1.Origin of man

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ORIGIN OF MAN(New evidences show that earliest man lived some where near Israel 4 lakh years ago ---follow the link for more information ---
Origin of modern Man)

The onset of Dark Age is the sad part of human civilisation. Generally the Dark Age is considered to start with fall of the Roman Empire around 500 AD, but some of the characteristics of Dark Age could be seen in the earlier period also in some other different regions. One such incident happened in Alexandria, Egypt in the year 391A.D.

It was an unfortunate event and it was started by religious zealots. Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria burnt the library in that year, and started the great damage. That kind of vandalism had resulted in destruction of all books all over Europe. Because of that destruction we are not able to figure out our ancient past civilisation. This has resulted in a situation that there is complete void about the knowledge of the ancient history of the world. Many evidences have been lost and there is no possibility of knowing the past. The loss has been total and forever. Now the only way out is to reconstruct the history with information available from authors like Herodotus and others. This situation has created the necessity of writing of new books by modern authors by piecing together various details available about the ancient world with some modern evidences. This book is also a new initiative in this regard to trace out our roots of Indian civilization.

Origin of human kind

Everyone is curious about his ancestors, where from he got the good qualities, and his innate superior qualities. So, it is normal that everyone is interested in this topic. The archaeological evidences are difficult and sparse for the early part of human civilisation. That does not mean that this should remain as a mystery forever. The recent emergence of genetic studies, genetic finger printing is helping in many ways. The genetic finger printing is helping in solving many crimes. In similar way it can be used to trace our ancestors also.

The book released by Spencer Wells “The Journey of Man “A Genetic Odyssey” (Wells, 2003) is an important resource in determining the movement of ancient people. It is surprising that many long forgotten issues have been cleared and clarified by his book. Many of the research papers of various geneticists have been taken into consideration in this book, while arriving at major conclusions by spencer wells. One of the major questions which bother our mind is the question that what is the place of Origin of Man? Is it Africa, Central Asia, or China? Are the Chinese, the Africans and Europeans (Caucasian) are totally different? Now, the book says that all human kind has originated from a single family as recently as 50,000 years back in Africa that resolves the problem of Origin of Man. A small group consisting of 100-200 migrated out of Africa and populated the entire earth.

Now the other question is “How they migrated?” and “what was the route taken by them”? This book explains that there were waves of movement out of Africa during the drought times. The first migration took place around 50,000 years ago. The man identified as M168 (the specific Mutation was named as M 168) migrated out of Africa with his family. He migrated along the coast, moved rapidly during the Ice age. During the Ice Age, it was cold everywhere in Europe and Asia, but it was dry in Africa. Because of the dryness of the land, the migrating wilder beast, zebra, Thomson gazelle and other resident animals died out in large numbers. But it looks like that the M168 family were fishermen and lived in coastal areas of Eastern Africa, because they were coastal fishermen and they relied on fish for food, and they survived the severe drought of Africa of that time.

The first group of people migrated into southern tip of Arabia (Aden), but moved on through coastal Iran and India with a new mutation called M130 (50,000 years ago), reached Andaman Islands and the Andaman tribes existing in these islands are evidence to that event. This population with genetic marker M130 is found in large number in the coastal areas of India, especially South Indian coastal states. Finally this populace with M130 marker reached Australia and settled there. This fact is attested by the presence of Australian Aborigines. (Most probably) these people were fisher men and were using boats that explain the rapid movement of these people along the coast and island hopping and settlement in islands. It is not that they settled only on coastal areas, they intruded into Indian sub continent through all the major river valleys into deeper interior areas of Indian sub continent. They were the first inhabitants of India. But they could not make much head way because of lack of metal tools and lack of knowledge of agriculture.

The later day agriculturist only made the real inroad into the interior plains of India, because they could clear the forest using metal implements and could cultivate soil, which supported large population. Now the second migration is out of the M 168 men who were settled in Mesopotamia. After reaching Mesopotamia, the M168 population had grown in number, multiplied and flourished. In this population again a distinct mutation occurred, which helped in the identification of movement of this population. This mutation has been named as M89 and this occurred around 45,000 years ago.






Map 1: Human migration routes


M168

African clan  

50,000   years ago

Homo sapiens migrating out of Africa, because of prolonged drought condition.

