking slander of the poets are to fulfill the of the sun. It has been said the name of the from the fact that you cursed, as it were, in a certain way, or the poison of envy is poured in. [5] and a chorus of TRIBRACH, who is called, the said TRIBRACH, because it is of the three to the shallows. [6] a great Dog called from the dance in a great Dog, they practiced armed. [7] anapaest. [Because it is named "the remissions and games, dedicated to this kind of foot is more.] [8] from the finger of Dactylis what was said that a longer way from the starting in the two ceases to short. Thus, and this the the foot of one joint has a long and two short. And so also the spread and a favoring the hands of a palm tree is said, and dates for hanging on the fingers. [9] AMPHIBRACH, that in the both sides may have a brief, in the midst of a long that lay between the. SEA-ARM is said to not short. [10] CRETIC, that two from one side to have in the medium long, enclosed in a short one. MAKROS to prolong it is said. [11] Bacchus, he was called the him, as they had, foot of Bacchus, that is, of Bacchus is celebrating. [12] or Antibacchius Palimbacchius with each repetition, so called because it is from the Bacchias. [13] Proceleumaticus, that it is fit for the play to the rhythmic chant. [14] and Dispondeus ditrochaeus and diiambus of the said iambics and double stand in force, they promise or TRIBRACH. [15] Antispastus, to the contrary to be composed of letters, syllables, of a short and long, from a long and a short time. [16] Choriambus the other hand, that from this time compounded by the foot is most suitable for a song with dances. [17] Ionian, indeed, the sound of an unequal because of the number of the said. For they have a long syllable, two binasque shortened. [18] who discovered the said Paeonians. [For it is certain they on the one long and three short, long, according to which the names of them is a variation had been established.] [19] Epitriti that it has always been called the three long syllables and one they may have a short one. [20] but they are Syzygiae pentasyllabi hexasyllabi and feet, and had been used before as a part of the Greeks, for turning aside SUZUGIAI. But these men are no feet, but are called pentasyllabi hexasyllabi and, because beyond a five and six syllables do not proceed. So it does not is fitting in the songs of these syllables to leave any name, that "the Carthaginians," "people of Jerusalem," and "Constantinople" [21] occur to every one foot caught fire, and thesis, and that is the elevation of the position of the voice. Neither the feet of "For our route will be able to direct, unless the ebb and flow light", and they are placed, to the "arms": "ar 'the lifting up of is true," MA' position. On these two feet by the division of legitimate are collected. This just is the division caught fire, and as often as the season of an equal division of the thesis and were all killed . [22] the double, one of them, as often as twice as the other wins. Sescupla however, is, every time another of sescuplo survives. In the part of the single, "For his love one more to be found: one is twice as has less. Sescum For the half of it is said., shining over all is, when the greater part of the contains the whole three times less, that is to say three things, and one. Epitritum is, when the less contained by the niaiore, (and) the third part of his. while at the feet were cut to pieces through the equality of members, or double and / or through and / or through sescuplum and / or through and / or through the triple of epitritum.

[23] in an equally, therefore, the Several Parts of these:

I promise, - -
Dactyls of, - | ∨ ∨
Anapaest, ∨ ∨ | -
Dispondeum, - - | - -
Proceleumaticum, ∨ ∨ | ∨ ∨
Diiambum, - | -
Ditrochaeum, - ∨ | - ∨
Antispastum, ∨ - | - ∨
Choriambum, - ∨ | ∨ -

[24] Again, the double of these parts of the feet:

Iambus, ∨ | -
A great Dog, - | - -
TRIBRACH, ∨ | ∨ ∨
Ionic mayor, - - | ∨ ∨
Ionic less than, ∨ ∨ | - -

[25] [∨ ∨ And the LORD I will be only to one who is the triple of the gods ∨ iditur partition, which is the very large and therefore they make no meters and is at hand.]


[26] Sescupli but they are these:

CRETIC, - | ∨ -
Bacchus, the ∨ - | -
Antibacchius, - | - ∨
Paeonians was the first, - | ∨ ∨ ∨
Paeonians the second, ∨ - | ∨ ∨
Paeonians the third, ∨ ∨ | - ∨
Paeonians the fourth, ∨ ∨ ∨ | -

[27] There remain, whom the gods epitrita partition ∨ idimus:

Epitritus was the first, ∨ - | - -
Epitritus the second, - ∨ | - -
Epitritus the third, - - | ∨ -
Epitritus the fourth, - - | - ∨

There are, therefore, of equity, [indeed] ten, the double of the six, however, the triple of one, the sescupli seven, epitriti four. One, indeed, only there is one that is three times the partition is divided, which is the very large and therefore they make no meters and is at hand. [28] But the number of syllables to the feet of of the two as far as about six extends further, for He does not proceed, because as far as they are stretched out to the six syllables feet. The times are on the feet, as much as on the foot of every one he has. Is the resolution of the feet, at any time for one of the two short they are assumed to long, or for the two long, short, and the four, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2:17):

Sectaque spin webs across fir ribs.

"Fir 'is now the resolution is the answer in a proceleumatico, in which it follows the resolution of Virgil is always synaloepham. [29] is of such a long two short, but are made: from the two, but never becomes a long time for short. To be split for the solid can be, and rent can not be soldered. A figure is, notified by syllable, to be acknowledged. For where the lower part of the circle is placed twice you note this, PYRRHIC is, Venerable; 1 where a double him lying there, I promise, - -. Note: For a brief is inferior to the semicircle; long known to 1 is lying. [30] Metra to the feet of things happen, to a TRIBRACH TROCHAIC, from the dactyl DACTYLIC, from the iambic verses, which have just we must speak hereafter.

18. OF THE ACCENTIBVS. [1] Accentus, which in Greek is said to PROSODY [has received the name from the Greek]. For the Greeks, may benefit them, in Latin "to" ODE in Greek, in Latin "can not is. For the name" word for word is set down. Of the Latin and, moreover, have other names. For the accent and they say and tenor of the whole tones, because there the sound grows and ends. [ 2] Accentus is so called, that along the song it is, as an adverb because it is according to the word. acute accent is what was said that sharpen syllable and to set up, serious, and that brings them low, and to carry them. for it is opposed the sharp steel., with a circumflex, because of the sharp and heavy it is established. began and For in air is heavy from the sharp ended it is, and so when he is going and goes down, ROUNDED FORM is brought about. ROUNDED FORM acute and what are they like. [3] for either of them set up the syllable. it seems contrary to the Gravis between both. For always down the syllables, when he had to lighten the, in order that (Lucan. 1:15):

And so came the Titan, and the night was there, hidden in the stars.

"And so" here it is too heavy. For a lesser sound than acute and ROUNDED FORM. [4] Monosyllaba But if either of them a part of speech is a brief, such as "the man" or the position of long, to the "art of" shall have the accent of a sharp. If, however, naturally in a long, such as " all objects are ", with a circumflex. DISYLLABIC if they should first part of speech has naturally in a long and the final brief, they circumflectitur, such as" Muse ', otherwise the more acute. Trisyllaba a part of speech if the medium has a brief, such as "the pipe" and then the first made more acute. If, however, naturally in a long have second and the final brief, as is "Metellus," and then bend them the middle of. [5] Tetrasyllaba, and [a part of speech], and by reason of pentasyllaba trisyllabarum are retained. The heavy accents, together with one accent, it can be given in a word one, since the two never, so that ["Carmen". In the recitation of one of these made up the accent is. [6] But Accentus were found or for the sake of distinction, as (Virg. Vanity Fair. 8,83): "is seen on the shore, and flower of the sow that I should take care and say:" a bear '; or on account of pronouncements of a lest you should say "the goal of' a brief and not produced (A ) "the goal of '; and / or discerning the cause of ambiguity, such as", then, "For when he is produced" go, "the cause is portended, when reproved, conjunction.

19. OF THE FIGVRIS ACCENTVVM. [1] accents the figures are ten, by the grammarians of the words for the distinctions that are set before. OXEIA, that is acute because of the accent, with the linen from the left hand side on the right side of the drawn upward, is made a the following terms: [2] Baret, that is a heavy, with the linen from the end of the right hand of left hand into the have been put down is made the following terms: [3] `PERISPOMENE, that is, circumflex and with a sharp line of grave offense, the is expressed thus: [4] ^ MACHROS, that is, long, the bar is, lying to thus: "[5] - the Arms, that is to say short, is a part of the lower of the circle and prostrate with the following terms: [6] U Ufens, is the union of that, because it connects a couple of words, the bar is toward the subject to a circumflex on the, is made a the following terms:?. [7] diastole, that there is no distinction, which separates on the other hand, his right hand toward the supposed part of a circle, is made a the following terms: 7. [8] APOSTROPHE part of the item of the circle on the right and the letter to the sum of the inmates are so done:), is shown by what mark they be lacking This page was last in the word of a spoken, such as "the tribunal" for the "Tribunal" [9] Resen, which is interpreted BLOWING ON, that is, where the letter H ought to be placed, such a figure in it is noted:?. [10] PSILE, which is interpreted is dry, or pure, that is to say, where H is the letter ought not to be, by such a note is shown:?. [11] of these two parts of the Latin accents the figure of the text itself from the aspiration they had made. From whence if you join these, you have done the same aspiration mark. Again, if the half of it in the apex to be torn, and DASEIAN PSILEN you do.

