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Result of Green Revolution

Statistical Results of the Green Revolution

  1. The Green Revolution resulted in a record grain output of 131 million tons in 1978-79. This established India as one of the world's biggest agricultural producers. No other country in the world, which attempted the Green Revolution recorded such level of success. India also became an exporter of food grains around that time.
  2. Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30 per cent between 1947 (when India gained political independence) and 1979 when the Green Revolution was considered to have delivered its goods.
  3. The crop area under HYV varieties grew from seven per cent to 22 per cent of the total cultivated area during the 10 years of the Green Revolution.More than 70 per cent of the wheat crop area, 35 per cent of the rice crop area and 20 per cent of the millet and corn crop area, used the HYV seeds.

Economic results of the Green Revolution

  • Crop areas under high-yield varieties needed more water, more fertilizer, more pesticides, fungicides and certain other chemicals. This spurred the growth of the local manufacturing sector. Such industrial growth created new jobs and contributed to the country's GDP.
  • The increase in irrigation created need for new dams to harness monsoon water. The water stored was used to create hydroelectric power. This in turn boosted industrial growth, created jobs and improved the quality of life of the people in village.

  • India paid back all loans it had taken from the World Bank and its affiliates for the purpose of the Green Revolution. This improved India 's creditworthiness in the eyes of the lending agencies.
  • Some developed countries, especially Canada , which were facing a shortage in agricultural labor, were so impressed by the results of India 's Green Revolution that they asked the Indian government to supply them with farmers experienced in the methods of the Green Revolution.
  • Many farmers from Punjab and Haryana states in northern India were thus sent to Canada where they settled (That's why Canada today has many Punjabi-speaking citizens of Indian origin). These people remitted part of their incomes to their relatives in India . This not only helped the relatives but also added, albeit modestly, to India 's foreign exchange earnings

Political results of the Green Revolution

  1. India transformed itself from a starving nation to an exporter of food. This earned admiration for  India in the comity of nations, especially in the Third World .
  2. The Green Revolution was one factor that made Mrs Indira Gandhi (1917-84) and her party, the Indian National Congress, a very powerful political force in India (it would however be wrong to say that it was the only reason).

Sociological results of the Green Revolution
  1. The Green Revolution created plenty of jobs not only for agricultural workers but also industrial workers by the creation of lateral facilities such as factories and hydro-electric power stations as explained above.

Limitations of the Green Revolution

  1. Even today, India 's agricultural output sometimes falls short of demand. The Green Revolution, how ever impressive, has thus NOT succeeded in making India totally and permanently self-sufficient in food.
    • In 1979 and 1987, India faced severe drought conditions due to poor monsoon; this raised questions about the whether the Green Revolution was really a long-term achievement.
    • In 1998, India had to import onions. Last year, India imported sugar.
  2. However, in today's globalized economic scenario, 100 per cent self-sufficiency is not considered as vital a target as it was when the world political climate was more dangerous due to the Cold War.
  3. India has failed to extend the concept of high-yield value seeds to all crops or all regions.
  4.  In terms of crops, it remains largely confined to food grains only, not to all kinds of agricultural produce.
    • In regional terms, only Punjab and Haryana states showed the best results of the Green Revolution.
    • The eastern plains of the River Ganges in West Bengal state also showed reasonably good results.
    • But results were less impressive in other parts of India .

  5. Nothing like the Bengal Famine can happen in India again.
    • But it is disturbing to note that even today, there are places like Kalahandi (in India 's eastern state of Orissa) where famine-like conditions have existed for many years and where some starvation deaths have also been reported.
    • Of course, this is due to reasons other than availability of food in India , but the very fact that some people are still starving in India (whatever the reason may be), brings into question whether the Green Revolution has failed in its overall social objectives though it has been a resounding success in terms of agricultural production.