M130

Coastal marker

50,000   years ago

Entry into Arabia, coastal people migrating along the coast lines, rapidly moved and reached Australia, and the present day Australian aborigines attest to that fact. The Andaman tribes are remnants of this movement. Today this marker consists of only 5% of the population in India, restricted to coastal areas of south India.

M89

Mesopotamian marker

45,000   years ago

M89 people enjoyed settled life at Mesopotamia, in the land of two rivers, with enough water and wild cattle to feed on, hunter gatherer stage.

M9 

-----------------

Turan Basin Clan

40,000   years ago

M9 people came out of Mesopotamian population and moved into Turan basin area around this time.

M45

Central Asian nomads

35,000   years ago

M45 people multiply and form the nomads of central Asia. Steppe lands are full of wild herd herbivores and mammoths, which supports the population growth and multiplication of steppe nomads.

M173

30,000   years ago

Central Asian M-45 population (Central Asian nomads) divide into two group. One group with M173 marker moves into Europe.

M20

Early pastoral

Dravidian clan

30,000 years ago

Dravidians enter into India. Early Dravidians were hunters and cattle rearing people. 50% of the South Indians have this Mutation. This mutation arose out of M9 population (Turan Basin clan).

M172

Neolithic

Anatolians

Farmers

10,000   years ago

 Neolithic Anatolian people migrate into Europe via Greece and other coastal areas of Europe, they were the earliest known agriculturists and they domesticated the wild cattle and   goats. On the eastern side they formed Sumerian farmers and later day farmers of Indus region. This gene marker is found in equal frequency to that off M20 and M17 in India. (Wells, 2003, p. 167).They may be termed as Sumerian farmers in India

 

M17

Indo Europeans

10,000   years ago

Arising of Indo European people in Southern Russia and Ukraine, (most probably) learnt agriculture from Anatolians through cultural diffusion, not through conquest. Renfrew model, cultural infusion is also from Anatolia. These people domesticated horse. These people are the “heroes” of Aryan theory.

The PCT theory of   Alinei proposes that this so called “Kurgan” people are really intruders from Uralic region, and were Turkic people in origin. (People from Turkmenistan of Central Asia) 


Table 1: Human migration details Earliest civilisation

What is the place of origin of the earliest civilization? Is it from Egypt or Mesopotamia? Generally the Fertile Crescent has been the source of civilization. The genetic studies confirm that the Mesopotamians were the first people to increase in their number; but the genetic studies do not show, how culturally advanced they were? Fortunately, the genetic route map coincides with the cultural route map of human being. More or less the earliest civilized society has existed in Sumeria, and then migrated to Egypt. Because of this genetic study this conclusion is being said in a reasonable accuracy, otherwise it is highly debatable point and no solid evidence exists in this regard.

Egypt is the storehouse of evidences

Mesopotamia is an open plain and is in cross roads of all surrounding countries and this centrally located area was frequently invaded by different people resulting in destruction of old cultures. Even in modern days, the effects of the two wars on Iraq could be seen in the TV news itself. The old government and institutions of Iraq were utterly destroyed and the process of destruction is being continued and will result in creation of a new order in that country. The destruction of old ideas is a common recurring theme in old Mesopotamia, whereas the Egyptians were settled in one corner of Levant and they were less disturbed by invasions and destructions. Egyptians had time to adapt to the new situations, war and equipments. They were able to preserve certain ideas to a limited extent. The process of change was slow and tolerable in Egypt. The Egyptians had a chance to fight back the enemies because the enemy had to come through Sinai and other inhospitable northern desert routes. This Nile valley was protected from other sides by Sahara desert. So Nile Valley was the protective life shelter for our earliest ancestors. Further, the dry climate protected many monuments and mummies, and other perishable materials which constituted as a good material evidence for the later day archaeologists.


