20. Metacognition and Self-Regulation
Abstract: Metacognition literally means “beyond knowing.” It consists of knowing about one’s knowing; that is, knowing what one knows and does not know. Students who think about and come to know what it is that they actually know in comparison to what they should know, can employ self-regulation – the practice of correcting deficiencies in one’s knowledge – to increase their academic achievements. Teaching self-regulation skills entails helping students to fill gaps in their understanding, and challenges them to internally defend their mental schema. Teachers who teach in ways that help students think metacognitively and use self-regulation for learning will see their students become much more academically successful. This chapter focuses on some of the many strategies that teachers can use to maximize student performance.