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Diabetes

Myth 1: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes.

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                        How does diabetes happen? The causes are not totally understood. What is known is that simply eating too much sugar is unlikely to cause diabetes. Instead, diabetes begins when something disrupts your body's ability to turn the food you eat into energy.

                           To understand what happens when you have diabetes, keep these things in mind: Your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a type of sugar needed to power your cells. A hormone called insulin is made in the pancreas. Insulin helps the cells in the body use glucose for fuel.

                           Here are the most common types of diabetes and what researchers know about their causes:
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin. Without insulin, sugar piles up in your blood vessels. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to help get the sugar into the cells. Type 1 diabetes often starts in younger people or in children. Researchers believe that it may occur when something goes wrong with the immune system.

                            Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, the insulin does not work properly, or both. Being overweight makes type 2 diabetes more likely to occur. It can happen in a person of any age.




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Type-1 diabetes ---pictorial depiction ---


Diabetes Quiz ---Type-2

http://diabetes.webmd.com/rm-quiz-type-2-diabetes?ecd=wnl_dia_111312&ctr=wnl-dia-111312_ld-stry&mb=6BXMynHGodIXCZ3Qca10FuHnVev1imbCIR6e1lOPBaY%3d



Kidneys
Our kidneys contain 2 million tiny blood filters which filter 50 gallons of blood every day. This means that your entire volume of blood gets filtered 20 - 25 times per day! Our kidneys are about the size of a computer mouse and together they produce approximately 6.3 cups of urine per day.

The filtering units of the kidney are filled with tiny blood vessels. Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause these vessels to become narrow and clogged leading to increased pressure. Without enough blood flow, the kidneys become damaged and are no longer able to filter properly. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide. Kidney disease is often silent. You may have lost 80% of your kidney function before you feel anything.

Pancreas
The pancreas is a carrot-shaped gland that is about six inches long that lies behind your stomach. It is a dual-function gland that secretes both digestive enzymes and hormones. The pancreas produces the hormones, insulin and glucagon, which are vital for regulating our blood sugar. When the body is functioning properly, these two hormones work as a team to keep blood sugar levels from becoming either too high or too low.

Type-2 Diabetes
A person with type 2 diabetes still produces insulin but the body doesn't respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy (insulin resistance). This causes the blood sugar level to rise, making the pancreas produce even more insulin. Eventually,the cells of the pancreas can wear out from the strain of working overtime to produce extra insulin and may no longer make enough to keep blood sugar levels normal.

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Reversing Type 2 Diabetes

Our work has shown that type 2 diabetes is not inevitably progressive and life-long. We have demonstrated that in people who have had type 2 diabetes for 4 years or less, major weight loss returns insulin secretion to normal.

It has been possible to work out the basic mechanisms which lead to type 2 diabetes. Too much fat within liver and pancreas prevents normal insulin action and prevents normal insulin secretion. Both defects are reversible by substantial weight loss.

A crucial point is that individuals have different levels of tolerance of fat within liver and pancreas. Only when a person has more fat than they can cope with does type 2 diabetes develop. In other words, once a person crosses their personal fat threshold, type 2 diabetes develops. Once they successfully lose weight and go below their personal fat threshold, diabetes will disappear.

Some people can tolerate a BMI of 40 or more without getting diabetes. Others cannot tolerate a BMI of 22 without diabetes appearing, as their bodies are set to function normally at a BMI of, say 19. This is especially so in people of South Asian ethnicity.






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