3) Deepavali


                            Even though the festivals of Deepavali and Karthigai looks different, the origin and concept of these festivals are based on common idea and common astronomical basis. These festivals revolve around the astronomical event of Sun entering the Libra constellation. Only difference is that Vaishnavite claim that it was Krishna who killed the demon and Saivite claim that it was Muruga who killed the demon. Any how the demon remains the same and demon is also earlier god, god of moon calendar priests.

                                New Year of Hindus ---Deepavali is "New Year " for Western India --(Gujarat and Maharashtra).  On Deepavali day ----Astronomical positions are as folowing ---
 Sun is in---------- "Libra" Constellation" 
Moon is also in----- "Libra" Constellation" 
Gregorian date ---- 13th November --2012
Moon phase  ------  New moon day (Amavasai)
there is a possibility of "Solar Eclipse" 
on such occasions , when both Sun and Moon are in same constellation ---In fact , there was a full fledged Eclipse on this day  (Reference --- http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/OH/OH2012.html )-----the significance of eclipse is that --- ancient calendar priest equated eclipse day to the first day of New Year ---all these fact lead us to the conclusion that this month under discussion i.e. Karthigai month is likely to be the first month of Indus Valley people (Moon Calendar) as well as Sumerian people.

                             On Deepavali day ----God Vishnu kills Naraka sura (Similar to Muruga Killing Padma Sura). It is a New Moon day. Western states of India (Gujarat and Maharashtra) still has the Influence of IVC. 
  This combination of both Sun and Moon in same constellation on new moon day is remembered by a mythological story, which is a  simile. In Hindu mythology this day is remembered as the day of union of Shiva  and Parvathi, Sun is construed as "Shiva", where as moon is imagined as "Parvathi", such an union on full moon day happens only on one day in any given year, i.e. month of Karthigai. 

                     This Sumerian seal shows the under world god ---this narrow entrance is the entry to under world guarded by two ---Yama gingaras ---- this entry point is not in earth ---- actually it is in heaven itself --- the Libra constellation is equal to entry to under world because after entry of sun into this gate way ---winter starts --- a new season coinciding with ----dakshinayana ---southern sojourn of the sun. 

Abydos - city Palette

Reference -----

The Origin of the Cult of Horus in Predynastic Egypt



Book by Andis Kaulins ------
Stars, Stones and Scholars: The Decipherment of the Megaliths as an
Ancient Survey of the Earth by Astronomy (Paperback)
Andis Kaulins
Publisher: Trafford Publishing (2003-10-24)

Picture courtesy Andis Kaulins
The Abydos "City Palette"

                      This is the palette found at Abydos (Egypt) these three lines show the pathways of Ea, Enlil and Anu as per the explanation of Andis Kaulins. These three gods are Sumerian Gods , which had been linked to Egyptian Palette. The relevance of this concept to us is that, the concept of under world that it is below earth surface is only partially correct. Corresponding under world also exists in heaven. Note that three pathways of gods had divided the heaven into four segments. The lower most segment actually indicates under world (Patala). Note that these three lines coincides with solstice movements of sun. When the sun is in lower most pathway (Pathway of Ea) it is winter, pathway of Anu is beginning of summer solstice and pathway of Enlil is summer. The entry of Sun into "Virgo" (September 22nd) marks the southern sojourn of Sun and beginning of winter . In this seal see the marker for "Virgo" has been shown at the lower right corner as per explanation of Andis Kaulins.

Picture of gate way to under world --- by Bengt Hemtun ---

picture courtesy Bengt Hemtun
The face of Underworld or earth-eye was an important symbol in the Sumerian rituals.

                    This above shown picture is the clay model of Gateway to Underworld and this model has been made to explain the concept. The same concept is expressed by a symbol, which is a fork downwards and under it an eye.( Note that Bengt Hemtun states that the symbol for gateway to under world is fork symbol and eye symbol below that).  This fork symbol leads to the conclusion that Libra is the gateway to under world in heaven. (It is not clear, where from this concept is taken, further evidence --citation is needed on this issue). It is possible that  Egypt also had  similar ritual, which had a focus on the underworld .

Picture courtesy Bengt Hemtun
 (Picture shows the golden plate from a Stonehenge grave)
                The groves show the three steps to Underworld.From the very beginning the gateway / portal was an important place and symbol for the border between worlds in space-time. (separating under world from living space).  It was symbol for the beginning of season as well as the real portal to some area (under ground burial chambers).