ショーン・エイカー 「幸福と成功の意外な関係」

Shawn Achor: The happy secret to better workhttp://www.ted.com/talks/arthur_benjamin_does_mathemagic.html

YouTube 動画

YouTube 動画




When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old, we were playing on top of a bunk bed.
私が7歳で妹が5歳の時 2段ベッドの上で一緒に遊んでいました

I was two years older than my sister at the time -- I mean,I'm two years older than her now --
当時私は妹より2つ年上で・・・ 今でも2つ年上ですが ・・・ 

but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do, and I wanted to play war. So we were up on top of our bunk beds.
当時は何でも私が仕切っていて 戦争ごっこをすることになりました

And on one side of the bunk bed,
それで2段ベッドの上で 一方の端には

I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry.

And on the other side were all my sister's My Little Ponies ready for a cavalry charge.
もう一方には妹のマイリトルポニーが 騎馬突撃に備えていました

There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon,
あの日の午後起きたことに関しては 見解の相違があるのですが

but since my sister is not here with us today,

let me tell you the true story -- (Laughter) --
皆さんに真実をお話しすることにしましょう (笑) 

which is my sister's a little bit on the clumsy side. Somehow,

without any help or push from her older brother at all,

suddenly Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed and landed with this crash on the floor.
突然ベッドの上から姿を消し 床に落下しました

Now I nervously peered over the side of the bed to see what had befallen my fallen sister
妹に何が起きたのか恐る恐る ベッドの脇から覗いてみると

and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees on all fours on the ground.
 妹は四つん這いで 痛々しく着地していました

I was nervous because my parents had charged me with making sure that my sister and I played as safely and as quietly as possible.
私は不安になりました 危ないことをせず 大人しく 妹と遊びなさいと  親にきつく言われていたからです

And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy's arm just one week before ... (Laughter) ...
特に一週間前に妹の腕を 怪我させたばかりということもあって・・・ (笑)

heroically pushing her out of the way of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet,
空想上の狙撃手から妹を守ろうと 勇敢にも押し飛ばしたんです (笑)

(Laughter) for which I have yet to be thanked,

I was trying as hard as I could -- she didn't even see it coming --
必死で助けようとしたんです  妹は弾に気づきもしなかったんですから

I was trying as hard as I could to be on my best behavior.

And I saw my sister's face,

this wail of pain and suffering and surprise threatening to erupt from her mouth 
痛みと苦しみと驚きに 泣き声を上げそうになっていて  

and threatening to wake my parents from the long winter's nap for which they had settled.
冬の長いお昼寝中の両親を  今にもたたき起こさんとしていました 

So I did the only thing my little frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy.
パニくった7歳児の頭で 悲劇を回避すべく思い付いた唯一のことをしました

And if you have children, you've seen this hundreds of times before.
お子さんがいれば よく目にするでしょう こう言ったんです 

I said, "Amy, Amy, wait. Don't cry. Don't cry. Did you see how you landed?
「エイミー お願い 泣かないで どんな風に着地したかわかる?

No human lands on all fours like that.

Amy, I think this means you're a unicorn." (Laughter)
これはつまり お前はユニコーンだってことさ」 (笑)

Now that was cheating,

because there was nothing in the world my sister would want more than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister,but Amy the special unicorn. 
妹にとって 自分が痛みに耐える5歳児ではなく、特別なユニコーンであるという考えほど 魅力的なものはなかったでしょうから 

Of course,

this was an option that was open to her brain at no point in the past.

And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict,
操作されている哀れな妹の小さな頭が 葛藤しているのが見て取れました

as her little brain attempted to devote resources to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise she just experienced,
今経験している痛みと苦しみと驚きに すべてを傾けるか

or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn.
それとも 新たに見出したユニコーンとしての 自分に浸るか??

And the latter won out. 

Instead of crying, instead of ceasing our play,
泣き出し 遊ぶのをやめて
instead of waking my parents, with all the negative consequences that would have ensued for me,
親に言いつけ 私に降りかかったであろう ネガティブな結果を引き起こす代わりに

instead a smile spread across her face and she scrambled right back up onto the bunk bed with all the grace of a baby unicorn ... (Laughter) 
顔に笑みを広げてベッドの上に駆け戻り 子ユニコーンの優美さを見せたのです・・・ (笑)

... with one broken leg.

