2012 - Rindawati Blog

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Dale's Cone Experience

Years  ago an educator  named Edgar Dale ,often cited as the father of modern media in education, developed from his experience in teaching and his observations of learners the "cone of experience”. The cone's utility in selecting instructional resources and activities is as practical today as when Dale created it. The Cone of Experience is a visual device to aid teachers in the selection of instructional media. The Cone is based on the movement from concrete experiences to abstract experiences
Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience :
The Edgar Dale Cone of Experience summarizes how learners retain information.
    We Remember 
        20% of what we HEAR 
        30% of what we SEE 
        50% of what we SEE & HEAR 
        80% of what we SAY 
        90% of what we SAY & DO
How the cone works?
According to Dale’s research, the least effective method at the top, involves learning from information presented through verbal symbols, i.e., listening to spoken words.  The most effective methods at the bottom, involves direct, purposeful learning experiences, such as hands-on or field experience.  Direct purposeful experiences represents reality or the closet things to real, everyday life. 
When simply spoken to in a presentation we retain 30% of what is said. If this information is also presented in a visual format, our retention level of this information increases to 50%. When we also actively receive and participate in the presentation, retention increases to 70%. Finally, retention is maximized to 90% when we practice what we've learned.
   The opportunity for a learner to use a varietyor several senses (sight, smell, hearing,touching, movement) is considered in the cone. Direct experience allows us to use all senses.As you move up the cone, fewer senses areinvolved at each level.By using  action-learning techniques result in up to 90% retention.  People learn best when they use perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles are sensory based.  The more sensory uses possible in interacting with a resource, the better chance that many students can learn from it. According to Dale, instructors should design instructional activities that build upon more real-life experiences. 
We concluded that when students "do the real thing," "simulate" the real thing, or teach others what they have learned, the retention rate is about 90% of what was taught.

Dales’ cone of experience And ICT
Dales’ cone of experience is a tool to help instructors make decisions about resources and activities where can be supported by using ICT. The cone may help us to choose the instructional materials that are most appropriate for the particular topic we wish to teach. The Cone can help us to understand these relationships between media and the messages they convey. It suggests, in fact, that various instructional materials differ in the degree of sensory experience they are able to provide. Our selection of instructional materials, therefore, will depend on the amount of sensory experience we wish to provide for a particular topic of our lesson. And the Cone can help us "place" a teaching method; it can help us select the way of communicating most suited to the experience we wish to convey. By using ICT, teacher are able to design instructional activities. By using computer which is connected with internet, both teacher or students are able to experience learning from the abstract one (reading text, pictures) into the concrete one (video). So, ICT can be used as the media that supports in designing instructional activities either for the abstract or concrete one.