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0-a) U-symbol

Message to the visitors of this website.This message is  to inform you that statements and explanations pertaining to "Calendar Theory" and "Jyotish Vedanga" have become obsolete and wrong. The corrected version is available in my second website. Follow the link for second website -

Correction: (25/2/2015):
The 10 th explanation:
Dear friends,
The below given 9th explanation has also turned out to be wrong. The correct explanation as on today is that the above given 'U' symbol indicates the head of a bull, as said by Asko Parpola.(second explanation) However, it stands for the word and meaning 'Kavu' (Tamil word for sacrifice). The mistake in earlier interpretations was that i was trying to get a meaning through 'logo-syllabic' way. However, it turns out that Indus inscriptions are written in 'Ideographic way'as said by Iravatham Mahadevan.


The 9th explanation:
This symbol indicates the head of a bull, which was sacrificed. The word indicated may be 'Kapala' (skull of the bull).

Correction: (31/1/2014) (8th explanation):
I have given seven different possible explanations for this symbol"U"in this page. Finally it turned out that none of them are correct. The correct explanation is that this symbol stands for "Kavari"(Hindi).("Kavadi" in Tamil language).(8th explanation)

I have retained these explanations and examples just to show the trial and error through which i have identified these symbols.
Please be aware that all the below given explanations are wrong before you proceed to read further.

      In our quest for new interpretation of the Indus symbol, the key role is being played by this jar symbol. Many of the inscriptions on the seals are ending with this symbol, and this has been identified as jar, but it is not known, what for this jar was used by the Indus people. 

     George Wunderlich (German Geology Professor) in his book  states that the snake motif was occurring frequently in the pithoi found in Minoan palaces. He interpreted that snake motif was a symbol of protection for the mummies kept in those jars or funeral urns. 

    The first explanation is that it could have indicated the funeral jars of Indus Valley period.         

 There were many kinds of funeral urns some were big enough to keep the mummified body. Few others were medium sized urn to keep the bones after decomposition of the flesh of the body or remains of bones after burning of corpses. Remaining other are much smaller ones and were used to keep body entrails in case of mummification, as it was done in Egypt. (Wunderlich)

      The second explanation is that off Asko Parpola. He explains in his book that it looks like a cows head.

In fact his observation is very accurate and could be correct. His observation  can be substantiated by the new findings of the role played by "Kalan".

           Kalan played the important role of "Calendar God" and had a Bull's head (Minotaur) not a human head. Kalan was equivalent of Egyptian Sky goddess "Nut". Other way of explaining Kalan is that he was the "Indian Minotaur" He was the most important god of Indus people. So, the observation of Asko parpola is really coinciding with my new theory.

     The following explanation is the most important explanation being suggested in this book: 

        The third explanation is that this "U" symbol stood for "Vu" sound, which meant "day". Present day evidence is seen in "Tamil Language". 

    The third explanation for    the "U" symbol is that it equalizes the ‘ (vu)' symbol of Tamil. (Refer to the Tamil symbols in the web site) (Omniglot.com.) 

   "Vu" symbol stands for "day" in Tamil Language. (INDUS SYMBOLS)

and even now it is in usage, but this symbol is not regularly used, it is being used only on the special occasions like marriage invitation card or funeral invitation card or some important traditional documents.

There is no pictorial connection between "U" symbol and ‘Vu’ (day), the connection is a phonetic value. 

The burial Pithoi is called as ‘vurai’ (vu-rai) in Tamil. In fact there are many more words beginning with ‘Vu’ depicting a pot. (Vu-gai, Vun-dai, and Vun-dial) all of them starting with phonetic value ‘Vu’. 

In addition to that; the word ‘Vurai’ also meant ‘to live in’. It might have meant that the dead person was living inside the funeral pot. All these examples show that there was phonetic value for "U"symbol.

Because of this said example the conclusion of Steve Farmer that there is no phonetic value in Indus symbols is partially incorrect. It is likely that many more phonetic values will be decoded after proper deciphering of Indus scripts.