What we stumbled across at this tender age of just five and seven
5歳と7歳という この幼年時代に私たちが体験したのは・・・ 

-- we had no idea at the time --

was something that was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain.
20年後に人間の脳の見方を変えることになる 科学的革命の先駆けだったのです

What we had stumbled across is something called positive psychology,

which is the reason that I'm here today and the reason that I wake up every morning.
それは私がここにいる理由であり 日々活動する力になっているものです

When I first started talking about this research outside of academia, out with companies and schools,
この研究について 学問の場以外の 企業や学校などで話すようになったとき

the very first thing they said to never do is to start your talk with a graph.
講演をグラフで始めたりしたらいけないと 言われたものです

The very first thing I want to do is start my talk with a graph.
でも講演のはじめに 私が見せたいのはグラフなんです

This graph looks boring,

but this graph is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning.
これこそ 私が心躍らせ活動し始める理由なのです

And this graph doesn't even mean anything; it's fake data. What we found is --
それにこのグラフは何も意味しません でっち上げたデータですから・・・


If I got this data back studying you here in the room, I would be thrilled,
これが皆さんの調査データだったなら すごく興奮したでしょう

because there's very clearly a trend that's going on there,

and that means that I can get published,

which is all that really matters. 

The fact that there's one weird red dot that's up above the curve,

there's one weirdo in the room -- I know who you are, I saw you earlier -- that's no problem.
変わった人が混じっているのは・・・ さっき見て誰か分かっているので 問題ではありません

That's no problem, as most of you know,
皆さんお分かりでしょうが 問題ないのです

because I can just delete that dot.

I can delete that dot because that's clearly a measurement error.
削除できるのは 明らかに測定誤差だからで

And we know that's a measurement error because it's messing up my data.
それが測定誤差である理由は 私のデータを台無しにしてしまうからです

So one of the very first things we teach people in economics and statistics and business and psychology courses is how,
経済 統計 心理といった授業で  最初に教えているのが何かと言うと 

in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos.

How do we eliminate the outliers so we can find the line of best fit?
一番良い曲線が得られるよう 異常値を消すにはどうすれば良いか?

Which is fantastic if I'm trying to find out how many Advil the average person should be taking -- two.
もし私の見出そうとしているのが 「平均的な人は鎮痛剤を何錠飲むべきか」なら それは結構ですが 

But if I'm interested in potential, if I'm interested in your potential, or for happiness or productivity or energy or creativity,
見出したいと思っているのが 潜在能力や 幸福 生産性 エネルギー 創造性の秘密であるなら 

what we're doing is we're creating the cult of the average with science.
このやり方は 科学の名による「平均」教崇拝です

If I asked a question like, "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?"
「子どもが教室で読み方を学ぶ早さ」 について質問をしたなら

scientists change the answer to "How fast does the average child learn how to read in that classroom?"
科学者は 「平均的な子どもが教室で読み方を学ぶ早さ」に言い換えます

and then we tailor the class right towards the average.

Now if you fall below the average on this curve,

then psychologists get thrilled, because that means you're either depressed or you have a disorder,or hopefully both. 
心理学者は色めき立つでしょう  それは抑鬱傾向にあるか障害を持っているということで 両方なら言うことありません

We're hoping for both because our business model is,
そう望むのは 精神医のビジネスモデルは

if you come into a therapy session with one problem,

we want to make sure you leave knowing you have 10, so you keep coming back over and over again.
問題を10個抱えていると自覚させ 繰り返し通院させることだからです

We'll go back into your childhood if necessary,

but eventually what we want to do is make you normal again.

But normal is merely average.

And what I posit and what positive psychology posits is that if we study what is merely average,
ポジティブ心理学が指摘するのは 平均的に過ぎないものを研究していたら 

we will remain merely average.

