Research methodologies

Research methods are commonly grouped into three categories: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods research. "Qualitative researchers stress the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the situational constraints that shape inquiry. Such researchers emphasize the value-laden nature of inquiry. They seek answers to questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaning. In contrast quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables, not processes" (USC, 2017, para. 1)"Mixed methods research is characterized by a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods within a single study" (Agerfalk, 2013, para. 1).

There are a range of methodologies that are commonly used when conducting educational research. For example: AutoethnographyCritical Theory, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, Living TheoryPhenomenology and Self-study research (Whitehead & Huxtable, 2014)

Qualitative research

Qualitative research "is exploratory and seeks to explain 'how' and 'why' a particular phenomenon or programme operates as it does in a particular context" (p.10)

Michael Quinn Patton ‎(Utilization-focused evaluation)‎

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Data collection methods
Qualitative data is non-numerical and is often gathered by observation, focus groups discussions, or individual interviews using structured or semi-structured guiding questions. Four common methods are: 
  1. Observation
  2. Asking questions 
  3. Analysing documents
  4. Teacher journals
Data collection tools:
Useful resources...
Data analysis methods 
Two common methods are:
  1. Deductive: Objectives are set out in advance (a priori codes/themes), Framework approach (p.116)
  2. Inductive (Grounded theories): Obtained from the data (emerging themes), Thematic networks analysis
Useful resources...

Quantitative research

Work in progress image

Mixed methods research


Academic works