Vooral also meant a large pot:

     But this "Voo" sound is lengthy note of "Vu" sound. See the news paper report on "Nakkan's Vooral" ---explanation given by Iravatham Mahadevan on the inscription (Brahmi Script) found on a pottery piece in tamil Nadu 

Hindu June24-2010

    The fourth explanation for the "U" symbol is that this symbol simply stood for the "fortieth day ceremony" (or) third day ceremony with out any mention about the exact  day/date.
  (See the analysis under the page human sacrifice) (follow the link given above in the words "fortieth day ceremony") 

The fifth explanation:
"Vu" and Sumerian word for "Day" (this explanation is in support of third explanation)

Now , i got new information that the word "Ud" stood for the meaning "Day" in Sumerian Language. Which coincides with he word "Udayam" of Tamil. which means "Rising Sun", which other wise means "day".

This "U" symbol could have originally looked like the symbol of "Rising Sun" as used by Sumerian priests. See the book of Kriwaczek for the symbol.(Pictures plate next to page no. 118)

It is likely that over a period of time this symbol got transformed and looks like bulls head now.

Now the connection between
ancient Tamil and ancient Sumerian language is established and we have to search for some more similar links.See the following web page for more details--


The sixth explanation:
The sixth explanation is that this letter "U" could have symbolized the name of earliest sky god "Uronus"  (Earliest Greek sky God). Early priests could have taken the first letter "U" to signify the beginning of day. 

At this juncture , it is important to note that whenever Tamilian's start writing in a page they start with "U" mark on the top of page, indicating the name of lord Ganesh. It is a kind of worship and act of remembering  Ganesh before starting any work. But, I am yet to find out any name of "Lord Ganesh" with the beginning of "U" sound.

The seventh explanation for -"U" -sound:

Utsava and observance
Uthsava or Utsava or Utsav is derived from the Sanskrit word, Utsava. The Sanskrit word Utsava comes from the word "ut" meaning "removal" and "sava" which means "worldly sorrows" or "grief".

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Similarly, I have given seven different example for "U" in this page. Six of them turned out to be wrong and the seventh and last example turned out to be true.
Second example for "Vu" (U)--sound--(Voothal):

The fifth symbol is interesting one--this fifth logo stands for---"Vu" (U)--sound----which means---"day"---- 

        Normally "U" symbol had been used in all the old Indus seal --this seal is in later stage of development and new logo has been used instead of old "U" symbol---

          What does this logo indicates?--- the logo looks some thing like a  "Whistle".  See--it looks like two tubes tied together---the upper end slightly thinner than lower tube---when the air is blown through this twin tube---it would have made whistling sound--

        Now, the Tamil word for whistle is "Voothal".Definitely there is a "Voo" sound, but not exactly "Vu" sound, which we are concerned about---still we can take it that--- this symbol could have stood for "Vu" sound.


Third example for--"VU"(U)-sound-(Vural):

       The most interesting point in this seal is the last logo. It looks like "Pestle and Mortar". Many explanations had been given so far and non of them is satisfactory.

      But, now consider the new explanation being given here. This symbol "Mortar" stands for phonetic value of "Vu"(U). What is the Sanskrit word for mortar? The answer is--"UluuKhala". This word starts with ---"U"--sound, hence it can be safely  concluded that this mortar symbol stood for a phonetic value of ---Vu--and  not merely for  the object 'mortar".

         Now, consider  the same issue in the view point of  "Dravidian theorists" In Dravidian language also the word for "mortar" starts  with similar "Vu"sound. In Tamil language it is called as  ---"Vural" (Tamil word for "mortar"). 
  and "Ulakkai" (pestle) --- Both the words have  "U" sound.
          Now both Dravidian theorists and Aryan theorists can work more on this idea and find out, which language group did really the Indus Language belongs to?

Fourth example for "Vu" 

This seal is an important one because Asko Parpola has discussed the seal in the Tamil conference of June25,2010 , Coimbatore Tamil Nadu.

He has presented the paper explaining that the "leg " symbol means the Tamil word "Thaal" and the "Ass" indicates the  " wild Ass demon " "Dhenukasura" narrated in Krishna's story. (Bhagawatham). These two symbols considered together stands for the meaning "Palm Tree " 

In my opinion linking the story of Krishna is logically correct, only problem is that Krishna was travelling through sky through constellations and not through geographical region of "Kutch" (Gujarat) as being the common perception among Hindus.