Next route

The next route to be taken by M89 population should have been naturally to move into Europe via Turkey and Bosporus straits. But it did not happen that way, because Europe was in the grip of Ice Age, 50,000 years ago. Hence this route was blocked by ice. Spencer well says that the M89 population took the other route out, through Central Asia. The M9 man of Turan area followed the animal herds and moved into Central Asia and survived and multiplied over there. He was a “Hunter man”, survived on hunting wild games. Out of this “Turan man” another mutation occurred and new people emerged and they are identified with the gene marker M45. The major stock of Central Asia population has M45 Marker genes. This mutation M45 occurred around 35,000 years ago. This central Asian population with M45 marker later divided into two branches. One branch went into Europe and other branch into Siberia. The European branch is identified as M 173, a gene mutation, which occurred 30,000 years ago, whereas the Siberian branch emerged around 20,000 years ago. The Siberian branch then moved on further into America through Bering straits and became the Red Indians of America. The movement into America occurred around 10,000 years ago.

An important gene mutation occurred in Southern Russia and Ukraine out of the genetic stock of M-173 and was marked as M17. This important mutation M17 occurred just 10,000 years ago. The maximum variations in satellite Chromosomes are found in Southern Russia and Ukraine. This concept of maximum variation located in certain area is significant because it denotes the area of origin of this M17 people. This M17 people are nothing but the nucleus of later day Indo-Europeans. This M17 is found in India at surprisingly high frequency measuring nearly 35% in Delhi and in major Hindi speaking areas. The same M-17 gene is found everywhere, wherever Indo-European language speaking people are settled like Europe, Southern Russia and Central Asia. But still the spread of IE language should not be correlated to the population of M17 people. So far, generally it was agreed that the general movement of people correlated with language. But the issue of IE gene movement along with IE language is fraught with many dissident arguments. Even after many genetic studies, Colin Renfrew stands by his own theory that the spread of IE language was from Anatolia and was a cultural diffusion and not a gene invasion.

Many of the recent genetic studies result by Bryan Sykes (Sykes 2001) and Arredi, Poloni and Tyler Smith (2007) suggest that genetic Invasion of IE population of Southern Russia and Ukraine is not convincingly proved. The major genetic stock of various European states is out of their own local gene pool developments and not because of Invasion of IE population.
Now we should not jump into conclusion that just because 35 % of the population in New Delhi has M17 gene, all indo European people entered into India around 1500BC. There is a possibility that the influx of this gene M17 is due to influx of people during invasions of Darius, Alexander, Kushans (Kanishka), Mongols (Genghis khan) and Moghuls. There were waves of invaders into India, the most successful invader left the maximum genetic imprint.

Elite dominance theory

The marker M17 arose some 10,000 years ago in the southern steppe. But, where from these Indo-European’s got their language? There are many theories. But the most plausible theory is that the migration of Anatolian farmers from Mediterranean Sea region to southern Russia, through the Black Sea routes resulted in spread of Anatolian culture and language into this area. It was not massive migration but trickle down movement of “elite people” migrating north into Pontic steppe and Caspian steppe area. The elite people means the warrior aristocracy and the priestly class put together. This theory of “Elite Dominance” was first proposed by Colin Renfrew (Wells, 2003, p. 168).
The priests were carriers of culture, language & religion. Along with Anatolian citizens, traders and slaves were also brought into this area from different countries and regions. Slaves were important component of agricultural economy and civilization. When the slaves toiled and sweated for their masters, the elite group enjoyed comfort and prosperity. This comfort and free time was responsible for the extraordinary cultural and intellectual achievements of agricultural societies. Further one additional advantage for the Aegean people was that the island environment gave certain level of protection from invaders. (That is one of the reasons for the stability of island nations like England and Japan). The island environment also gave rise to egalitarian society[1], which was absent in other countries of that time. The core group of Anatolian elites moved into southern Russia along with affiliated people and mixed with local M173 population, which may be the reason for the sudden Mutation and forming of M17 population.


Now the M-17 population is culturally well equipped, naturally fit for War and to rule over other men, the “Warrior Aristocracy” was in search for wealth through adventure and conquest, searching for wealth through plundering people, not through agriculture and settled trade. That is a cultural aspect and not a genetic trait through mutation. The idea of group of warriors working together to conquer other people and enslave them comes through training and discipline not through genetic inheritance. Training and moulding group of young men into cohesive soldiers are extraordinary achievement. Once trained in that way, the soldiers became a biological killing machine. Who developed this idea first, Indo- Europeans or Anatolians? The Spartans were great warriors with extra ordinary military training from child hood onwards. They were legendary for their mental culture to stand along with their comrades till their death and never to desert the battle field. These are learned behaviour not inherited behaviour. It looks like that Anatolia and Aegean islands were breeding grounds for new ideas and sustaining them also. Further, the Aegean islands were in the cross roads of all important land masses and common meeting ground of various countries. So, the core of Anatolian and Aegean elite group had all the positive ideas and traits. They moved into Black Sea area, southern Russia and formed the Kurgan people (mound builders).

