Taxonomy of Philippine Lichens 

    09/2014 ~~ Interesting lichen in the Philippines  whose record online was only in 1909 GBIF or Field Museum wise [in the Phil.] has "sprouted out" outside of the Baguio, Cordillera, Mindoro areas. This is found outside of the island of LUZON.  This is Cladia aggregata (Sipman, H.) It is famous for its perforations. Please see image below. 

Dec. 30, 2009``Memory while in Vancouver, Canada (5/2008): A Flora of Vancouver:

12/2009``New Publication/News Item:


4/14/2011~~ A copy of a dissertation from a PhD student in a country in Africa will be sent as a way of acknowledging my assistance- lichen id. Congratulations! and We'll support your interest in lichens especially your plan for an extensive lichenological work in your country the first ever. I would like to see you as the only African expert on lichens in Africa. (expecting...)

2011 Flickr Photostream of S.M. Dulnuan  (Advisee, please see below)

9/23/2009~~Pyxine cocoes , a foliose lichen, as a bioindicator/ biomonitor for aerial pollution was first reported in Iloilo City, Philippines in 2003: An Update

Isidro T. Savillo* 
*Lichenologist, Iloilo, Philippines

      Pyxine cocoes was first reported in 2003 by Savillo, I. in his publication titled “The Common Abundance of Pyxine cocoes (Swartz)Nyl. in district parks of Iloilo City, Philippines” where he concluded that “Pyxine cocoes being abundant, may serve as a good bioindicator for atmospheric pollution and further cellular analysis would reveal its actual physiological characteristics.” This finding was presented in a Regional Convention (Region VI) of the Philippine Society for Microbiology and this study was granted a Wildlife Gratuitous Permit No. 101 of the DENR. Pyxine cocoes has been reported as a pollution tolerant lichen by the following: Thrower in 1988 (Hongkong), Nayaka et al in 2003 (India) and Saipunkaew et al in 2004 (Thailand). In 2009, Gruezo and his team from U.P Los Banos, U.P. Diliman and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute had come up with a publication titled “Lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. (Physciaceae) as a potential biomonitor for atmospheric pollution in Southern Luzon, Philippines.” Their study area spanned four Metro Manila sites and two sites near and around coal fired power plants where they concluded that the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. (Physciaceae) as being abundant and ubiquitous in all their six study sites hence they considered it as potential biomonitor for atmospheric pollution after analyzing the samples for several air pollution related elements using xray fluorescence spectrometry. This finding has supported the first pioneering report of Savillo, I. in 2003 in the Philippines regarding the common abundance of this lichen and its usefulness in determining atmospheric pollution. In Savillo’s presentation titled “Lichens in Mangroves” in the 2009 Society of Wetland Scientists Convention in Madison, Wisconsin , he emphasized that Pyxine cocoes favorably grow in trees adjacent residential areas or areas frequented by humans. In fact these are far from sources of industrial pollution and far from the city. There may be an intriguing factor(s) responsible for their growth where there is a need to meticulously analyze this factor(s) as pollutant or not. Saipunkaew (2004) in her lichen study used population density as a surrogate measure for pollution levels due to inadequate pollution data. 

This Web Page is dedicated to the Taxonomic Identification of Philippine Lichens. New species and varieties as well as those subjected to nomenclature change/modification will be highlighted with their photographs displayed. Welcome to the Lichens of the Philippines Information Center!

New*~Pyxine cocoes* has been cited in scientific articles as common and abundant as well as pollution tolerant/ bioindicator for aerial pollution in tropical cities:
2003- in Bangalore City, India
2003- In Iloilo City, Philippines- recommended as a bioindicator for aerial pollution
back- up copy- originally published
2004- in Cities of Northern Thailand
2009- In Southern Luzon, Philippines

Pyxine cocoes  2014 update is above below heading.

