7) Paleolithic continuity theory

                   Mario Alinei suggest that the so called "Aryans" were merely intruders from Central Asia (mixed Uralic and Turkic stocks). Read more about this theory in the below given paragraphs:             

                            The Palaeolithic Continuity Theory (or PCT) is a hypothesis suggesting that the hypotheticalProto-Indo-European can be traced back to the Palaeolithic era, tens of millennia earlier than the Chalcolithic or at the most Neolithic (Beginning from 40,000 BC) estimates in other scenarios of Proto-Indo-European origins. Its main proponent is linguist Mario Alinei (professor at the University of Utrecht, Netherland). The PCT postulates that the advent of Indo-European languages should be linked to the arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe and Asia from Africa in the Upper Palaeolithic. Employing "lexical periodization", Alinei arrives at a timeline deeper than even that of Colin Renfrew's hypothesis. The framework of PCT is laid out by Alinei in four main assumptions; Continuity is the basic pattern of European prehistory and the basic working hypothesis on the origins of IE languages. Stability and antiquity are general features of languages. The lexicon of natural languages, due to its antiquity, may be "periodized" along the entire course of human evolution. Archaeological frontiers coincide with linguistic frontiers. (Wikipedia, 2009)

                                The continuity theory draws on a Continuity Model, postulating the presence of IE and non-IE peoples and languages in Europe from Palaeolithic times and allowing for minor invasions and infiltrations of local scope, mainly during the last three millennia. Arguing that continuity is "the archaeologist’s easiest pursuit," Alinei deems this "the easiest working hypothesis," putting the burden of proof on competing hypotheses as long as none provide irrefutable counter-evidence. Alinei also claims linguistic coherence, rigor and productivity in the pursuit of this approach.

Historical reconstruction

                                 Associated with the Palaeolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) is the historical reconstruction proposed by Alinei, which suggests that Indo-European speakers were native in Europe since the Palaeolithic. According to this reconstruction, the differentiation process of languages would have taken an extremely long time; by the end of the Ice Age, the Indo-European language family had differentiated into proto Celtic/ Italic/ Germanic/ Slavic/ Baltic speakers occupying territories within or close to their traditional homelands. The rate of change accelerated when (Neolithic) (4000-3000 BC) social stratification and colonial wars began.(Wikipedia, 2009)

                                The Palaeolithic Continuity hypothesis reverses the Kurgan hypothesis and largely identifies the Indo-Europeans with Gimbutas' "Old Europe." PCT reassigns the Kurgan culture (traditionally considered early Indo-European) to a people of predominantly mixed Uralic and Turkic stock. This hypothesis is supported by the tentative linguistic identification of Etruscans as a Uralic, proto-Hungarian people that had already undergone strong proto-Turkish influence in the third millennium BC, when Pontic invasions would have brought this people to the Carpathian Basin. A subsequent migration of Urn field culture signature around 1250 BC caused this ethnic group to expand south in a general movement of people, attested by the upheaval of the Sea Peoples and the overthrow of an earlier Italic substrate at the onset of the "Etruscan" Villanovan culture.(Wikipedia, 2009)

                               Proponents point to a lack of archaeological evidence for an Indo-European invasion in the Bronze Age; to the lack of substantial genetic change since the Palaeolithic; and to analogy with a theory of a Palaeolithic origin of Uralic peoples and languages in Eurasia. Moreover, the continuity theory is much more conservative in it's approach in comparison with classical approaches to the IE developments.

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