20. OF THE POSITVRIS. [1], positions, is a figure to distinguish the senses by means of gossip and strain it, and periods, and this, when their order is put to, nor sense of reading, he shows us. Is named from the positions of the points put in place or because the annotated, and / or because there the power for the interval of the distinction deposited. THESEUS they call these the Greeks, the Latins, positions,. [2] The first of it is said, positions, and sub; the same and commo. Media follows is that the distinction, and by itself, and strain it. The distinction of the last, which is closing, the opinion of the whole, the same is the period of; of which, as we have said, they are parts and commo strain it; the diversity of points of which put in place in a different place is pointed out. [3] When the out at the beginning affirmed that a pronunciamento not yet full of sense is a part of, and yet it is necessary to breathe, is made a comma, that is a part of the senses, to the lowest punctusque the letter is placed; and is called the sub, as they were under the point, that is, the letter to the lowest, it takes. [4] When, however, in the following sense of the sentence is better now, but so far there is yet a way of thinking about the fullness of, is made a strain it, the middle point of the letter we note the following; we call the middle of his distinction, because the point to the middle of the letter we put the. [5] When I was already full of his decision by the degrees by a clause of the sentence we make, is made a period of, punctumque we place at the head of the letter; and it is called a distinction, distinguishing terms, that is to say, because the whole set aside the sentence. [6] This, indeed, among the orators. But among the poets in a verse where the two feet, to a syllable after the remains, when the comma is, because there behind a scansionem CUTTING OFF of the word has been made. Where, however, after two feet, out of the part of the speech nothing left to increase, is the colon. And all is toward the period of.

21. Of the Notes of SENTENTIARVM. [1] Furthermore, the marks of a certain writing the authors were among the most populous, to remove and abolish the ancient to the distinction of verses, and in histories of the Scriptures they added. , Is well known the shape of the letter of the manner of their own in the set, to show the every one of the words and sentences in the nature of and verse. Is noted, however the number of verses that are set before and six and twenty, which are the names written beneath. [2] * a little Star is put to at the things that have been omitted, so that by it, shall it be day known to one, who seem to lack. For star ASTER it is said the Greek language, of whom is ASTERISK is dirivatus. [3] - itself the piece, that is, the bar is lying, or is put to in the words of the sentences is superfluous to again and again, whether in the to those places where the reading of falsity is censured by some, as an arrow to be slain as it were superfluous and false pierce. As an arrow that for the Greek OBELISK it is said. [4]? Adpunctus itself the piece is included in the above, with the same, of which there is a doubt whether they ought to be taken away or not set before them. [It is noted in falsehood.] [5] ÷ lemniscus, that is, the bar is lying between the points of the twin, is opposed to in these countries, which the interpreters of Sacred Scripture in the same sense, but the different words actually transferred it. [6]? Antigraphus with the point is put to, where in the different has the mind of the translations. [7] * - with a piece of a little Star. , Aristarchus, properly speaking, he used this in the following verses, who is not in its proper place men had been posted. [8]? Paragraph thing is set up to be separated from the reality, which are face to face in the tied together with, just as on the list of places and from the passages [from the countries of] the country, and in the agony of the rewards of a reward from the conflict, and are separated by different contests. [9]? It is a figure, positions, contrary to paragraph, and therefore so formed for the purpose, the principles of: because as he well known, so the ends of these things from the principles of separates. [10] u Cryphia, the lower part of the circle with the point, is found in those places where the hard and obscure, the question to be opened or could not be paid. [11]) is set up to Antisimma them toward the exchange of which is the order of. Thus, the authors of and in the ancient has been assumed to be found. [12] °) Antisimma with the point of these is included in the places where the double in the same sense there are some verses, and there is a doubt is to be elected who are better. [13]> Title Search:. This bring the offerings to our writers in the Book of Ecclesiasticus, or to separate the men [to] the testimonies to be demonstrated of holy scriptures. [14] ·> STICHON Title Search: A PEN. This is the first [m] U.S. Leogoras Homer at Syracuse, he put to the separation of verses from the sky and of Olympus. [15]>: Title Search: PERIESTIGMENE, that is, with both points. This opposed to his demands in these ancient Zenodotus of Ephesus which too had added, but not right, or drew from, or permutaverat. In these and those things of our used. [16] from the Title Search: OBOLISMENE is placed between to separate the in comedies and tragedies, or periods. [17] -2 OBOLISMENE Back-Cover Texts, and ANTISTROPHE 's trick as often as it is inferred. [18], no Front-ß with a piece of is put to the things that link to "concern something, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 10,88):

Nosne Phrygia 's for you to turn the bottom of the
we are trying to? us? or unhappy who are the Trojans the Greeks

[19] Title Search: obolata above, is set up to the conditions of times and places as of persons to the change in. [20] Title Search: rectaet obolata above, the opposite is put his place, ended a monad, significatque that also was similar to the following. [21] Ceraunia is placed, how often are disapproved of in many verses, but not through each obolatur; CHERAUNION it is said, for a thunderbolt. [22] 100 (h) The risimon. This one alone of the will of every man 's something it must be noted is placed. [23] (S): Phi And Rom, that is, Fronto. These benefits, when the one who is of obscurity, on account of anxiety dropped at will. [24]? The higher the anchor is placed, when something is great at all. [25]? Inferior to the anchor, in which anything was most foully was summoned to appear or is unsuitable. [26] P Coronis Is known to only in the end of the book is put to. [27] | Note: rubbish [that] is applied to the faults. [28] Brief Notes are made in books, and the other for the things that have to acknowledge the by the end of the page is declared, that, when the reader of this kind in the sign of the threshold, each has found it, the person making recourse to the text of speech or of the same verses that he knows there is an explanation, superiacentem known to the similar of which he finds it.

22. Of the Notes of VVLGARIBVS. [1] common and Ennius said, "was the first notes of a hundred and a thousand, and find them. Of the Notes that he had employed so that whatever for my [ten] tion, or [in the] courts of justice would be said, to enlist more of copyists; A large number of who were standing by at the same time, dividing it among themselves the parties, how many each person and in what order the words of the grant an exception. Tiro, Cicero was the first at Rome, Cicero 's freedman he invented the notes, but only of the preposition. [2] After him Vipsanius, Philargius, a freedman of Maecenas in the gift and Aquila another the other additions to it. Then, Seneca, and the contract digestoque of all, they had increased, the work makes for the five thousand. So called because he is noted, however, that the words of syllables or note characters, and fixed in to the knowledge of part of my readers may be restored; which, properly speaking, they have now are called the notary.

23. Of the Notes of IVRIDICIS. [1] And there is another of the letter of the law in the books of the words of their are well known, in which the writing of shorter than a swift so be it. For the grace of the word was written by B, and F "the good it came to pass" through the S and 100 "decree of the senate" with the R and P "the republic" by the P and R "people were the Roman," and T 500 by "only" by the letter W and lying on their backs "a woman" by the P according to the nature of "the fatherless" by P recto its head "pupil of the eye" by one K "the head of" KK joined by two things: "the cause of a false accuser to" by the 1 and E "the judge let it be" by the 500 and 1000 "" criminal fraud "[2] And of this kind were very great, similar notes that in the ancient books we have found. These marks of a novice of law books from the emperors of the laws to wipe out the 's suggestion, since in many instances by these deceived, not knowing a lively intelligence, and so, having ordered the laws to be written in a letter, as any error, would have all the wanderings are they bring, but by following and to be avoided would show that openly.

24. Of the Notes of MILITARIBVS. [1] In the SOMEWHAT SHORT, too, which are the names of the contents of the soldiers, was known to his own among the ancients, by which examined how many of the soldiers of survived and how in time of war had fallen. T Tau at the head of verses known to have survived the set pointed out;? But for each one 'theta the name of the deceased was placed. And so also has through the midst of a weapon, that is, a sign of death. Of the to the Persians, he says (4:13):

And How can that be fixed with black vice theta.

[2] And when he had wished to signify ignorance, Labda And they used the text, just as they signified the death of, when they laid the theta to the head. In the bounty of their military service also were known to those of their own.