 Pyxine cocoes could be a good bioindicator/biomonitor for atmospheric pollution. First, it is widespead, could be seen in areas of anthropogenic disturbances, second, it tolerates high pollution levels- imagine P. cocoes a few of them growing in  trunks (with black soot) of trees in a mid road island cloaked by polluted air from heavy traffic at least 24 hrs a day.,third, it could be used in active biomonitoring (as what they did in India) and 4rth, it could be used to assay for most important atmospheric particulates (e.g. elements). In this sense, using P. cocoes one could make comparative values of aerial pollutants from different areas where it grow. (Pabroa et al., UPLB study). One lichen, One sweep.

 Prof. Isidro Antonio T. Savillo* ** at BGBM FUB

*A recipient of the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD) Research and Study Visit.

*By going places, unexpectedly , one encounters interesting lichens thus these two forthcoming articles: A Foliicolous Lichen Encountered in Guimaras Island and the other article, Ramalina sp. at an aging Ceiba pentranda. The latter was on the middle of a farmland of a former student. The Foliicolous lichen was seen on leaves of a Croton and that of a young shrubby mango comprising the garden infront of a nipa house. How surprising that they add to the decorative looks of the plants!! As if it was just a part of a garden...but was never cultivated! A product of "unconscious" gardening.

Photos of Lichens and Bryophytes at Victoria Peak, Hongkong

A Photo of Cryptothecia rubrocinta. This specimen I have observed in some trees in the Province of Antique, Philippines.  [under construction]

The Electronic Journal of Tropical Lichenology and Myxomycetology will soon be operational. Please visit this web site as frequently as possible.[ongoing]

Courtesy of Ms. Julie Cristine Alpis (location undisclosed for protection purposes)

11/2007~UPDATE: (From the Internet- Posted March 9, 2007)-A certain Phil
( I assumed a lichenologist? on a tour) went for two weeks to Iloilo City , Philippines to study lichens. As to his findings it was quoted that Iloilo City is one of the few places in the world where certain corticolous lichens grow and that the church yards and buildings were some of the best places to find these lichens. It was also stated that in a headstone named Liwayway (where is this??) nearly 50% was covered with Pyxine cocoes (on the spot i.d.?- Could have been an expert lichenologist to do this- Are you from HUH?) Very supportive for the Biologybrowser published paper of Prof. Isidro T. Savillo- The Common Abundance of Pyxine cocoes in district parks of Iloilo City, Philippines

Cheers for 2009 Lichen thesis student from Mindanao, the photographs of samples are very interesting especially the fruticose ; Cheers for the 2006 - 2007 Lichen Enthusiasts: These include the Ateneo De Manila University Lichen Group of Students, Thesis student from the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, U. P. Diliman Lichen Group of Students and a PhD student from the University of Tokyo. Their interests vary from taxonomy of lichens in campus, inventory of lichens in the La Mesa Dam, lichens as pollution indicators and bioactive substances from lichens. Thanks for your interactions with me and I am willing to be of help  but in one condition- it has to be publishable (2014). 5/2014``A graduate student from Indonesia  also requested for reference assistance specifically P.cocoes for her thesis. Thanks.

**Fruticose from Mindanao** (Photo courtesy of  H. Alvior) 

Magnificent Cladonia.. note the podetial squamules
4/25/2007~Announcement: 3 Short and 1 Long Courses in Environmental Management for Developing Countries are now open with funds from International Organizations, etc. covering travel, accommodation, registration, tuition, health insurance and allowance to be undertaken in a European Country. Young Colleagues, Advisees, Accomplished Students, Pls. come in contact with me as early as the last week of May, 2007 for more information. I am authorized to nominate you through your institution.

Key to the Lichen Genera of Ifugao, Philippines* (this an old univ. link please see below)
S. Dulnuan*, I. Savillo** and R. van Hulst*
* Bishop's University, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
** External Supervisor

*Dulnuan, S.M. 2006. Occurrence of Lichen Genera and their Distribution in the Province of Ifugao, Philippines (old univ link  pls. see below) An Independent Study. Division of Biological Sciences, Bishop's University, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.
Follow this existing   link .