Then instead of deleting those positive outliers,

what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one and say, why?
あのような分布を見たら むしろ積極的に なぜかと問うべきです

Why is it that some of you are so high above the curve in terms of your intellectual ability,
ある人たちの能力は? なぜ曲線の遙か上なのか?

athletic ability, musical ability, creativity,
知的能力 運動能力 音楽センス 創造性

energy levels, your resiliency in the face of challenge, your sense of humor?
エネルギーのレベル 困難に直面したときの反発力 ユーモアのセンス

Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you.
それが何であれ 取り除いてしまうのではなく 研究したいのです

Because maybe we can glean information -- not just how to move people up to the average,
そうすれば みんなを 平均まで引き上げるだけでなく

but how we can move the entire average up in our companies and schools worldwide.
自分の会社や 世界中の学校の平均自体を引き上げる方法だって 分かるかもしれません

The reason this graph is important to me is, when I turn on the news,
このグラフが私にとって大切なのは ニュースを見ていると

it seems like the majority of the information is not positive, in fact it's negative.
その大半は ポジティブでなく ネガティブなものだからです 

Most of it's about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters.

And very quickly,

my brain starts to think that's the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world.
そのため脳は 現実はネガティブなこと ばかりだと思い込みます

What that's doing is creating something called the medical school syndrome -- which,
俗に言う 医学部症候群を 起こすのです

if you know people who've been to medical school,

during the first year of medical training, as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases that could happen,
彼らは医学部での最初の年に 様々な症状や病気について読むうちに

suddenly you realize you have all of them.
ふと どれも自分に該当すると気づくのです

I have a brother in-law named Bobo -- which is a whole other story.
私にはボボという義理の弟がいて ・・・また別な話になりますが

Bobo married Amy the unicorn.

Bobo called me on the phone from Yale Medical School,
イエールの医学部にいるボボから 電話がかかってきて言うのです

and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy." (Laughter)
「ショーン 僕はハンセン病みたいだ」 (笑)

Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare.

But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause.
私には哀れなボボをどう慰めていいのか分かりませんでした  何しろ 先週ずっと思い悩んでいた更年期障害を克服したばかりだったんですから (笑)


See what we're finding is it's not necessarily the reality that shapes us,
これで分かるのは 必ずしも現実が私たちを形作るのではなく

but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality.
脳が世界を見るレンズによって 私たちの現実は形作られるということです

And if we can change the lens,

not only can we change your happiness,

we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time.

When I applied to Harvard,

I applied on a dare. I didn't expect to get in, and my family had no money for college. 
やってみただけで 入れるとは思わず 経済的余裕もありませんでした

When I got a military scholarship two weeks later,they allowed me to go. 
2週間後に軍の奨学金が取れ  入学を許可されました

Suddenly, something that wasn't even a possibility became a reality.
突然 可能性のなかったことが現実になったのです

When I went there, I assumed everyone else would see it as a privilege as well,
ハーバードに入ったとき 他の人もみんな それを名誉に思い

that they'd be excited to be there.

Even if you're in a classroom full of people smarter than you,

you'd be happy just to be in that classroom, which is what I felt.

But what I found there is, while some people experience that,
しかし必ずしもそうではないことに 気がつきました

when I graduated after my four years and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students
大学での4年の後 寮で他の学生たちと8年過ごしましたが・・・

-- Harvard asked me to; I wasn't that guy. (Laughter)
 ハーバードに頼まれたんです 留年したんじゃありませんよ (笑)

I was an officer of Harvard to counsel students through the difficult four years.

And what I found in my research and my teaching is that these students,

no matter how happy they were with their original success of getting into the school,
 ハーバードに入るという成功に はじめは幸せを感じていても 

two weeks later their brains were focused,
2週間も経つと 頭を占めているのは

not on the privilege of being there, nor on their philosophy or their physics.
ハーバードにいられるありがたみでも 哲学や物理の勉強のことでもなく

Their brain was focused on the competition, the workload, the hassles, the stresses, the complaints.
競争 勉強の重荷 厄介な問題 ストレス 不満といったことなのです

When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall,

which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up
生まれ育ったテキサス州の田舎町から遊びにきた友達と一緒に  一年生の食堂ホールに入りました 

-- I know some of you have heard of it.