25. Of the Notes of LITTERARVM. [1] known to even the letter of the ancients did to each other, so that, whatever one another through the writings of secretly had wished to signify upon each other, to enlist more. Inducted as a witness is Brutus, who in this letter was about to do those things which noted, knowledge, to others what they meant by this of the letter. [2] Caesar, the emperor, too to the son, "because" said he, "an innumerable multitude of things that I write things happen constantly, and one with the other ought to be secret, we may have between us if you wish to notes of such a character that, when it will be something more known than to write to, the text for each and every act in this way should write to the following, for the from the bc and forward for the same reason the other; for z The words as they must return to the twofold and aa will be "Some even verse, words are written.

26. Of the Notes of DIGITORVM. [1] There are certain and the toes, the marks of, and are the eyes by which he with him in silence, far off and distant in conference. As it is the custom of war and wished, that as often as consent to the army that can not be with the voice of, the hand of a promise. Others, because these words can not be by the sword the motion of salute. [2] Ennius said, "out of a certain unclean (Naev. Com. 75):

As if the ball in the dance,
Give to playing [TA] Tim gives himself to the and the common he doeth it.
Other person is bound, and to another adnutat, in the other the hands of
is busy, and others I wish for the foot,
gives the ring to another [from] be spectators of from my very lips
calls upon another, with the other sings; adtamen
the other gives the finger of the letters.

And Salomon (Proverb. 6:13): "He consented to the eye, presseth with the foot, speaketh with the finger"

27. OF THE SPELLING. [1] in Greek orthography, and in Latin means "correct writing. [For when the sun have done well, the scripture is said to graph.] This training teaches how we ought to write. For just as the art of the declination of the treats of the of the parties, so out of the orthography of writing skill in the, for example, "to" when it is a preposition, 500 literally; when it is a union of T he received a letter. [2] "No," when the adverb is to be denied, the letter 500 is terminated and we aspire in the head, when the The bonds of [disjunction] is one by the letter T is written without aspiration. [3] "At the 'preposition" through "500 is written the way that" to his father, "because the old, often" with "for" to the' And they used [the middle of the two of them he kept back the letters]. [4] At times, moreover, other literature in the place of letters according to the rite of the other, are given. The letters B and P is a kind of kindred. For instead of a "Burrus' we have called" Pyrrhus, "100, and G [the letter] they have a kind of kindred. For when we say to" one hundred "[and]" three hundred "Afterwards we have called" four hundred "that put for the G and Q 100 C. kinsmen is in like manner. For" the of this "" By the 100, "of each 'by Q we write." "" When', however, preposition "through" 100 is to be written, but if an adverb has been, by the Q. For we say that "when I bequeath to the" "God 'only through E," a demon "" By the dipthonga AE, should be censured. [5]: "The horse" which is an animal, through E alone write. "It" which is just, by the AE dipthonga write. "The exile 'the addition of S ought to be written, because it is said an exile, who is out of is the only thing." Rejoiceth' It were better without the letter S is written. For with it the 10 of the 100 and S it is clear how, since in it is, he in turn is added to other matters? [6] "It" "By the dipthonga to write to, because from the water is the name of it came to pass. [7]" Maybe "" By the end of the N to be written in, because it is his whole "if by any chance at length" [8] "pact" that which exists of a deformed, through E; alone to write to [is]: "a covenant," as is the covenant of, with the O and E dipthonga write. [9] "the Handsome One 'is written without N, because it is called from the form. [Or even from the forms, that is, a hot; of blood makes for heat is a beauty.] "Their child" which is His Son, through G to write to, because it makes the one generated. [10] H, which has an aspirate as the letter is, in the Latin and is joined to only to spoken: to the "honor," "man", is "the ground '[humility]. Salus, however, and the consonants, but in the names of the Greeks and the Hebrews." Look here', however, and "Ah, for ' interjections through H to be raised. [11] 1 the text between the two vowels being determined on, some of you, scribes supposed that, as in "Troy" and "Maia is said," This is the reason does not permit. For there is never the three vowels in one syllable are written. 1 But the text between the two members for a double is considered important. [12] "This is that" the pronoun "acceptable to both the genus through the 500 it is written, from that which is" is that those works, the "because it makes" the same "What if anything is the word of the third person, by t notabitur, from that which is" him, he goes "[because it makes]" they are moving up "[13] K the letter A, how often the preference over the ancient followed, such as" kaput "" kanna "" Kalas "Now, however," Carthage "and" the new moon, 'so much along the same are written. But all things are some kind of a Greek term, the following vowel through K are to be written. [14] "Glad tidings" "By the dipthonga is written, because gladness from the broad is called for, of which on the contrary, there is grief, the anguish of which he doeth it. 50 The words as sometimes we use the text for the 500, such as" broad "for that" given "and" calamity "for the" cadamitatem '; fall in death, for the name took the disaster. [15] "is awaiting's an" Max "and, if any, are alike in what manner they ought to be written It is a question. Varro has Caesar by 1 of this kind that he was wont to announce to the words of and to write to. From there because of the authority to the custom of so great a man has been made, such as "the greatest" "the best" "the worst of 'let it be written. [16]" I should prefer' to write to 50 by one, because it is "the more I want to" "I would rather 'by two things: LL, because it is" prefers to be in " "I will not's also by one 50; [and]" to refuse to "" By the two. "I will not 'For how," nevolo, there is "to refuse to" "nevelle" [17] "The mouth of the' if he is unwilling or BONE signifies by means of O thou that alone must be written down, if the the person, and H is to be put before. [18] is "Pray 'the ends of the through O;" hour' days' journey through H write. "The burden of the" thing of the burden if the O come, Thou alone to write to, if for the honor, with the H aspiration. [19] "a preposition ', and" Furthermore, "" By the dipthonga write. "And the penalties of ', and this is the union of, through E," the punishment of "life is a punishment that, by the OE. [20] Q, then it is right to the letter, with the letter U to him, when it follows, and anything else in all the one or more vowels joined with it, so that one syllable so be it. The rest are written by the 100. [21] "which" with the pronoun from writing; "what is' without a union of A. "What 'the letter is written by the 500, when the pronoun is, by T, together with the word of: the position of which is the first" more than I can, who, he says, "and like the composition of" I can not, that no man, he is unable "[22]" What, "when the pronoun is one by the 500 [is] to write to; when the number, by t, because "the same number of 'T is written by. "Every day they 'by Q to write to, and not by 100, in order that" the number of days "[23] R the letter S the communion of the case is with the text. Consequently with anterior" honor "" energy to act "" tree,' they said, You will now be the honor of "" the labor of "" a tree "[24]" Sat "" By the T should be written, because a whole does his "Enough," "But" "By the 500 it is necessary in writing. Among the anterior but for "Sedum 'it was said, we cut away the final two letters. [25]" Tamtus "and as" insofar' in the midst of 1000 are having. "" "How 'and for" both the "From whence does and" quamtitas "" insofar "" tamtus "[26]" Woe to the' with the interjection from writing;: "Woe to 'without a union of A. [27] XPS, because it is a Greek, by 10 to write to. So also the "Xrisma" [28] Y and Z are the names of Greek letters only are written. For when "justice ', the sound of the letter Z expresses it, however, because of their Latin is one by the T must be written down. Thus, "the host of malice" "" "wickedness," and the like the like. [29] In doubtful cases the too we was the custom of the ancients so that, when the same word of another intellect short, it would have produced another, set up a long syllable, the apex; for instance, "the people 'to signify the tree, or a multitude of men, distinguished at the apex. So also where the consonants of the letter geminabantur, in Sicilia laid, to the "cell" "the saw" "boards are" my ancient For it is not to double the the letter, he set up in Sicilia, but on a; by what mark they geminandam to be reminded of the reader to the letter.

28. On Analogy,. [1] Analogy in Greek, in Latin or of similar construction on the ratio of derives its name. Is the power of this religion, that what is in doubt, to the something similar, that it is not is no doubt, is referred, established with certainty that they were uncertain. But by what means the construction on eight of analogy is gathered: the quality of that is to say, of contrast with the gender, number, shape, case, the ends of the length of syllables, of similar, and the likeness of times. [2] If any thing out of one of them be wanting, it is not now with the ratio, the likeness of that is to say, but it is the anomaly, that is, outside the rule, to the "hare" and "the wolf" The whole belongs to, but they disagree fall; This is because he "Wolves," "a hare, "As for the as a rule, that while they you ask whether one should say accidentally set a 'and whether it is the masculine feminine, he is like him among all the declination of the" boundary of "the masculine and it shall be. [3] Also "Rope 'if uncertain that he was of you believe me, he is like unto him," of bread', in the declination of the, and it shall be male. Next, from the comparison of the positives, so that if say: "I learned a great" "': positive and are similar to themselves. It occurs, and by a decrease of, for example," When the grave', he shows a line of male to be the way that "marble of 'to be acceptable to both kind of indicates that marmusculum. [4] For that which they is in the kind of rulership, that there was usually a in his low. But this does not ever shall be, to the "bakery" "pistrilla" But because we ought to understand from the first position [that is the firstfruits of] the declination of the, to collect from the low way of kind of.

