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Phys Unit 5: Electricity and Magnetism (14 days)

Essential Questions

Where do electricity and magnetism come from?
How do electricity and magnetism affect charged objects?


·      charge (q) – the fundamental electric property to which the mutual attractions and repulsions between electrons or protons in attributed

·      Coulomb (C) – the unit of charge

·      electron – a light, negatively-charge subatomic particle found in the space surrounding the nucleus

·      proton – a heavy, positively-charged subatomic particle found in atomic nuclei

·      Law of Electric Charges – a law that states that like charges (negative/negative or positive/positive) repel and opposite charges (negative/positive) attract

·      Law of Conservation of Charge – a law that states that charge cannot be created or destroyed in a system

·      Coulomb’s Law – an equation that describes the force(s) between charged particles; it states that the force is proportional to the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges

·      electrostatic constant (ke) – a constant used in Coulomb’s Law; ke = 9.0x109 Nm^2/C^2

·      electrical conductivity – a measure of how well electric charge flows through a material; it depends on how much electrons are free to move within the material

·      conductor – a material with a high electrical conductivity because its electrons are generally free to move around

·      insulator – a material with a low electrical conductivity because its electrons are tightly bound in place

·      semiconductor – a material with variable electrical conductivity because electrons are free to move around, but only after an impurity (different element) has been added

·      (NOT for mastery) superconductor – a material with near infinite electrical conductivity at extremely low temperatures

·      charging by friction – occurs when electrons are transferred when one material rubs against another

·      charging by contact – occurs when a charged object in placed in contact with a neutral item

·      charging by induction – occurs when an object is charged without direct contact

·      electric field (E) – a force field that fills the space around every electric charge or group of charges; it points from positive to negative

·      electric potential energy (PE) – the energy a charged object has because of its position relative to another charged object

·      electric potential/voltage (V) – electric potential energy per Coulomb

·      volts (V) – unit of electrical potential/voltage

·      static electricity – electric charge that has accumulated on an object

·      static discharge – a sudden and brief flow of electrons

·      electric current (I) – the continuous flow of electric charge due to a difference in electric potential

·      Amperes (A) – unit of electric current

·      direct current (DC) – current that flows in one direction

·      alternating current (AC) – current that repeatedly reverses direction

·      resistance (R) – the resistance of a material to the flow of electric current through it

·      ohm (Ω) – unit of resistance

·      Ohm’s Law – the equation that shows the relationship between electric potential/voltage, current, and resistance; V=IR

·      fuse/circuit breaker – devices that are designed to open overloaded electrical circuits to prevent overheating

·      series circuit – an electrical circuit in which the electrons flow in one continuous path

·      parallel circuit – an electrical circuit that contains two or more branches for electrons to flow

·      equivalent (total) resistance (Rtotal) – the resistance in an electrical circuit if all of the resistors were replaced by one equivalent resistor

·      Law of Magnetic Poles – a law that states that like poles of magnets (north/north or south/south) repel and unlike poles of magnets (north/south) attract

·      magnetic field (B) – a force field that fills the space around every magnet or current-carrying wire; it points from north to south

·      electromagnetic induction – the phenomenon of inducing a voltage by changing the magnetic field around a conductor

·      Faraday’s Law – a law that states that the amount of induced voltage is proportional to the number of loops in the conductor and the rate at which the electromagnetic flux changes (speed at which the magnetic field moves relative to the conductor)

·      generator – a device consisting of a coil that rotates in a stationary magnetic field, producing alternating current

·      transformer – a device for increasing or decreasing voltage through electromagnetic induction

  Aug 18, 2012, 7:09 PM Emilie Siverling