Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Bonds:
Describe the basic structure of atoms and molecules including the charge, mass, and relative location of electrons, protons and neutrons.
Explain the changes in subatomic particles that produce ions and isotopes.
Distinguish among the terms atomic number, mass number and atomic weight.
Relate the number of electrons in an electron shell to an atom’s chemical stability and its ability to form chemical bonds.
Compare and contrast the terms atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds.
Describe the properties of non-polar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds including relative strength and mechanism of formation.
Inorganic Chemicals in the Human Body:
Discuss the physiologically important properties of water.
Distinguish among the terms solution, solute and solvent.
Define the term salt and give examples of physiological significance.
Define the terms pH, acid, base, and buffer and state acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH values.
Organic Chemicals in the Human Body:
Define the term organic molecule and describe the importance of carbon to life.
NPR on the importance of the carbon atom (start at 2:24 to 6 min or so).
Describe the structure of hydrocarbons, and the functional groups: alcohol, carbonyl, carboxyl, and amino groups.
Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers.
Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
With respect to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, identify monomers and polymers, describe the general structure, and explain the role in the human body.
Describe the four levels of protein structure and discuss the importance of protein shape for protein function.
Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, and interpret graphs showing the effects of various factors on the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
Describe the generalized reversible reaction for release of energy from ATP and explain the role of ATP in the cell.