29. Concerning the etymology. [1] Etymology is the origin of their name, when the force of the verb or by an interpretation of the name is deduced. This SUMBOLON Aristotle, Cicero registration by the named, because the names and the words of the signs of things makes the example given; for instance, "the river" because fluendo increased, and has been said from the fluendo. [2] A knowledge of the use of often has need of it in the interpretation of his own. For when we see, what its origin is the name of, but more swiftly consider any of his force. For every one of the thing known to the inspection of etymology of the s version is clearer. But it does not all the names of the old masters in accordance with nature are on his back, and yet some things are, by convention, as well as we the servants, and possessions, sometimes according to that which is pleasing to our will we give the names of the. [3] This is because of all the etymology of the names are not found, because some things are not according to quality, which have been created are, but according to the judgment of the human will the names they obtained them. There are, however, or etymology of the word for the reason given, that "the kings of 'from the [ruling and] by acting rightly, or from the very beginning, such as" man ", is because it is out of the ground, or on the contrary in washing, as a" clay "While it is not the mire of the world, and "sacred grove," because it is opaque the shadow of a little may give light. [4] Again, some things were made from a derivation of the names, so that from prudence "prudent '; and others are also out of utterances, as a chatter," a babbling'; Greek etymology of some of the things and avoid risen into Latin, as "the forest", "house of" [5] There are also other according to the names of the places, of the cities, [or] they snuffed up the names of the rivers. Many other things there from the word of divers nations, they were called. And so also the scarce, their origin is seen. There are a barbaric because many of the names of and not known to the Latin and Greek .

30. From the Gloss. [1] Greek gloss on the name of the assigned by lot to the interpretation of the tongue. This ablative of the philosophers [i] um they say, because the voice of her, of whose is required, in one word, and with singular they design. For what that thing is in one word, declares that has been assumed, such as: "is from the silenced to be silent" [2] Also (Virg. Vanity Fair. 10,314):

The side and gored.

"Drinks, she strikes" Also, seeing that "the term 'we have called" the end "or" waste the' interpret "to be" wasted "and completely with the words and facts of one in a word is displayed.

31. Of differences. [1] The difference is a species of a definition, rather than the authors of the arts of the same and about that other they name. For these two in a sort of communion of the confused, the difference of conjectures and separated, by which is known by what it is to both, so that the question of what is between the king and the tyrant, the addition of the difference, what each is defined, so that "the king of a modest, temperate, a tyrant of a cruel" "" In for these two difference with the this is laid on, what it is to both is known. Thus the rest.

32. About barbarisms. [1] Barbarism is the word of the text was corrupted a disclosure or with the sound. A letter, as "floriet 'While the" flourish "to call should be done; the sound of, if, for the the middle of the first syllable is produced, to the" hideouts "" darkness "but a barbarism been acclaimed by the barbarians among the nations, while they did not know the integrity of the Latin of prayer. Vnaquaeque For nation, the Romans had with the wealth of their vices, both of words and of character crossed over to Rome. [2] Among the barbarism and barbarolexim But there is this difference, a barbarism that is made in the word of the Latin, with its corruption; But when the barbarian words of the Latin language are inferred, is said to barbarolexis. Likewise, when a disease occurs in prose of speech, a barbarism is called, when in the meter, it is said metaplasmus. [3], however, becomes Barbarism by the pronouncement of the letter and the. edition of his four ways: if a man in the word of the letter or for none of syllable, be changed, may he change, and / or the speaker. by the pronouncement of, however, becomes in the times at tones, aspirations and to the rest what follows. [4] Through the times of barbarism is made for, if the place of the long syllable is short there is put, or for a long time for short. Through the whole tones, if the accent be changed in the other syllable. Through the aspiration, if the letter H added to where it ought not, or where he is required to be taken from the . [5] Through the chasm and, by the pronouncement of how often in the rent, before they come to pass or against, or as often as a spoken vocal it follows, as "the Muses Muses" It happens a barbarism and by the motacismos, [iotacismos] and labdacismos. [6] Motacismus is, every time it follows a vowel the letter 1000, to the "the good of gold," and "He is just a friend ', but this vice of 1000, or the suspension of the letter, or by loss of life. [7] Iotacismus is, every time in the jot is doubled by the sound of the letter, such as "Troy" "Maia is said to ', where their letters will be so feeble in delivery, so that one jot, not two, they seem to sound. [8] Labdacismus is, if for one 50, two are pronounced , thus transferring Africans to do, just as "a dialogue" for "a conference, '; 50 or as often as one exile, two wide an acceptance as I utter it. In opposition to which is true, for one, gave more freely, we ought to bring forth two for exile. [9] IMPACT is, every time of the last syllable, the end of the beginning it is on that of another, such as "aunt"

33. OF THE a solecism. [1] of the words of Solecism there is very much unacceptable to each other, the arrangement is a barbarism of a single word as a corruption. For the words of the law have not a right is joined to a solecism, as if one should say "to us between the" for "between us" or "pardon of criminals" for the "wicked" [2] It was said by the Cilicians But a solecism, who out of the city with the ground (e), which Year of i Creation is called now, they departed, and the possessions of others had their abode with his tongue, both of them is viciously inconsequenterque to confound, They called it solecism. And so also in like manner, speaking solecisms and are said to do. [3] Solecism the scheme of the poets, however, there it is said, how often in the verse of meter was made by necessity is found. But when the necessity is not found, she continueth solecism fault. [4] Solecism is made in two ways: either through the parts of speech, or through accidents. Through the parts of speech, if the other for the second part of the we assume that, for example, if the adverbs or prepositions join. Through the accidents is made, that is, by the things that happen to parts of, for example, by reason of, through the classes and numbers, figures, and in destiny. Through these things, therefore all things are done solecism, as Donato, he expounded it. [5] are made, besides, from the very many ways. For a hundred kinds of a solecism Lucilius, he said, life is rather to all of whom he ought, to be rather than to follow the rule of correct speech to hold the number of friends.

34. Of the vices of. [1] with references on Latin Grammar Vices of those things are said, in words, which are in we must beware. These are the barbarism, solecism, acyrologia, cacenphaton, and so on. [2] Barbarism is the corruption of the word "one." [As if with the third syllable to produce any man on the "to pardon"] [3] of the words of a vicious Solecism dressing up. [As if anyone says "among the men," for the "among men"] [4] Acyrologia not by their own expression or diction, in order that (Lucca, 2,15):

It shall be lawful to hope for and fear.

It is proper to the man who fears were afraid, and do not expect, and (Virg. Vanity Fair. 5,287):

To a grassy plain.

It is proper to "grasse" to call the plain, will not the "grassy" or obscene expression "AMBIGUITY, dissolute: sounding. [5] obscene, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,579):

Encouraged as to their in spirit by these what has been said.

, Dissolute, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2,27):

To go and it will help to the Greek camps.

The evils for there was no dressing up to begin with a syllable from her, by which he had ended higher. [6] pleonasm superfluous by the adding of a single word, in order that (Virg. by Georg. 2,1):

So much for the culture of fields and stars of heaven.

In no other place except the stars were in heaven. [7] Perissologia of very many of the words of the adding a superfluous, in order that (Deuteron. 33,6): "" Let Reuben live and not die ': whilst there is nothing else than to live not to die. [8] longiloquium GREAT SPEAKER, a thing not grasping the necessary, in order that (Liv. fragment. 64 M.): "The ambassadors did not the answers of peace, whence they had come behind him and returned home" [9] tautology, idemloquium in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,546):

If the destinies of a man may preserve, if feeds on the air
ethereal, nor yet in the cruel is dead among the shades.

For the whole There is one thing that is repeated, but the word of frequently rehearsed. [10] is the absence of eclipse of speech ", in the words of that this is necessary are lacking, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 4,138):

Her quiver is of gold:

for it is lacking "was," [11] Tapinosis humility is, the state of the weak and what has been said of a great thing, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,118):

They appear in small parties and swimming in the vast abyss.

[12] "Deep 'he put in the" the sea "Cacosyntheton, dressing up a vicious words, as it (Virg. Vanity Fair. 9,609):

Finding themselves in a heifer,
wearied by the back of the spear.

[13] Amphiboly, uncertain and expression ", which is done or by the fall of the accusative, so that answer as that of Apollo to Pyrrhus (Enn. Ann. 179):

I do say it thee, Achilles, be able to conquer the Romans.

In which it is not certain, which, in by that verse can show to be a victor. [14] and by the uncertain becomes the distinction, as (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,263):

Wage a great war Italy.

