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Chem1 Unit 3: Atoms and the Periodic Table (14 days, with Trends)

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Essential Questions

What are atoms?
How is the Periodic Table of Elements organized?

Vocabulary

·      Dalton’s model of the atom – a model of the atom that states that the atom is the smallest particle of matter

·      Thompson’s model of the atom – also known as the “plum-pudding” model, it was the first model to include the presence of negative electrons studded onto a positive center

·      Rutherford’s model of the atom – Rutherford concluded that the positive center of the atom is very small and very dense, with a lot of space surrounding it

·      Bohr’s model of the atom – this model places electrons in energy levels around the small, positive nucleus

·      wave-mechanical model of the atom – this is the current model of the atom that also includes the idea of orbitals

·      proton – a heavy, positively-charged subatomic particle found in atomic nuclei

·      neutron – a heavy, neutrally-charged (no charge) subatomic particle found in atomic nuclei

·      electron – a light, negatively-charge subatomic particle found in the space surrounding the nucleus

·      nucleus – the positively-charge center of the atom that contains all of the mass (protons and neutrons) of the atom, and yet is 1/10,000 the diameter of the whole atom

·      atomic number – a number that represents the number of protons in an element

·      mass number (sometimes known as atomic weight or atomic mass) – a number that represents the total protons and neutrons in an atom

·      (NOT for mastery) isotope – atoms within an elements that have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons

·      orbital - a regions of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron; orbitals are labeled s, p, d, and f

·      electron configuration – a description of which orbitals contain electrons for a particular atom

·      Pauli Exclusion Principle – a rule that guides electron configurations that states that each orbital can hold no more than two electrons

·      Aufbau Principle – a rule that guides electron configurations that states that electrons fill lower energy levels first

·      Hund's Rule – a rule that guides electron configurations that states that within an energy level, electrons spread out (remain unpaired) until they have to pair up

·      valence electrons – electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atom that determine the chemical properties of the element

·      Lewis dot diagrams – a model showing the number of valence electrons in s- and p-block elements

·      metal – elements in the left and middle parts of the Periodic Table; these elements are malleable, shiny, conduct electricity, and usually solid at room temperature

·      nonmetal – element in the upper right corner of the Periodic Table; these elements do not conduct electricity and can be either solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature

·      metalloid – any element that touches the “staircase” on the right side of the Periodic Table (except Aluminum); these elements are semiconductors (they sometimes conduct electricity and sometimes not)

·      alkali metals – elements in the first column of the Periodic Table (except Hydrogen); these elements are soft, have one valence electron, are very reactive, and have an outer electron configuration of s1

·      alkaline earth metals – elements in the second column of the Periodic Table; these elements have two valence electrons, are somewhat reactive, and have an outer electron configuration of s2

·      transition metals – elements in the middle section of the Periodic Table; these elements have a variety of valence electrons, are somewhat reactive, and have outer electron configurations that end in a d orbital

·      rare earth metals – elements in the bottom two rows of the Periodic Table; these elements have a variety of valence electrons, many are synthetic (not existing in nature but rather made in a lab), somewhat reactive, and have outer electron configurations that end in a f orbital

·      halogens – elements (nonmetals) in the 17th column of the Periodic Table; these elements have seven valence electrons, are very reactive, and have an outer electron configuration of p5

·      noble gases – elements (nonmetals) in the 18th column of the Periodic Table; these elements have eight valence electrons (except helium, which has two), are not reactive because their outermost energy levels are filled, and have an outer electron configuration of p6 (except Helium, which is 1s2)

·      atomic radius – the size of an atom

·      electronegativity – a measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons within a compound

·      ionization energy – the amount of energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom

·      mole – in terms of particles, the number 6.022x1023; in terms of mass, the average atomic mass in grams

·      Avogadro's number – the number of atoms contained in one mole; 6.022 x 1023


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  Jun 21, 2012, 11:41 AM Emilie Siverling
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