These Kurgan people are the torch bearers of Indo-European group. They migrated on the horse back. Their leaders carried their wealth in wagon, lived out in tents and in wagons. They were accompanied by smiths and artisans. It is not easy to form kingdoms and empires out of wagon existence. Yet, these people made empires on horseback and wagons, the Scythians first, Genghis khan later and Attila the Hun the last. Later, we find many stereotypes like Vikings and Boat people of Mediterranean Sea. All of them fall into similar pattern and a common interest, wealth through “Plunder”, which is a medieval mentality. Even now few people of the some Asian countries practice this mentality. The modern day jihadists are looking for something like the profession of old day warrior aristocracy.

Their thinking is medieval. When there is increase in population in given society (or country), the excess population enters into mercenary way of life to survive and succeed in life. They are not only interested in religious ideas but economic interest is also involved in it. This kind of extra ordinary achievement must have come from settled people like Anatolians not from nomadic Indo European people. Arnold Toynbee in his book “Rise and fall of civilisations” observes that the nomadic desert shepherds of central Asia were devoid of progress. The nomad’s culture was a stunted growth. It was an arrested growth, because all their energy and time were exhausted in their work for survival. That is applicable to the steppe nomads of southern Russia also. The war described by Herodotus, in which Darius went after the Scythians, was full of narrations about the nomadic life of Scythians. They never fought with Darius, they simply moved off to different places. In fact Darius spent all his time searching for the enemy in the vast sea of green grass that was steppe. In such a migrant situation, accumulation of knowledge is difficult. Further difficult is to codify and preserve it. In contrast to that, the settled people of that time had advantage in developing new knowledge and preserving it. The Rig Veda shows all the efforts of preservation of knowledge. The question is, whether this achievement was by Indo–European people or Anatolians farmers?
Herodotus says that the Scythians had three kinds of groups among themselves, one ruling scythes and other common scythes. Further he mentions that in the event of a death of scythe king, his body was taken around to all the groups in 40 days time the body was honoured with various gifts and buried later. Carrying the dead body for 40 days is a difficult task; it will rot. Only possibility is that the body was preserved with special knowledge, some kind of mummification, again this cultural tradition brings in to focus the influence of Middle Eastern and Mesopotamian people, not the nomadic Indo Europeans.

The dominance of warrior class could be fully understood from the stories of Hercules. Hercules was the first man to become a God. He was fifty percent man and fifty percent God at the time of his birth. But, even before that the Sumerian Hero “Gilgamesh” was the proto type warrior. This Hero culture has helped the small warrior groups conquering the other settled cultures. It is difficult that the Hero culture groups will succeed over settled cultures of present day. So, the conclusion is that the Anatolian, Hercules type elites had spread the culture and language of Indo–European people and not merely the southern steppe nomads.
30,000 years back the M-20 people migrated from Turan Basin into Indian Sub Continent. The old Dravidian culture shows many similarities to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. These cultural ideas could be from M20 population as well as M172 population. Generally it looks like that major influence is from Anatolian farmers (M172), who founded the Indus valley civilisation. Further there is a possibility that the 30,000 years old culture of M20 people also could have survived. It can be reasonably concluded that some of the cultural ideas preserved by South Indians are 30,000 years old. Whereas the new idea of male dominance, Indra, Zeus are coming up later at 10,000BC, which is the same period around which agriculture develops in Mesopotamia and arising of Indo-Europeans happens in southern Russia. This emergence of IE gods could be from Southern Russia and Ukraine; but the original source of these cultural ideas is from Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Aegean Islands.

