March 24, 2009 Trees and Shrubs

Assignment – Read< xml="true" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" prefix="o" namespace="">


Robbins, Harrington, Freire-Marreco, Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians


Pages 38-53


Dunmire and Tierney, Wild Plants of the < xml="true" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" prefix="st1" namespace="">Pueblo Province


Chapter 1 and Chapter 6: pp. 83-121



What have we learned so far?< xml="true" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" prefix="o" namespace="">


Principles of Tewa Ethnobiology


  1. All biological organisms are interconnected, interdependent, and harmonious.

-         Relationships have a natural history.

-         Human relations (family, society, community) are the model for the moral order in the universe.


  1. Tewa are acute observers, not experimentalists.

-         Use all human senses

-         Spiritual quality. Lessons (metaphors) from anthropomorphic animals.


  1. Mutual responsibility to care for all organisms and the environment and they will nurture people.

      -     Belief in an animated world

      -     Obligation for humans to maintain order (balance and harmony) in the universe by proper behavior and ritual action (Ortiz).


  1. Cycles are the order of the universe and human life and body are models. Birth is a blessing; death is a physical transformation to return to earth and a metamorphosis of the human spirit as an animated force in nature.


  1. Technology should be appropriate and reflect balanced relationships to the natural world.


(See Gregory Cajete (2000) Native Science, Natural Laws of Interdependence. Clear Light Publishers, < xml="true" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" prefix="st1" namespace="">Santa Fe)


Tewa Ethnobiology    March 24, 2009


Tree                                        tay

Shrub                                      phay, phé¶Øvi


            Mountain             p’in

Spruce (Douglas-fir) (Sp. pino real)      Pseudotsuga menziesii   medicine, ceremonies



White fir                                               Abies concolor                 drum, medicine, pipestem



White pine                                            Pinus flexilis                     sap for cuts



Engelmann spruce                                 Picea engelmanni             hunt deer

            pØ­ t’oe


Ponderosa (yellow) pine (Sp. pinavete) Pinus ponderosa            viga, fuel, food, medicine



Rocky Mountain juniper (Sp. cedro)     Juniperus  scopulorum     firewood, food, medicine

h³üwoe, p’î¶phay


Common juniper                                   Juniperus communis         medicine, food

            h³ü tsÐwØ


Narrowleaf cottonwood                        Populus angustifolia        fuel



Quaking aspen                                      Populus tremuloides          corral, medicine, drum



Gambel oak                                          Quercus gambelii              food, tools, plow,

kwØ­                                  digging stick, rabbitstick


Chokecherry                                        Prunus virginiana              food, medicine, bows



New Mexico locust (Sp. uňa de gato)   Robinia neomexicana      food, tools, bows

            múusa phéh


Alder                                                    Alnus tenuifolia                 dye



Box-elder (Sp. nogal)                           Acer negundo                pipestems



Streamside birch                                   Betula fontinalis                  ?

            p’innØ­¶in tewabay


Hackberry (Sp. palo duro)                    Celtis reticulata                food, handles                                  phéhkây¶i¶


Hill                       okú

Pinyon pine                                           Pinus edulis                        food, medicine, glue

            t’oe                                  stories


One-seed juniper (Sp. sabina)              Juniperus monosperma       food, medicine, cordage

h³ü                                  firewood, smudge, torch,   

                                                                                        bows, gum for tooth, beads


Sagebrush (Sp. estafiata)                   Artimesia tridentata              medicine, fuel, cordage



Mountain mahogany (Sp. palo duro) Cercocarpus montanus    rabbitstick, tools, medicine                   qwØ­                                                                                              dye


            Prairie                           ahkon

Cane cholla                                          Opuntia imbricata                ceremony, fodder, food

            yôe                                   medicine, stories


Greasewood (Sp. chico)                       Sarcobatus vermiculatus        tools



Rabbitbrush                                         Chrysothamnus nauseosus    medicine, dye, basket 



Four-wing saltbush                               Atriplex canescens               food, fuel, medicine

            ta¶ããy­­                                                                               ashes in cooking


River                    p’o¶k’ay

Valley (Fremont) cottonwood   Populus fremontii                 snack, hat, drum,             

            tay                                                                                         medicine, katchina

            te\á (male cottonwood)

     tehkháy (female cottonwood)                                  bud snack


Coyote willow (Sp.jara)                        Salix exigua                          basket, latillas, mat,                        

            yán                                   fuel, body paint


Salt cedar (intro.1823; 1870s esc.)       Tamarix ramosissima + spp.


Russian olive (ca.1900)             Elaeagnus angustifolia          food

oekhüü, “monkey peanut”


Apache plume  (Sp. poňil)                    Fallugia paradoxa              broom, arrows, shampoo



            Canal                             kwi¶ónú, kwi¶ôn

American plum                         Prunus americana                  food, medicine



            Field                     nava

Wolfberry (tomatillo)                            Lycium pallidum                     food



Fringed sage                                         Artemisia frigida                     medicine

            k’é¶yá t’óe


                                    Firewood                        son, p’î¶phay

Pitchwood            son kwضi¶, kohsée







              te¶okhówa (tree bark)

              kh³ün (corncob)

              taywayekhóe (cottonwood twigs)

              phé¶Øvi (weeds, trash)

              h³ükhówa (juniper bark)


Indoors                   Outdoors


Open          Enclosed         Enclosed      Open   

Hearth (baysu)     Stove (etúpha)       Horno (pânteh)     (phaa)


t’oe            h³ü            h³ü            h³ü

     yán                                        phüü

     tay                                         ta¶ããy­­ 


     h³ü                    Pit (pho)