When they'd come to visit me, they'd look around, they'd say,

"This freshman dining hall looks like something out of Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter,"
「この食堂 ハリー・ポッターに出てくる ホグワーツみたいだな」

which it does.

This is Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter" and that's Harvard. 
映画のホグワーツと ハーバードの食堂です 

And when they see this, they say, 

"Shawn, why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard? 
 「ハーバードで幸福の研究をするなんて 時間の無駄じゃないの? 

Seriously, what does a Harvard student possibly have to be unhappy about?"
ハーバードの学生でいて どうして不幸に思えるのか分からないよ」

Embedded within that question is the key to understanding the science of happiness.
この質問には 幸福に関する科学を理解する鍵が隠れています 

Because what that question assumes is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels,
この質問は 人の幸福の度合いが その人の周囲の環境を見て言い当てられるものと仮定していますが

when in reality, if I know everything about your external world,
実際には 周囲のことがすべて分かったとしても

I can only predict 10 percent of your long-term happiness. 

90 percent of your long-term happiness is predicted not by the external world,

but by the way your brain processes the world. 
脳が周囲の環境をどう処理するかに かかっているということです 

And if we change it, if we change our formula for happiness and success, 
そして私たちが 幸福と成功の法則を変えられれば 私たちにできることが変わり

what we can do is change the way that we can then affect reality.

What we found is that only 25 percent of job successes are predicted by I.Q. 
 私たちの発見は 仕事での成功について IQによって予測できるのは25%だけで

75 percent of job successes are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.
残りの75%は 楽観の度合いや 周りからのサポート  ストレスを脅威ではなく挑戦と受け取る能力にかかっているのです

I talked to a boarding school up in New England, probably the most prestigious boarding school, 

and they said,

"We already know that.

So every year, instead of just teaching our students,

we also have a wellness week.

And we're so excited.

Monday night we have the world's leading expert coming in to speak about adolescent depression.
世界的な専門家に話をしてもらうんです 月曜の夜は“青年期の憂鬱”

Tuesday night it's school violence and bullying.

Wednesday night is eating disorders.

Thursday night is elicit drug use.

And Friday night we're trying to decide between risky sex or happiness." (Laughter) I said,
金曜の夜は“危険なセックス”  にするか“幸福”にするかで  まだ決めかねています」  (笑) 

"That's most people's Friday nights." (Laughter) (Applause)
私は「金曜の夜はたいていの人がそうですよ」と答えました (笑)(拍手) 

Which I'm glad you liked, but they did not like that at all.

Silence on the phone.

And into the silence, I said,

 "I'd be happy to speak at your school,

but just so you know, that's not a wellness week, that's a sickness week.

What you've done is you've outlined all the negative things that can happen,

but not talked about the positive."

The absence of disease is not health. 

Here's how we get to health:

We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success.

In the last three years, I've traveled to 45 different countries,
この3年間に私は45カ国を巡り 学校や不況下の企業とともに 取り組んできました

working with schools and companies in the midst of an economic downturn.
気づいたのは ほとんどの企業や学校で 

And what I found is that most companies and schools follow a formula for success,

which is this: If I work harder, I'll be more successful. And if I'm more successful, then I'll be happier.
「一生懸命がんばれば成功できる 成功すれば幸せになれる」というものだということです

That undergirds most of our parenting styles, our managing styles,
これは多くの人の子育てや マネジメント法 動機付け方法の基礎になっています

the way that we motivate our behavior. And the problem is it's scientifically broken and backwards for two reasons.
これの問題は 科学的に間違っており 逆だということです

First, every time your brain has a success, you just changed the goalpost of what success looked like.
第一に 成功するたびに脳がするのは 成功の定義を再設定するということです

You got good grades, now you have to get better grades,
良い成績を取れば もっと良い成績を取る

you got into a good school and after you get into a better school, 
良い学校に入ったら さらに良い学校に入る

you got a good job, now you have to get a better job, 
良い仕事に就いたら さらに良い仕事に就く

you hit your sales target, we're going to change your sales target.
販売目標を達成したら 目標をさらに上げる

And if happiness is on the opposite side of success, 

your brain never gets there.