Now , the seal should be read in a different way:

The tiger indicates the constellation      " Canis Major". It looks like that in olden days the ecliptic path way would have passed through Dog constellation. In India the dog constellation is invariably indicated as tiger not dog.
The conclusion that can be arrived  is that the seal indicates the month of Tiger (dog) Approximately (April/May)

The leg symbol stands for day of Leg of Kalan as described in my book. In the jyotisha vedanga table leg coincides with two legs not just one leg . Right leg of Kalan coincides with "Horse Constellation" and left leg of Kalan coincides with "Fish constellation . See kalan figure-2 in this web-site.

The priest, who prepared the seal had to define which leg of Kalan  he meant, right leg or left leg. That question is clarified by the ass symbol (For me it looks like goat symbol-see the raised tail--donkey doesn't have a raised tail) or ( it could have meant the Aries constellation ). In turn the this "ass symbol" indicated the day of "Horse" (see the picture of Kalan --right leg)

Now, finally the climax of the interpretation, Asko Parpola does not say anything about the comb like symbol. How will it be possible to understand the meaning of word without explanation to all the symbols in the word?

Now, I will give explanation to this "comb" symbol. For long time, i had a feeling that this symbol meant a "fork" (Trishul)  carried by Kalan. Now, I have realized that this symbol stands for fingers of Kalan. What is the "Hindi" word for fingers? It is "Unguli" (Sanskrit-Anguli)

Finally it is an important break through that this comb symbol stands for the sound "Vu" , indicating the day, that  it  was the day  of Donkey/ Horse/ Goat as listed out in the Jyotisha vedanga table.

Fifth Example of "Vu" sound:
This evidence is from Sumerian seal not from Indus seal -----

 The   important point to be noted in this seal is that the camel seen in the extreme left end. What is the Sanskrit name of Camel? It is "Ushtra" (Voot ---Hindi) ---"U" (Vu) stands for "Day" in Indus seal and it looks like that the same principle had been used in this  case of Sumerian seals also. This seal indicates that there could be  similarities and evolutionary relationship between IVC seals and Sumerian seals.

Sixth example for "U" sound--

There are some "Plough" symbols in Indus seals, the Tamil word for "plough" is "Ulu"(Uzhu). (Ref-Online Tamil Dictionary) Most probably plough symbol could have been used indicating "U" sound---

The best example for "Plough" can be seen in the following picture. (Picture acknowledgements to Shri.Kalyanaraman)
See the symbol no.1 in the second row (Left to Right). This is the best example for plough. This above given seal is with maximum number of symbols for the Indus seals. It looks like that it is the "Rosetta stone" of Indus seals. All the symbols   in the first row are indicating month and those three fishes in the middle definitely have "Mee" sound. It looks like that all  variants of the "mee" sound have been grouped together for educational and teaching purpose.

All the symbols in the second line are having "U" sound and are similarly variants of the same symbol.

Seventh example of "U" sound:

Shri.Iravatham Mahadevan says that the below given "Tilak" symbol is
 looking like "Pestle and Mortar" for him. (Ref --Reference ----Review of Agrarian Studies ----

                If such an interpretation is accepted, this above given symbol is merely a variation of example.no.3.("Vural "as given above in this column). In consequence of this interpretation the meaning of this symbol will be "Day" (U-sound)

               However, there is a small doubt about this interpretation of "pestle and mortar", generally mortars are flat bottomed to withstand the impact of pounding. Here this symbol is not flat bottomed, it is curved and sharp edged, it can not with stand the pressure of pounding. Generally Indus priests were very accurate in their depiction of objects, hence there is little chance that this symbol could be "Pestle and Mortar". Because of the above said analysis, the earlier interpretation that it is "Tilak symbol" still stands valid.

----------------------------------------Tilak is other wise called as "Urdhva Pundram" in sanskrit. Also known as
"Utpala pattra" as per online sanskrit dictionary. 

Both these words show that there is a possibility of "U" sound for this symbol also.