Home land of Indo-European

It is likely that Indo Europeans (IE) came out of southern Russia. The recent genetic studies by Spencer Wells show that the genetic Mutation M-17 occurred in southern Russia sometime around 10,000 BC. It has become one of the dominant gene pool in India, which corroborates the longstanding notion that IE came from central Asia or southern Russia. These groups of people are associated with kurgan structures and mound burial, even though they did not have burial of the dead as their regular practice. The steppe people are invariably associated with cremation of bodies, not with burial of bodies. Burning dead body is an extreme act. There might have been some good reason for that. It is likely that these nomads feared the desecration of bodies by some other people, robbers or enemies. Because they were migrating people, they could not protect their dead; it must have been a better option for them to burn the body rather than to bury it. The kurgan people seem to be intruders into this scene, because they preferred to bury their bodies. It is likely that the kurgan people are the descendents of Anatolian origin, where burial of dead was standard practice similar to Egyptian custom.

Homer narrates about the ‘cremation practice’ while describing about cremations of Hector and Achilles. It is likely that the burial custom got replaced by burning practice because of the influence of Homeric people. These Homeric people are really distinct, war like, drama loving, creative people. It looks like that these Homeric people migrated from steppe lands into Mediterranean region and they might have introduced this cremation practices. Most probably these Homeric people are the descendents of Turkic people being mentioned by professor Alinei in his PCT theory.
The distinctive marker M17 is present at high frequency of 40% from Czech Republic to the Altai Mountains in Siberia and south throughout central Asia. Absolute dating suggest that this marker is 10,000 years old, and micro satellite diversity is greatest in southern Russia and Ukraine, suggests that it arose there. M17 is a descendent of M173 which is consistent with European origin. The origin, distribution and age of M17 strongly suggest that it was spread by Kurgan people in their expansion across the European Steppe. (Spencer Wells page 167)


Megalithic people of Europe

Even before the arrival of Indo European people on the scene at Aegean Islands Greece around 5000 BC, already civilized people were living all over the coastal area of Europe. They had built Megalithic burial mounds all over Europe. Some important Stone henges or old burial monuments are found at Salisbury plain of England, Carnac in Brittany (France), Ireland, Skora Brae, (Orkney Islands), Scotland, Los milares (Spanish Minorca Island), Corsica and Malta (Mediterranean) (Marshall, 2001).

Who were these people? They were led by Priests Kings not the warrior kings of Indo Europeans. They were interested in Sun movement, to fine tune their Calendar, which was important for their agricultural operations. Indian priestly class and Christian missionaries religiously maintained and preserved the knowledge of calendar. Indian calendar is known as Panjaangam, and it is the secret knowledge of the Indian priestly class. Gradually the religious significance of Panjaangam got reduced and it became a secular one. Even now Priests are being consulted for fixing an auspicious date for the marriage ceremony. It is nothing else other than fixing a date on Calendar. But a lot of religious significance is being attributed to it. In earlier years only priests were aware of it. When will it rain? And when will it shine? It was important for the people to move around. If important events like marriages are fixed during monsoon days, it will become difficult for everyone including guests and hosts. So the priestly class kept it as a professional secret and gained out of that. It is likely that Megalithic Priests, Druids of England and Merlin of Ireland were priests, who ruled over the people. They were the people of knowledge, Medicine men, Shaman, Poet, Historian, Calendar men and weather men all the roles put together into one person. They were the leaders of their society in the beginning, but later the warrior aristocrats had taken over the role of the rulers and priests had became advisors to them.

But advisors’ roles were also very important. Without advisors, the king had no proper idea about various things. So, later day Indo Europeans were led by the able leadership of Nobles and Priests; even though they were pastoral people, they had kings and established nomad kingdoms. The source of advanced knowledge to the southern steppe Europeans was through the descendents of Priestly class of Anatolia and Levent. The theory that intelligent and powerful kurgan people appeared out of nomadic existence is highly doubtful.
One important characteristic of this megalithic people is that they formed a sea based civilisation, and had spread all over European coasts and have spread beyond common man’s imagination. It is likely that they were the torch bearers of civilisation after the spread of agriculture. The pyramids of Mexico, stone henges at middle of Amazon forest and the mounds of north America are all inter related and have a common origin, that can be traced back to Mediterranean Megalithic culture. This theory needs a lot of substantiation and verification. The present book is beyond this scope.




[1] Egalitarian means a society in which all classes of people are considered equal. Indian society is built on non-egalitarian ideas and is gradually changing towards egalitarianism after independence.