What we've done is we've pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon as a society.
私たちがしてきたのは 社会が一体となって 幸せを認知できる範囲外に追いやるということです

And that's because we think we have to be successful, then we'll be happier.
それは私たちが「成功したら幸せになれる」 と考えているからです

But the real problem is our brains work in the opposite order.

If you can raise somebody's level of positivity in the present,

then their brain experiences what we now call a happiness advantage,

which is your brain at positive performs significantly better than it does at negative, neutral or stressed. 
つまりポジティブな脳は ネガティブな脳や ストレス下の脳よりも ずっと良く機能するということです

Your intelligence rises,

your creativity rises, your energy levels rise.

In fact, what we've found is that every single business outcome improves.
実際 あらゆる仕事上の結果が 改善されることがわかりました

Your brain at positive is 31 percent more productive than your brain at negative,neutral or stressed. 
ポジティブな状態の脳は ネガティブな状態の脳より31%生産性が高くなります ネガティブやニュートラルでなく 

You're 37 percent better at sales.

Doctors are 19 percent faster, more accurate at coming up with the correct diagnosis when positive instead of negative,neutral or stressed. 
ポジティブなときに 医者は19%早く正確に 診断するようになります

Which means we can reverse the formula.

If we can find a way of becoming positive in the present,

then our brains work even more successfully as we're able to work harder, faster and more intelligently.
脳は より熱心に 速く 知的に働き その結果として より成功するようになるのです

What we need to be able to do is to reverse this formula so we can start to see what our brains are actually capable of.
幸福と成功の法則をひっくり返すことができれば  自分の脳に本当は何ができるのか見えてきます 

Because dopamine, which floods into your system when you're positive, has two functions.
ポジティブなときに脳で増加するドーパミンには 2つの役割があります

Not only does it make you happier,

it turns on all of the learning centers in your brain allowing you to adapt to the world in a different way.
あらゆる学習機能をオンにして 世界に対して違ったやり方で適応できるようにするのです

We've found that there are ways that you can train your brain to be able to become more positive.
脳がよりポジティブになるよう 訓練する方法を私たちは見つけました

In just a two-minute span of time done for 21 days in a row,

we can actually rewire your brain,

allowing your brain to actually work more optimistically and more successfully.
より楽観的でより成功するように 脳が働くようになります

We've done these things in research now in every single company that I've worked with,
今ではどこの会社に行っても これを教えることにしています

getting them to write down three new things that they're grateful for for 21 days in a row,three new things each day.
ありがたく思うことを毎日新たに 3つ書くというのを21日間続けましょう

And at the end of that, their brain starts to retain a pattern of scanning the world,not for the negative,
それを終える頃には 世の中にネガティブなものではなく 

but for the positive first.

Journaling about one positive experience you've had over the past 24 hours allows your brain to relive it.
過去24時間のポジティブな体験を日記に書けば、 脳がそれを追体験することになります

Exercise teaches your brain that your behavior matters.

We find that meditation allows your brain to get over the cultural ADHD that we've been creating by trying to do multiple tasks at once and allows our brains to focus on the task at hand. And finally,
瞑想は 私たちが複数のタスクを同時にしようとして陥る  文化的なADHDを克服して 手元にある1つのタスクに集中できるようにします 

random acts of kindness are conscious acts of kindness.

We get people, when they open up their inbox,
メールソフトを開くたび 支えてくれる人の誰かに

to write one positive email praising or thanking somebody in their social support network.
称賛や感謝の気持ちの メールソフトを開くたび 支えてくれる人の誰かに称賛や感謝の気持ちの ポジティブなメールを書くという人もいます
And by doing these activities and by training your brain just like we train our bodies,
このような活動をすることで 体同様に脳だってトレーニングできます

what we've found is we can reverse the formula for happiness and success,

and in doing so, not only create ripples of positivity, 

but create a real revolution.

Thank you very much.



























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