The Chagossians

WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE REMOVAL OF THE ISLANDERS?

The school, Diego Garcia, 1964 - one year before the Chagos Islands were detached from Mauritius to create the new colony of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). (photo credit Andrew Nunn)

Deportation

"There is nothing wrong in law or in principle to enacting an immigration law which enables the Commissioner to deport inhabitants of BIOT. Even in international law there is no established rule that a citizen has a right to enter or remain in his country of origin/birth/nationality etc. A provision to this effect is contained in Protocol No 4 to the European Convention on Human Rights but that has not been ratified by us, and thus we do not regard the UK as bound by such a rule. In this respect we are able to make up the rules as we go along and treat the inhabitants of BIOT as not ‘belonging’ to it in any sense."

So reads a secret minute written by a Foreign Office lawyer on 23 October 1968 when plans were being drawn up to deport the Chagossians from their homeland to make way for a US military base on the island of Diego Garcia.

The detachment of the Chagos Islands from the colony of Mauritius had been carried out 3 years earlier in defiance of the United Nations General Assembly Declaration 1514(XV) which called upon colonial powers to give complete independence to former colonies without alteration of their borders. The UK neglected this and the requirement: "to transfer all powers to those peoples ….without any conditions or reservations" and instead created a new colony - the British Indian Ocean Territory. This prompted the UN to pass General Resolution 2066:

" Noting with deep concern that any step taken by the administering Power to detach certain islands from the Territory of Mauritius for the purpose of establishing a military base would be in contravention of the Declaration [1514 (XV)] …Invites the administering Power to take no action which would dismember the Territory of Mauritius and violate its territorial integrity."

Nonetheless, the British Government pressed ahead with their plans for the new colony, and on 30 December 1966 signed an 'Exchange of Notes' with the US Government, granting the US the rights to use the whole of the archipelago for defence purposes for an indefinite period. This was initially to be 50 years until 2016 and thereafter renewal is automatic for a further 20 years.

The fate of the islands was sealed and the indigenous Chagossians (Ilois) were initially prevented from travelling back to the Chagos from visits to Mauritius and were finally deported between 1971 and 1973. 

Words written by the Manager of the last Plantation on Ile du Coin, Peros Banhos just before the removal of the islanders in 1973 (photo credit Mark Spalding)


















The Role of the United States

US Seabees landing on Diego Garcia 20 March 1971 (photo credit Tony Hutson)

It has long been thought that the US played a central role in the removal of the Chagossians by demanding that the territory should be free of inhabitants. Recent research, however suggests that this is not true. 

David Snoxell 1 wrote in 2009, "Although the US was looking for an uninhabited island to serve as a base, there is no available evidence that they insisted on the depopulation of all the islands. It was British officials who were the instigators of this policy, albeit with American concurrence.

Evidence has now been found in government papers which confirms this and exonerates the US. Whilst the US undoubtedly required Diego Garcia to be depopulated, the removal of the remaining population from Peros Banhos and Salomon was entirely at the behest of the British Government. A letter 2 from the East African Department of the FCO to the British High Commissioner in Mauritius recounts that: "Our agreement with them [US] leading to the 1966 Exchange of Notes required only Diego Garcia to be empty. They had no objections to the other Chagos Islands remaining populated; it was our decision to clear the lot and resettle in Mauritius."  

1 - Snoxell, D.R. (2009) Anglo/American Complicity in the Removal of the Inhabitants of the Chagos Islands, 1964-73. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 37:127-134
2 - Hewitt (EAD) to Ward (BHC Mauritius) dated 4 December 1980. File FCO 31/2770. National Archives, London.


How Many Chagossians were Removed from the Chagos Islands?