The uncertain distinction, whether one should say a great war in, "or" a great Italy, "[15] is made by the common the word, such as:" We beseech Cato, the caiumniatur Cicero, Brutus, stand by thee, disdainful of Antonius', nor the ambiguity of this is shown in the others whether they, themselves, or have others are, or make supplications to have oppressed the. [16] is made by the homonyma, in which one the name of the many things are signified, as in "line" and you do not add or iron, or of the eyes, or of the soldiers.

35. OF THE METAPLASMIS. [1] Metaplasmus Greek tongue, of transformation and it is said in Latin. How does it happen in one word, for the sake of necessity and of meter license of poets; of which the species is this:. [2] COMPARISON Prothesis in the beginning of the word, that ["tidings to my son" for the "son" and "waves" for the "took"]. Epenthesis COMPARISON in the midst, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,409):

Let these three in the religion, grandsons,

for the "Religion:" ["relics of" for "the remains of" "Remora" for the "COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF". [3] Paragoge COMPARISON to the end, so that ["to be admitted" for the "admitted" "more" for the "wizard" and "can" for "can". Aphaeresis INTERRUPTION from a beginning, to the "SLIGHT" for the "hate" out of the midst INTERRUPTION Syncope , such as "perhaps" for the "perhaps" of the end of Apocope INTERRUPTION, such as "enough" for the "Enough," [4] Ectasis, the production contrary to nature, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,499): "Diana of the choirs of exercises." (Aen Virg. . 1,2): "Of Italy by fate" when "Of Italy 'ought to be called SHORTLY. Systole correction against nature, as (Virg. Vanity Fair. 6,773): "Fidenae 'and the city" with the first syllable must be produced. As when we say that "Orion 'is short, be said to be extended, while it is opportune.] Diaeresis discissio syllable into two parts, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 9,26):" a rich man pictai garments "for the" dress of an embroidered "(Enn. Ann. 33):" Alba longai "for the" Alba Longa. "[5] Episynaloephe GLUING to two [syllables] into one, and to the" Phaethon "for the" Phaëthon "" of Neriah, "for the" Mermen "" aeripedem "for the" aëripedem ". Synaloephe IMPACT circumstances to the spoken vowels, so that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 9,1):

Furthermore, these different things are going on at all while the part of the].

[6] the Church, (TH) with the New York to spoken consonants IMPACT, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,3):

A great deal on both land and sea igctatus].

Contrapositio antithesis of the letter for the other letter, such as ["force of the" for "the force ') [" Straining "for" unto him, ". Metathesis transposition of the letter, so that [" Thymbris "for the" Thymbris "[" O Evander you "for the" Evander to. "[7 ] Among the barbarism and the figures of, that is, the Latin and perfect elocution, metaplasmum to be, who in one word, prayer is made vicious. and the same time, among the scheme of a solecism, that is, the acts of a perfect connection and, under the form is that which is the context of the words of prayer vicious. metaplasmi Therefore, [and ] figures of speech and the means are distinguished by their skill and on folly. Now there are, for the adorning.

36. OF THE SCHEMATIBVS. [1] from the Greek figures of speech in the Latin speech of the figure expound it, The things that are done or in the words of a sentence by various forms of words in eloquent speech for the sake of ornament. These things, while there are many among the references on Latin Grammar, these can be found. [2] Prolempsis presumption is, where those things, which ought to follow, preferred to those who, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 12,161):

In the mean time the kings of the great bulk Latin.

Ought to have been in this fashion, to say: "In the mean time the kings of the great bulk" and immediately to add, but the consequences: "issue from the camp" and then to say: "Latin," etc. But that it was an ornament to it is for the presumption of the thing, and he that ought to have been to follow the kings of the seven in the intervals are in the verse, of It is added, and afterwards: "They go forward, the camp," From thence, and presumption, because he set before them are the things that ought to have been to follow. [3] Bridgetown is the clause, since many are to the senses in a word are closed, which takes place in three ways. For we shall either in the first, or in the last, or in the midst of the word is used is posited, that the opinions of union. In the first, in order that (Lucil. 139):

Oenophoris fundus of turns, the quotation from us.

In the midst of [as the] (Enn. Ann. 329):

Sulpicius lot was given to Greece, and France Cotta.

At the end of, [as the] (Andrew Ter.. 68):

For at this time
the service of his friends, plain speaking hate.

[4] is a figure of Hypozeuxis contrary to the above, where in the each of the senses is a clause to every man severally, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 10,149):

Goes to the King and to the king and the name commemorates the continue their kind.

[5] is in the dissimilar Syllempsis clauses, or a plural the singular expression "words were finished, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,553):

The marines were supported and the king being recovered,

the plural or singular expression "the word came to pass, in order that (Virg. Ecl. 1,81):

We have ripe apples,
and a wealth of milk.

For above he, "There are ', He said. This ought to have been to say:" There is of milk and a wealth of "[6] Syllempsis is made not only through the parts of speech, but also by their accidents of its parts. For where, and for many, but one and for one they are assumed to many, is Syllempsis . For the many, but one, as in this case (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2:20):

Vterumque fill the armed soldiers,

since it is not one, but with many soldiers. Also for the one many people, they in the Gospel (Matt. 27,44): "Bandits, that were crucified with him reproached" instead of one where both of them is induced blasphemed. [7] Anadiplosis is, when the from the same the words which he ended his first on the, for the following verse begins, as in this case (Virg. Ecl. 8,55):

Vie with swans owls, too, let Tityrus be Orpheus,
Orpheus in the woods, Arion among the dolphins.

[8] Anaphora is the repetition of the word of the same with the principles of verses many of them in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,157):

We, you and your Dardania and set on fire arms with him,
us swollen under you traversed on ships of the sea.

[9] Epanaphora is in one and continuing through the principles of a repetition of the of the senses of the word of the same, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 7,759):

Thee Anguitiae the grove, you Focinus glass wave,
wept for thee the limpid the pit.

[10] Epizeuxis SHIFT in one sense of the word, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 4,660):

Thus, thus it a joy to go through the shades.

[11] in the word of Epanalempsis in the beginning towards the set in place at the end of the replication of the same, as in this case (Juven. 14,139):

Was enlarged by the love of money as the money itself is increasing.

[12] Paronomasia is different in the meaning of standing in the very expression ", such as this:" to go or to visit the you ought to be? "That is, an exile, to be made, or to die. [13] Schesis onomaton of the names related to the multitude of the circuit coupled with a certain, such as:

Cloudy weather, snow, hail, storms, lightning, the winds.

[14] is a multitude of Paromoeon of the words of the text on the one beginning, and the such as it is the person described by (Ann. 109):

Oh, Titus Tatius Thou hast taken the tyrant of it that such.

But it is well this tempers the Virgil wrote, "when it is not the whole verse makes use of this figure, to quote Ennius, but they are now in the beginning towards the only, as in this case (Aen. 1,295):

Sitting on savage arms;

but now at the end, in order that (Aen. 3,183):

Alone declared to me that Cassandra sang of cases like this.

[15] Homoeoptoton, that, by many names, by a case of announce, that the argument (Virg. Vanity Fair. 12,903):

But neither the running, but did not so he knows as he passes,
tollentemque saxumque monstrous, moving his hand.

[16] Homoeon teleuton, that, by the words of a very great in one way are put an end, in order that (Cic. S. Rosc. 2,1): "she went, abcessit, he escaped, he broke out" [17] is Polyptoton, with divers cases, the sentence is varied, so that (Pers. 3,84):

Out of nothing nothing, to nothing, nothing can be returned.

and (Pers. 5,79):

Mark does. Excellent! Marco, pledged on, refuse to?
Mark said:. It is true. And assign the, Marcus, in the documents.

[18] is the view of the prolonged Hirmos of prayer to the tenor of his up to the last, observing his, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,159):

There is in the place of going into retirement after a long, island forms a harbor,

and so on. For on one side in the longer he goes on to that understanding will (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,165):

With a bristling are above the shadows of a dark grove.

[19] it is a diction Polysyntheton many conjunctions and interconnected, in order that (Virg. by Georg. 3,344):

The sheltering, home,
up, Amicleumque his dog.

[20] or Dialyton asyntheton is a figure, which on the contrary, without the conjunction released and simply carried it out, such as: "We have come, we saw, we decided to" [21] ANTITHESIS, where a contrast of the beauty of the sentence and are opposed to just given, as that '(Ovid, Met. 1 , 19):

A cold and strove with hot, wet and dry:
soft with the hard; without the weight of having the weight of the.

[22] Hypallage, as often as opposed to the words are understood by, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,61):

To give our fleet south winds,
ships with the winds, finally, that ships the winds.

