April 21, 2009 Traditional Agricultural Plants




Pp. 76- 107

Dunmire and Tierney :  Pp. 45-54; 73-82.


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April 14, 2007


The Steps to Domestication (see handout)

Multiple Spaces

Gather (wild, fire)

Cultivate (fire, tend, weed, till, sow, transplant)

Incipient Agriculture (manipulated, targeted plants in limited, habitat spaces)

Gardens (multi-cropping in circumscribed space; genetic changes)

Field Agriculture (limited or monocrop in large, open spaces; genetic selection)


Domesticated Plants - ko¶shí vs. t’un (SC – wild plant)

kh³ü                Maize (Zea mays)

    Specifics                                           Varieties named by color or origin – see handout

kh³ütsÐwØin           blue corn

kh³üts’áyin            yellow corn

kh³üp’î¶in             red corn

kh³üts’­­in            white corn

kh³üts­gehin           all-color corn

kh³üphehnin           black corn

kh³üphinini            dwarf corn (pop)


K’ép’ít’owa kh³üts’áyin   Anglo yellow corn (dent)

tsaykh³ü              eagle corn

tay whevwgwh kh³ü     Domingo corn

kh³üp­­in             deer corn

kh³üp’i­ãin            pink corn

kh³üpyánin            willow corn

kh³üdáyin             fox corn

kh³ü’Ðin              sweet corn

phininikh³ü’âin         sweet popcorn


Maize Products

Ãgän                 atole

Buwá                 paper bread

khضbówá              white cornmeal

kh³ü buwáthíthí         corn tortilla (stiff dough)

kh³ü khan             cornmeal

kh³üs­­ khan           tamale flour

kh³üs­­               posole

k’okhókwínu            corn tortilla (soft batter)

phuw­p’áa             popcorn

phuw­ta               ground parched corn

sahkéweh              blue cornmeal mush

tséekho                chicos




tûu                 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

poe                 Squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita argyrosperma)

poe                                         Gourds (Lagenaria siceraria)

  K’é\éh                gourd dipper

 K’é\éwh¼nnin           long handled dipper

 Khayephéh             gourd pottery scraper

 po¶wiyeh              rattle

sekh­                 Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum var.punctatum)



Plants to Help the Plants

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Osa pu                               soak kernels in water containing mashed root for four days

pubae penyavi (SI)           Spectacle-pod (Dimorphocarpa wislizeni) – chew leaves and

                                           flowers and spit over stored corn to keep worms away

wi-ku (T)                           whorled milkweed  (Asclepias subverticillata) – “Mother of

                                           the Corn.” Allow to grow in field to nurture corn; never hoe.



Saa, poh­saa, tuun saa (SI)     Nicotiana attenuata – native tobacco

Saa, t’owasaa                           Nictiana rustica – from Mexico

Saa                                            Nicotiana tabacum – commercial tobacco

  Sak’u                                pipe (stone, tubular)

  Nansak’u                          pipe (pottery)

  Phihpaa                            cigarette – usually corn husk (k’o\ekowa)


pimph³yض                  bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) – smoke dried leaves

saa won’dia                 (Ipomopsis multiflora) – mix dried with ceremonial tobacco


                              (N) Cornus stolonifera – dried red leaves and mixed with tobacco