Robert Lemaitre, aged 82 years, a retired docker and fisherman from Salomon with his grandson. Roiche Bois, Port Louis, Mauritius November 2005

Examination of HM Government files in the National Archives at Kew have allowed researchers to build a reasonably accurate picture of the removal of the population from the Chagos. They concluded that:

By 1973, all the inhabitants had been removed by the British Government to make way for a US Military Base on one of the islands, Diego Garcia. Although the recorded population of the Chagos in the early 1960s before the formation of the British Indian Ocean Territory did not exceed 1,000 at any one time, the nature of the society and their links to colonial Mauritius masked the true numbers who had been born on and lived in the islands and were entitled to consider themselves native islanders or ‘Ilois’ and whose employment and lifestyle involved a freedom of movement between Mauritius and the Chagos. The size and nature of the Ilois were deliberately manipulated and concealed by British colonial officials in order to avoid scrutiny by the United Nations. By comparing the best available contemporary records and government archives, we conclusively demonstrate that the policy of the British Government drove between 1,328 and 1,522 Ilois into exile and poverty on Mauritius, and a further 232 on the Seychelles.

The full paper can be found in the academic journal Population Space & Place: Gifford,R. & Dunne,R.P - A Dispossessed People: the Depopulation of the Chagos Archipelago 1965–1973  (PSP - Early View). Copies of the paper are available on request (e-mail: RichardPDunne@aol.com).














Exile in Mauritius


In 1983 Sean Carey visited Mauritius where he talked to exiled Chagossians, his report appeared in Africa Now in the same year: Carey 1983 Africa Now.pdf



















See also:

Sandra J.T.M. Evers and Marry Kooy (eds.) 

This book examines the history and contemporary living conditions of Chagossians who were evicted from the Chagos archipelago in the Indian Ocean to make way for a strategic U.S. military base. Initially part of colonial Mauritius, Chagos was integrated into a new colony named the British Indian Ocean Territory in 1965. In 1966, Great Britain transferred control of Diego Garcia, the largest Chagos island, to the Americans under a fifty year lease. The expulsions which followed were designed to satisfy the U.S. demand for an unpopulated territory. The Chagossians were thus forced to resettle in Mauritius and the Seychelles, where livelihoods are poor and marginalized. The Chagossians are currently engaged in a campaign seeking right of return to the archipelago and recognition as a people forced to live in diaspora. 

For more details: Brill Publishers






For further reading, see the House of Commons Library Standard Note "The Chagos Islanders" at: http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN04463 (last updated 20 April 2012).





Further Reading

Diego Garcia: a contrast to the Falklands. The Minority Rights Group - Report No. 54. 1985













Links to Chagossian  & Other Support Groups:

Primarily a British Support group which does political lobbying and welfare assistance on behalf of all Chagossians.

President, Olivier Bancoult based in Mauritius with a UK branch in Crawley, Sussex run by Sabrina Jean.

The Ilois Trust is a registered UK charity set up in the 2000s to support Chagossians in Mauritius and Seychelles. It appears to now be largely defunct with its website last updated in 2008.


President, Allen Vincatassin based in Crawley. It renamed itself the 'Provisional Government of Diego Garcia & Chagos Islands' in January 2011 but no longer has a website, relying only on Facebook. The new name has not been universally recognised. 

Chagossian Social Committee: (no Website)
President, the recently deceased Fernand Mandarin, based in Mauritius, now closely aligned to the CRG, if not already amalgamated.

Chairperson, Hengride Permal, based in Crawley, in opposition to DGCIC, but now appears to be moribund.

Chairperson, Isabelle Charlot (Croydon) succeeded Frankie Bontemps (Crawley).  Group formed in early 2011.  See below the Chagos Islanders Movement.

President: Isabelle Charlot. Secretary: Mr Jean-Paul France. Based in the UK in Crawley & Purley.
The CIM was constituted on 24 March 2017 from former members of the Chagos Islanders Welfare Group (CWIG). It would appear that CWIG ceased to exits from that date.

Chagossian Social Committee (Seychelles): (no Website)
Chairman, Pierre Prosper.

Crawley British Chagossian Community:(no Website) 
Secretary: Jenny Bertrand. Manchester Representative: Claudia Naraina. Appears to have emerged in 2016. 




Ċ
R P Dunne,
Mar 6, 2012, 8:23 AM
Ċ
R P Dunne,
Feb 20, 2012, 10:17 AM