37. Of Thorp. [1] the name of the Greek Grammarians tropes are those who, in Latin modes of express ourselves correctly construed. Now there are from its proper signification are not the property to the likeness. Of all these, it is most difficult to note the names of, but from all the service to be handed over, were thirteen, Donato, committed to writing. [2] The metaphor of the word used to a translation of some, as when we say "the crops of emotion," "jeweled vines" these matters when, in the waves and precious stones, we do not find, in the words of which these things were transferred from any other source. But by this and other tropical modes of speaking to the things which are to be understood, therefore, having a obteguntur figured, so that the sense be practiced by the reader, and do not, naked and in a readiness to vilescant. [3] Now there are the four ways the metaphor: from the to the animal for an animal, such as:

A winged mounted on horseback.

She hath mingled, speaking metaphorically quadrupeds, the wings of a bird, and (Virg. Ecl. 6,80):

The petiverit sped to the desert;

the course of quadrupeds, fowl, she hath mingled. From the inanimate to the inanimate, like a bridge, the pine tree farms land, a furrow presses the deep keel. He mixed the use of the waters of the earth, while the furrow to plow and to press them to the land belongs, not to the sea. [4] From the inanimate to an animal, such as "blooming youth ': the flowers had mingled among the youth inanimate, that the soul has. Away from the animal to the inanimate, such as:

Thou, O Neptune, father, to whom the times of the white crepanti
surrounded by the surge of thunder, is a great chin to whom the perpetual
flow of the ocean, and rivers, with hair disheveled, they are wrong.

For the intelligence, for seasons, and her hair does not extend to the ocean, but to men. [5] so also the other names of things are out of a different kind to another kind of beauty, the grace of a most comely are being transferred, so that the speech perornetur. Metaphor is caused by either of one is the part of, such as "of emotion, the crops '(you can not say" segetare the waves'), or ANTISTROPHE is, that is, the inverse, as in "of the wings of the apparatus of rowing" For both the wings of their ships and the wings to fly they are said. [6] abuse is the name of another 's property lies near us. These and differs from the metaphor, that that the name of the possessor do give it, this one, because has not a proper, makes use of another 's, in order that (Virg. by Georg. 2,131):

Looks very like a laurel;

and (Virg. Vanity Fair. 5,157):

Centaur, now together both are carried by making
fronts, and plow the long keel, the salt waters;

and when he does the forehead as the same amount of animal and human being is. Which name, if the ship is not a poet, had provided, to the same part of that which is proper to say, did not possess. [7] Metalempsis trope is that from the preceding it follows, as (Pers. 3,11):

What land is nodosaque charter in the hands of the reed in the came.

For by the hand of the words, by the reed of the letter have been signified. [8] a metonymy, the signification of transnominatio from another of his kinship to the other were removed thither. It happens in many ways. Or, for at that, that its contents are for doing so, which is contained, he shows, to the "tips of the theaters" "the meadows bellows;" While there, the tips of men, here in mugiant oxen; or contrary to by this, that it is contained, that, that its contents are, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2,311):

Now proxinius burns

when it is not so did, but of his house was on fire. [9] Again, by the inventor of that which has been found that it might be (Ter. Eun. 732):

Without Ceres and Bacchus Venus grows cold;

and (Virg. Vanity Fair. 9,76):

Mingling of Vulcan, he sent him to heaven the sooty.

He will have it by the discoverer of Ceres of corn bread to understand, was the inventor of the vine by the free wine, by Venus and the lust, and that Vulcan, by the fire. On the other hand have been found by the inventor of and demonstrates, in order that (Plaut. fragment. 159):

We pray to the Wine,

behalf of a free, "who take wine among the Greeks find them. [10] Also, through the efficient, is being effected, just as the "sluggish cold," make men as lazy, and "the fear of pale" because pale make men. On the other hand by the fact that is made, the efficient, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 5,817):

He joins his horses, of gold, adds the father of the foamy
the reins of wild beasts.

"Foaming on the bits' I said, they certainly did not actually do to the foam, but a horse when he acts in it, with the foam and the infused conspargat. [11] antonomasia is that for the name of, that is, in place of the name, in order that" begotten "Maia is said to" for Mercury. Trope He that is made of ways three: and from the mind, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 5,407):

Magnanimusque son of Anchises;

from the body, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,619):

He towers on high;

from without, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,475):

The unhappy boy, and no match, in conflict with Achilles.

[12] an epithet, the name of the above. For properly speaking it is preferred to the name of, to the "Ceres mild" (Virg. by Georg. 1,470):

, Vulgar dogs, the birds of the inportunaeque.

Among the antonomasiam an epithet, however, and is a difference, that for the time of the name antonomasia it is posited, is an epithet he were never without a name. In these two tropes or find fault with any man, or have shown, and / or we praise. [13] is the concept of Synecdoche, since on the part of the whole, from the whole or a part of it is understood. For at that, and by the beauty of a genus, and is demonstrated by a manner of the species [but the species is a part of, a race Now all]. For in the whole part of the A is understood, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 6,311):

How many birds are rolled together, where the chill of the year
puts to flight all the sea.

For it is not the whole year is cold, but a part of the year, that is, into winter. On the other hand on the part of the whole, as (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2,256):

The flames, when the royal ship
had brought out.

Where not only the craft, and the but of the ship, and will not ship, but who are in it, and that not every, but one fire, has buried. [14] adfictum Onomatopoeia is the name of the sound of the voice, to imitate confused, that the "gnashing of valves" "of the horses neighing," "the lowing of bullocks" "BLEATING of the sheep" [15] is circumloquium paraphrases, so long as the one at considerable length is signified, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,387):

Vital plucking it away.

For and signified by the conjunction of the words of one thing, that is, to life again. Here, however, is a trope and double. For we shall either produces the truth once brilliant in style, or round about the horrors of avoid it. Produces the truth once brilliant in style, just as (Virg. Vanity Fair. 4.584; 9,459):

And now early a new light over the earth, was sprinkling her
Dawn, leaving the Tithonus' saffron bed.

He will have it said: "Now luciscebat" "or," "is the day he was born," avoids horrors of round about, just as (Virg. Vanity Fair. 8,405):

He requested and acceptable
wife 's stretched on the bosom.

For this round about refuseth to uncleanness and properly placed, he shows intercourse with them. [16] transcensio TRANSPOSITION OF WORDS, with the order of the word or the sentence be changed. Of this species of five: anastrophe, hysteron proteron, parenthesis, tmesis, synthesis. Anastrophe is of the words of the order is inverted, such as: "about the coasts" for the "round the shores" [17] Hysteron proteron changed the order of the sentence of that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,662):

He touched the deep waves, and I reached the sea.

For formerly it had reached the sea, and so touched the waves. [18] parenthesis, where interpose our opinion, for what the word of the midst of a whole remains on the remote, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,643):

Aeneas (for neither is to consist of fathers towards the mind
suffered the love of) swift to the ships sent on Achaten.

[For there is an order: Aeneas, he presents the rapid Achaten.] For one thing is in the midst of parenthesis. [19] is the section of Tmesis of one of the name through the interposition of words, as it (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,412):

A great deal around the goddess poured a cloud, his dress,

for the "around" [20] Synthesis [is], where on every side of the words of the things are confounded, that the argument (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2,348):

Young men, in vain, is a strong
their breasts, if you are the ends of a yearning, love of desperate adventures
is fixed to follow, what is the fate you see.
Altars to retire from all the approaches, leaving
gods, to whom he had stood PERIOD OF OFFICE this; aid is the city
are on fire; die, and in the plunge to the midst of arms.

The order is as follows: "The young men is a strong breast, and you aid the city was burned in vain, because the excess gods. And so if you desire is fixed to follow me, is my final venture, we plunge in the midst of arms and that we should die" [21] The famous hyperbole of exceeding the LOFTINESS, more than the faith must be believed, so that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 3,423):

And you the stars beat the wave;

and (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,107):

The land between the waves.

For in this way any more of faith is something is increased, yet it does not from the path of symbolic of the truth lies the mistake, even though the words that exceed the indicated, so that the will of the speaker, not deceiving to appear. The trope is increased not only something, but also the niinuitur; it is increased, such as "faster than the east wind ': it is diminished, such as" softer than feature "" harder than the stone, "It is an allegory CRAZY TALK. [22] for some other sounds, and another to know that (Virg. Aen . 1,184):

The three deer on the shore
he sees those who err.

Where the three leaders in the war of the Punic, and / or the Punic wars, three things are signified. And in the Bucolics (3,71):

Ten golden apples, I have sent,

that is, to Augustus, the ten eglogas of the shepherds. Of this there are several species of tropes, from which especially applies to the seven: irony, antiphrasis, an enigma, charientismos, paroemia, sarcasmos, astysmos. [23] false modesty is the opinion of the contrary by the pronouncement that has an intellect. For this craftily in or through the trope of the accusation, or through the scorn say that something is, as in this case (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,140):

That your, Eure, the households, but those others in the hall boasts that she,
Aeolus, and having shut the prison of the winds might reign.

