2002 - Marshall

Dr. James M. Marshall

Retrieved 2002 from http://www.ciconline.org/uploads/CIC_REPORT.pdf

From pp. 15-16

Researchers posit that explanations in words and pictures, as opposed to words or pictures, make for increased comprehension (Mayer, 2001) for the learner.  Dale’s “Cone of Experience” (1946, 1996) provides evidence of these phenomena.  Dale’s research suggested that increasing the modalities by which content was presented could increase retention rates.  Wiman and Mierhenry (1969) extended Dale’s concept to conclude that people will generally remember

10 percent of what they read
20 percent of what they hear
30 percent of what they see
50 percent of what they hear and see