35. Evaluation

Abstract: Determining student grades is an evaluative process. Evaluation is the process of placing value or worth on student performance, and is based upon data from student assessment. Several popular systems of evaluation exist, but each has its own pros and cons. Because grades carry with them certain connotations, some have suggested that letter grades be replaced with other types of measurements or descriptive narratives. These replacement evaluative systems also have their own difficulties. In the end, there is no perfect way to assign grades, but a solid foundation in the meaning of grades can help guide teachers to develop a system that is effective for their own instructional and assessment styles.

Grades and Teaching – The Meaning of Grades – The Issue of Grades – What to Include in Grades – Weighting Assessments – Grading Scales – Grade Determination – Grading on a Curve – Normalized Gain Evaluation – Standards-based Evaluation – Security of Scores and Grades – Should Letter Grades be Eliminated?