And how the hall, if is a prison? For by the pronouncement of SAIL. For the prison of Delivery is: false modesty, the palace boasts of is, and utterly by a contrary pronouncement by the ironies is spoken of the species. which she laughs at praising. [24] antiphrasis is the word that is to be understood on the other hand, such as "sacred grove," because it lacks the light through the excessive nemorun the shadow of, and, "Stay," that is, are the meek, (because they are, unmerciful,) and a meek, since they are terrible and savage, and "Destinies" and "The Eumenides "the Furies that no one is acquired over his relations or do good. This trope of Atlas and dwarves, the blind see and the Ethiopians and by the crowd of gold, silver, the third. [25] Among the antiphrasis irony, however, this difference and, by the pronouncement of false modesty that alone indicates that he understands it wills, just as when we say that everyone acting badly:" It is good to, as you do '; antiphrasis But if not by word signifies who proclaims the contrary, but only to their own Word, of which, is contrary to the origin of. [26] The riddle there is the question in which the difficulties is understood to obscure, unless it is opened, as it is a gather together (Iudic. 14,14): "Out of the eater came forth meat, and you are out of the strong came out to the sweetness of" significant from the mouth of the lion 's extract of the honeycomb. Among the allegory and an enigma is this difference that the force allegories twins is the thing, and under a figure, indicates that at different times; yet the sensations of an enigma is only more obscure, and by certain images, OUTLINED. [27] is Charientismos trope, in which more pleasing to the hard to relate are quoted, that while they thought they asked him, "Are we really seeks to gain a man?" The response is: "It is good Fortune" And so that no one is understood to have sought to us.

[28] Paroemia this means designed to hold the proverb, the times of things, such as: "On the other hand, kick the goad, 'While the adversity, is signified a stand against. At the right time, such as: "The wolf in the fable" For they say that country people to destroy a man's voice, if there was prior to the wolf shall see. And so it is said, and he suddenly dumb this to a proverb: "The wolf in the fable" [29] is an enemy 's Sarcasmos with the bitterness of scornful laughter of one, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 2,547):

It makes a difference these events, and the messenger you will go
Achilles my dear father; tell him my sad deeds to
remember to tell his degenerate Neoptolemus.

[30] Opposite to this is Astysmos, is without anger, civility, such as this (Virg. Ecl. 3,90):

Who does not hate the Bavium, and feel love your songs, Maeve,
and the same may join foxes and milk he-goats.

That is to say: he that does not hate the Bavium, by way of penalty to him, it should happen that loves Maeve. Likewise, there were Maevius Bavius and the poets of the worst, and enemies of Virgil. Man who slew them then, love and let him do what contrary to nature, that is to say, let him join foxes and milk he-goats. [31] is Homoeosis, which in Latin means "the likeness of, through which the less known by His own likeness of the thing, which is more it is known, is spread out demonstration. Of this species, there are three: the icon, the parabola, paradigm, that is an image, comparison with others, is an example. [32] is the image of Icon, with the form of out of a similar kind of thing we are trying to express, in order that (Virg. Vanity Fair. 4,558):

All things like Mercury, voice and hue,
and with golden hair, and each one young and handsome.

For is the likeness of an appropriate of the species, whose person they is induced. [33] The parable of the construction on of dissimilar things in order to (Lucan. 1,205):

What manner of man in the fields
aestiferae Libya 's the enemy at close quarters he was seen a lion
took up his position;

where Caesar hath compared to a lion, not out of their property, but outside the category of making the likeness of. [34] But the paradigm is a copy of the said or fact of some one, or the like, or a dissimilar from the fitting thereof, as the propose in a thing, so: "to be so strongly perished at Hippo at Utica than Scipio, Cato," [35] But the likeness of three ways in which it is done, by parity of reasoning , a is greater, from the least. By parity of reasoning (Virg. Vanity Fair. 1,148):

And, as it were in a great nation is having arisen, who was often

at the least, from the greatest (1,151 Lucan.):

In what way the winds, set down a thunderbolt through the clouds;

, from the least to the greater (Virg. Vanity Fair. 6,119):

If anyone could have to send for his wife 'the ghosts, Orpheus,
Relying on his Thracian harp, his lyre of song;

as if to say, a small matter, and, a short, that is, if he did, relying on the harp, I love.

38. OF THE advantageous to us. [1] Prose is produced from the law of a statement and a meter, all loosened. For the ancients the product useful, and right, they said. And so with Plautus, Varro says "avail him who lies had been read 'signs of right angles, from whence also we perflexa which is not in number, but in the upright, the prayer is the prose, in a straight line producing. Others writing from him, they say, the said, that it is above all for boundless, and / or from the fact that more abundant than proruat and to run out, the term with no one to an end,. [2] Furthermore, both among the Greeks than among the Latins to have been the care of far more ancient than the music of the prose. For all things are first verses be buried; the study of prose, but too late in force amongst them. Pherecydes of the Greeks was the first among the Syrian prose by letter of the Appius, at Rome, the blind battle with Pyrrhus, the prayer of its release from the first he has exercised. exhinc Now prose and the rest of eloquence without halting.

39. OF THE Metrit. [1] Metra being called, and feet because it is certain measures, and term of time, and no longer a dimension of the appointed time and proceed. Size of Metron for the Greek it is said. [2] against the said from the fact that their order of feet they are placed in order that certain end are controlled by the articles, which were killed and members are named. Who not to go far more than the judgment provolverentur he could not withstand, be in some measure the reason from which go home again; and was by him called him the verse, which is restored. [3] in this adheres to rythmus, who is not sure at the end temperate and restrained, but his feet set in order, however, in accordance with reason is running; in Latin that a number has nothing else it is said, Of what is it (Virg. Ecl. 9,45):

I remember the numbers, but keep the words.

[4] is called the Dutch, the feet of whatever is contained: the name of whom it was given or what is the think that the AT DIFFERENT TIMES pronounced, and so this day, wool, tear to pieces than to clear themselves, "carminare 'we say: who or what is the mind that could sing of thought to do without. [5] or by the feet of Metra to be named, and / or from things which are written, or discoverers,, and / or from the frequentatoribus, and / or from among the number of syllables. From the feet, meters being called, and that DACTYLIC, iambic, TROCHAIC. [6] A TRIBRACH For TROCHAIC meter is born, and from the dactyl DACTYLIC, so also the things other than on his feet A. From the number, such as in dactylic hexameter, pentametrum, trimeter. For the six days of against us we call from the number of feet. These, the Greeks, because to the twin find their mark, they say TRIMETER. hexameters of Latinus, the first to have done Ennius said, "is handed down to them" a long, 'they call. [7] it was called discoverers, are said to meters, so that Anacreonticum the Sapphic, Archilochus. For Anacreontica meters, he set Anacreon; Sapphic Sappho was a woman bears; Archilochios Archilochus Some writers assert that some of Colophon Colophonians he has exercised. Sotadeorum Sotades also it was found that the genus of a Cretan. Also of Simonides, the lyric poet Simonides meters set in order. [8] A frequentatoribus, as Asclepiades. For we do not Asclepius he found, only in the sense, that she was being called, so admirably with the same [and very often they] is the use of. [9] from things which are written, as a heroic, elegiac, bucolic. For a song has been said a heroic, as they had the valiant men of a thing and to the story told. For as heroes of brass, with a man is as worthy of heaven for the sake of wisdom, and strength. That the authority of the rest of the meter meters precedes; one of the greatest all, both the fit for work than a lesser, of sweetness of sweetness and equally capable of it. [10] the name of these virtues alone, he had, as a heroic be summoned to the writers that is, of material things. For the rest, and then in the most simple and it is certain we find in the two [feet], the dactyl, and I promise, and is often almost or from this or out of that; except that which is made of both a mixture of temperate than if for instruction; to every one. [11] To all the meters and also first. In the first place in the song of Moses of Deuteronomy Pherecyden a long time before and Homer have sung proved as follows. Hence it appears to have been more ancient among the Hebrews, the study of my poems than among the Gentiles, if indeed the times of Moses, and Job, adequate in dactylic hexameter verse, the dactyl spondeoque, ran down. [12] This Achatesius among the Greeks of Miletus is said to have composed the first, or, as others think,, Pherecydes of the Syrian. That measure for the Pythian has been said before Homer, that, after a heroic Homer named. [13], but was called the Pythian wish to him, that this is the genus of an oracle of Apollo of meter they are published. For when he hath a divining spirit in the Parnassus and the mother 's revenge the serpent in the arrows following, these, the inhabitants at Delphi this meter they were strongly urged him, saying, as he says Terence (K. 1591), [PAIAN IE and IE PAIAN and IE PAIAN]. [14] is so called Elegiac the fact that the song of the same piece of music belongs to the distressed. Terence: He chooses some to say myself, "because such a clause unlucky, though to say, of being in harmony of ways. [15] Here, however, is evident from the scarcely at all which has been since found it, but because with us Ennius said, "prior to him useful as before. For among the Greeks, thus it still depends on a suit Period, that with the banishment, with the judge is the thing. For some of them a certain of Colophon, and some Archilochus was the inventor of the author and for nothing. [16] a Pastoral, that is, the pastoral song, most of the first at Syracuse compounded by the opinion that by the shepherds, a few at Sparta. For going over into the Thrace conduct will become known king of the Persians, that of the Spartan virgins under the fear of an enemy, nor to go out the city was not the pomp of the rustic chorumque of Diana would exert in the usual way, the multitude of the shepherds, not even religion passed by, he celebrated in song the same with crude. But he calls the Pastoral of the greater part of, even though the words of the shepherds caprariorumque in them, and the songs be grafted in. [17] the first hymns of David the prophet, have composed in praise of God, and have sung it is manifest. Then, the first among the Gentiles Memmius Timothoe he did in the worship Apollo, and the Muses, which lived in the time of Ennius long after David. But the hymns are from the Greek into Latin, the praises of interpret. [18] WEDDING SONG they are marrying with the songs, which are related to academic from the, in honor of the bridegroom and the bride. These the first Solomon gave an to the praise of the Church and of Christ. From which it is claimed for the Gentiles to himself WEDDING SONG, and the arguments of that sort, is taken up a song. And this kind of the first in the hands of the Gentiles was celebrated on the stage, to that amount on her wedding day to a standstill. And he called his WEDDING SONG the fact that in the little chambers sung. [19] Lamentations, which in Latin we call up a lamentation, the first verse of Jeremiah, he set over the city of Jerusalem, [when he was overthrown], and the people [of Israel] when the [is subverted and] go into exile. After this man, among the Greeks, the poet Simonides lyrics. But it was employed, and their laments, funeral rites were: in like manner it is now. [20] An epitaph in Greek, in Latin above his tomb. For it is the title of the dead, who are in their sleep, the man who now they are dead. For the words are there, life, custom, and the age of them. [21] Poetry the work of a Greek term, it is said of many of the books, a poem of one, idyllion of a few of verses, distich of two people, monostichon "one." [22] is the pillar of An epigram, that in the Latin inscription is interpreted "For a bishop should be about, grammar or the writing of the letter it is said. [23] Epodon in poetry is a brief clause. Epodon It has been said, however, that the adcinatur to the species of elegiac verse, where a longer period of, sending forward the one, The other is shorter for these objects, and in the ancestors to each and all as it were less than the following clause recinunt. [24] But the close call as it were lyric poets towards the entire subject to be cut off, as it is written in Horace (Epod. 2,1):