Citations of S. Dulnuan's Independent Study:

The lichen Usnea from five provinces of Luzon island: Taxonomy, occurrence, metabolic profiles, antibacterial activities and interactive database.(2011) UST(MS Thesis) 
Antibacterial activities of fruticose lichens collected from selected sites in Luzon island, Philippines. (2010)- UST- ISI Indexed Journal

Asean Biodiversity: Lichens and Bryophytes

ISS (International Symbiosis Society) Latest News Update [2004] : I. Savillo was Featured (search online ISS)

Global Taxonomy Initiative Japan ~ I. Savillo- Taxonomist* (search online)

Tropical Mosses: Philippines (Under Construction)

Molecular Analysis of Symbiosis (search online)

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universitat Berlin (see online)

What's UP? [old link]

What's New? [old link]

Lichen Articles* by Isidro Savillo published in BiologyBrowser
or browse this web page:More Lichen Articles by Isidro Savillo [search Biologybrowser*- addresses may have changed]

Key to the Lichen Genera of Bogor, Cibodas and Singapore NEW!!!  -cited

World Taxonomist Database NEW!!! [search online]


Two Exotic Foliose Corticolous Lichens: Pyxine meissnerina and Endocarpon cf albidulum. The former was brought by my student from Aklan and the latter was accidentally examined in our family residential backyard. Proud to say, that these are the first lichens reported in the Philippines!!! 

12/05/2009`` “Lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. (Physciaceae) as a potential biomonitor for atmospheric pollution in Southern Luzon, Philippines”* cited an earlier work of Savillo 2003 on p. 220, 5th paragraph? of the results and discussion per P.C. Pabroa, first author of the scientific article. Thanks to K for this info. 
*PRECIOSA CORAZON B. PABROA*, LENI L. QUIRIT**, KAREN N. HERNANDEZ**, LORENA S. BALANSAY**, WILLIAM SM. GRUÈZO***. 2009.Lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. (Physciaceae) as a potential biomonitor for atmospheric pollution in Southern Luzon, Philippines. 
Asia Life Sciences, Vol 18, No 2.
*Phil. Nuclear Research Institute
**Univ. of the Phil., Diliman
***Univ. of the Phil. Los Banos
-I. Savillo is also an alumnus of the Univ of the Philippines System. 

**Wonder Lichen or Lichen Wonder or Giant Lichen from the  Philippines**

-- Below is a photo of a Cryptothecia [cf] taken during an educational trip. This is as big as a human face. Unlike some crustoses where their being widespread is a result of the overlapping growths  of crustose and foliose lichens,  this one is in itself "uncontaminated" individual lichen.  It is "axenic".

**At present,  a Research Associate/ Collaborating Scientist (Use Yahoo for correct information in world map) in the Philippines in the U.S. funded project, Planetary Biodiversity Inventory: The Global Biodiversity of Eumycetozoans.


SWS (Society for Wetland Scientists) ASIA CHAPTER NEW!! [search online for new page]

An Article on the Establishment of the SWS International Chapter [search online for recent developments]

SWS Asia Chapter Web Page (search online)

Current Projects- ongoing (These projects must not be copied in any way)
-unpublished extensive study on Philippine lichens with a number of newly reported lichens in the country
- Myxomycetes in Panay Island 
-Effect of  climate at status quo to the  growth and development  of some lowland lichens-  Developmental Biology
-Mangroves are important to the World's fishery industry- Can Lichens  growing on mangroves serve as ecological indicators?  Lichen Taxonomy;  Bioindicator/Biomonitor; Oil Spills and other Anthropogenic disturbances. Citations : Publications on Mangrove Lichens- A, B.

Lichens in Mangrove (Phil.) If one looks
closely at this  photo, one can already
determine this lichen. 

 Isidro A. T. Savillo2

3/28/2015`` Philippine Myxomycetes * Updated new information- Don't  miss it!

* This page is under construction

Locations of visitors to this page


An endearing Philippine Lichen-

``under construction`` i would like to get rid of this white space below by inserting a photo but it seems hopeless! Hope google maintenance will fix it. ty.