Nervous

Organization of the Nervous System:

Describe the major functions of the nervous system

Describe the nervous system as a control system identifying nervous system elements that are sensory receptors, the afferent pathway, control centers, the efferent pathway, and effector organs.

Differentiate between the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system.

List the parts of the nervous system that constitute the central nervous system (CNS) and those that constitute the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

         Panopto on organization of the nervous system

Histology of Nervous Tissue:

Identify and describe the three structural types of neurons (unipolar, bipolar & multipolar) including the soma, axon and dendrites, the location of each type within the nervous system, and the function of each type.                

State which parts of each type of neuron receive information, which parts integrate information, and which parts conduct the output signal of the neuron.

List the types of glial cells and describe the function of each.

          Panopto on Nervous Tissues (Links to an external site.)

Neurophysiology:

Describe the resting membrane potential of a neuron the relative concentrations of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ inside and outside the cell.

Describe the contribution ion channels to selective permeability of the neuronal membrane.

Explain the role of the Na+/K+ exchange pump in maintaining resting potential.


    Resting Membrane Potential Animation

 

        Resting Membrane Potential Video - Cushman (Links to an external site.)

Differentiate between voltage-gated and chemically-gated ion channels.

Describe the voltage-gated ion channels that are essential for development of the action potential.


 

Ionic Basis of Neural Signaling Video - Cushman (Links to an external site.)

 

Overview of Electrical Signaling in Neurons - Cushman (Links to an external site.)

Discuss the sequence of events that must occur for an action potential to be generated.

Define threshold.

Discuss the role of positive feedback in generation of the action potential.

Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an action potential.

Relate the terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize to the events of an action potential.

Define absolute and relative refractory periods. and discuss the physiological basis of each.

Panopto on Neurophysiology

Action Potentials Video - Cushman (Links to an external site.)


Explain how axon diameter and myelination affect conduction velocity.

Describe saltatory conduction.

Panopto on myelination

Describe the synaptic (axon) terminal.

State the steps that lead from the action potential arriving in the synaptic terminal to the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles.

Discuss the relationship between a neurotransmitter and its receptor.

Explain how the receptors for neurotransmitters are related to chemically-gated ion channels.

Describe the events of synaptic transmission in proper chronological order.

Define excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and interpret graphs showing the voltage vs. time relationship of an EPSP and an IPSP.

Explain how movement of sodium ions alone, or movement of both sodium and potassium ions, across the postsynaptic cell membrane can excite  neuron.

Explain how movement of potassium or chloride ions across the postsynaptic cell membrane can inhibit a neuron.

List the most common excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS and the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the CNS.

Propose a possible CNS function for each biogenic amine neurotransmitter.

        Tegrity

Brain:

List the five developmental regions of the brain and identify the major areas of the adult brain that arise from each region.

       Panopto on brain development

Correlate functions with each major area of the adult brain.

Describe the orientation of the brain relative to bones of the skull.

Identify the five lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe how the motor and sensory functions of the cerebrum are distributed among the lobes.

Explain why the sensory and motor homunculi are relevant clinically.

Discuss the concept of cerebral hemispheric specialization and the role of the corpus callosum in connecting the two halves of the cerebrum. 

   
Panopto - Telencephelon, Diencephelon, Brain Stem, Cerebellum


Systems and higher functions:

Describe the location and functions of the limbic system.

Describe the parts of the brain involved in storage of long term memory and discuss possible mechanisms of memory consolidation.

Describe the location and functions of the reticular activating system.

Define the term nerve.

Differentiate between a nerve and a CNS tract.

        Panopto on brain systems


Protection:

Describe how the bones of the skull protect the brain.

Identify the meninges and describe their functional relationship to the brain and cranial bones.

Describe the functions of cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the details of its production, and its circulation within the central nervous system.

Describe the structural basis for, and the importance of the blood brain barrier.

        Panopto on CNS protection

Spinal Cord:

Describe the ganglia and specify their location relative to the anatomy of the skeletal system.

Identify the anatomical features seen in a cross sectional view of the spinal cord

Contrast the relative position of gray matter and white matter in the spinal cord with the corresponding arrangement of gray and white matter in the brain.

Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord.

Explain how decussation occurs in sensory and motor pathways & predict how decussation impacts the correlation of brain damage and symptoms in stroke patients.

Describe the locations and functions of the upper and lower motor neurons in a motor pathway.

Discuss how the structures root, nerve, plexus, tract and ganglion relate to one another. 

        Panopto

Describe the anatomical structure of a nerve.


Structure of a Nerve (Links to an external site.)


PNS

Describe the major divisions of the PNS including somatic versus autonomic and sensory versus motor.


Describe nociceptors, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and mechanoreceptors with examples of each.

Describe the locations and functions of the first-, second- and third-order neurons in a sensory pathway.

          Sensory receptors (Links to an external site.)

Know the names and functions of the twelve cranial nerves.

Propose how knowledge of the anatomy of cranial nerve nuclei can be used to help pinpoint damage to particular regions of the brain stem.
       

Crainial Nerves (Links to an external site.)
Describe the naming of spinal nerves.


List the four spinal nerve plexuses, the nerves emerging from each, and the area of the body innervated.

Describe the clinical importance of dermatomes.

        Spinal Nerves (Links to an external site.)

Define the term reflex.
Describe reflex responses in terms of the major structural and functional components of a reflex arc.
Distinguish between each of the following pairs of reflexes: somatic vs. visceral reflexes, and ipsilateral vs. contralateral reflexes.
Describe a stretch reflex, a flexor (withdrawal) reflex, and a crossed-extensor reflex, and name all components of each reflex arc.

Propose how specific reflexes would be used in clinical assessment of nervous system function.

        Reflexes MP3 from the textbook


ANS:

Contrast the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system.

Discuss the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the general physiological roles of each.

        Overview of ANS (Links to an external site.)

Contrast the cellular anatomy of the somatic and autonomic motor pathways.

Contrast the anatomy of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, including central nervous system outflow locations, ganglia locations, pre- and post-ganglionic neuron relative lengths, and ganglionic and effector neurotransmitters. 

         ANS Anatomy (Links to an external site.)

Describe examples of specific effectors dually innervated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system and explain how each branch influences function in a given effector.

Describe examples of effectors innervated by only the sympathetic branch or the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system and explain how that branch by itself influences function in a given effector.

Contrast sympathetic innervation of the adrenal gland with sympathetic innervation of other effectors.

Describe visceral reflex arcs, including structural and functional details of sensory and motor (autonomic) components.

Differentiate between cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and discuss the physiological interactions of transmitters released by these neurons with specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.

Propose clinical uses of specific drugs that act at cholinergic and adrenergic receptor subtypes.

Describe major parasympathetic and/or sympathetic physiological effects on target organs.

Distinguish between the effectors of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

Name the neurotransmitters released at synapses with effector organs in the somatic and autonomic motor pathways and classify each effector response as excitatory or inhibitory.

            Neurotransmitters of the ANS (Links to an external site.)  

Describe examples of effectors innervated by only the sympathetic branch or the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system and explain how that branch by itself influences function in a given effector.

Contrast sympathetic innervation of the adrenal gland with sympathetic innervation of other effectors.


         Interaction of SNS and PNS (Links to an external site.)

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