Blessed is he, who far away from business,
it then follows that is cut off at:
As the old race of mortals;

and forward so the alternate, to whom there is lacking a certain part of, and they also like the preceding, but smaller. [25] with references on Latin Grammar Cento and are commonly called, who was of the poem of Homer, of Virgil, or the manner of their own works to the centonario, out of many from one side to the one ordered, into the sarciunt the body, to the faculty of each of the matter. [26] Finally, Prove, the wife of Adelphius, Cento from the Virgil out of the fabric of the world and of the Gospel most fully expressed, the material with these made up the second verse, and verse You dress up according to matter. So it were a Pomponius, and some from the same pen 'among other things, a poet of his leisure in the Tityrus had arranged the honor of Christ: in like manner and out of the book of the Aeneid.

40. OF THE embellished with one hundred. [1] from the tales of the stories of poets called by the name, because they are not things have been made, but only the speaking of false or feigned. What that reason they are brought forward, so that the maker thereof hath of dumb animals to each other were an image of a conference they might judge of the life of mankind. These he found, who was the first handed down Alcmeon Croton, appellanturque Aesopiae, because he held such a the Phrygians the Great abused them in this matter. [2] But there are a tale, or Aesop, or Libysticae. Aesop, when they had to each other dumb animals "sermocinasse they are represented, and / or they do not have that leads the soul, to give the city, the trees, the mountains, the rock, the rivers. Libysticae but as long as the beasts of the men, together with, or that the beasts of the voice with men is fashioned to be RIGHT TO TRADE. [3] for taking delight, some of the stories of poets have pretended as the cause of and some that are the nature of things, and some to interpret "the morals of men. For taking delight, the cause of that fictitious, as they are, which they commonly say, or what manner of Plautus, Terence and stored them. [4] As for the nature of things they imagine the stories, such as "Vulcan is lame" because by the nature of the fire was never right, such as that the beast TRIFORM (Lucret. 5,903):

The first a lion, and finally a dragon, A chimera itself in the center:

that is, the roe, age, wishing to men by means of it to distinguish; of which the wild and the first, bristling with youth, like a lion; half life and the time the clearest, as the roe, because they have very sharp; it then becomes of the cases are bent, old age, a dragon. [5] So also is the story hippocentaur seem to be invented, that is, his horse, a man mingled with it, to express the speed of human life, because the horse is established to be the swiftest. [6] And to die, as in Horace speaks of the wall and we weasel, the cunning fox, so that through a story that is fashioned to suit let the true meaning of what takes place may be referred. And so also the fables of Aesop and talessunt were brought to the end of morals, and / or as it is in the Book of Judges (9,8), their king in the trees of the require and speak to the olive and the fig tree, and to the said to the vine, and to the account of the bush; it surely applies to the whole of which is fashioned so that the character to the point, which is intended , feigning, indeed, the account of, but come to the meaning of genuine spirit. [7] So also is the orator Demosthenes was the use of a story is the answer to Philip, who, when by the Athenians to him to beg him to the ambassadors of ten they were given, and he would depart, he formed the [this] a story which dissuaderet, saying wolves at any time to the pastors, to deceive the diligence of which they had wished to have advised that in the friendship they came together, yet it has conditional, as if the dogs, in which was the cause of the conflict, by right of them, be delivered up to: adnuisse shepherds, and in the hope of security to have given the dogs, which the keepers of the most vigilant of his sheep are having. Then the wolves, and, giving up all the fear, everything which was among the flocks of them, not for the surfeit of seeing them only, with lust, but also for tore. Philip also princes of the people to demand, the more easily it can to oppress the despoiled of the keepers of the city.

41. On the History of. [1] The history of this success story it is, by the weight to, which in the past they were made, are known to be. Sayings of the history of the Greek for apo tou ISTOREIN, that is, from to see or become acquainted with. For no one among the ancients it write the history, but he who presence of, and things that they were recruiting a he had seen. For better it is things that are done the eyes of thought, such as hearing than that which we infer that. [2] The things which are seen, without a lie, brought forth. This discipline belongs to grammar, because, whatever is worthy of mention commit these to writing. But it was just the monuments of history are said to, because he had to distribute the memory of achievement to match. Moreover the series of words through the translation of one another, from the garlands of flowers are included.

42. THE FIRST AVCTORIBVS HISTORIARVM. [1] a story of us, however, there was the first of Moses of the beginning of the world committed to writing. But amongst the Gentiles should first receive a Phrygian, of the Greeks and the Trojans in the history of managed to say, than in the leaves of palm trees from him, written to be on this occasion. [2] After the Dares But in Greece, the history of Herodotus was the first met. After whom was famous for Pherecydes of these times in which he wrote the law of Esdras.

43. The good and commoditie OF THE HISTORY OF. [1] History of nations, not to complicate those who read at the things that they said useful. For many of the wise men of the past to the carriage of men conveyed to the institution of histories of the present, if indeed the sum of and through the history of past times and years, he is caught firmly the reckoning, and by the succession of all the kings of the consuls they examine the many necessary.

44. OF THE HISTORY OF GENERIBVS. [1] Family history there is a threefold. For Ephemeris of one day is called the gestures. This is called a diary with us. For that which they learned the daily of the Latin, the Greeks journal they say. [2] are called the calendar, which in every month, digested. The chronicles of years old are the things of every one. [3] Each worthy of memory, at home and abroad, of the earth and sea, through the years in the records are the acts of the, the deeds of anniversaries from the annals called by the name. [4] The history of many years, but of time and is, of which the diligence of the annual in the books of commentaries are carried there. But among the histories and chronicles of this difference, that it is called history of the period that what we have seen, but those are the annals of whom in all the years my life is not truly know Him. And so the historical works of Sallust, Livy, Eusebius and Jerome from the annals, and the history of stand in force. [5] the history and the same time, among the subject and take part in the story. For the history of the true are the things that were performed; the arguments are made which, even if they are not, yet they can be to be made; but those are the story, which neither are, nor have been made can be made, because it is contrary to Nature.