List of abbreviations used in this book



Anno Domini: The year of the lord


Before Christ


Bactria Margiana archaeological complex


Circa: means around the year.


Human Genome Project




Indus Valley Civilisation


Proto Indo Europeans


Palaeolithic Continuity theory


OCP—ochre coloured potteries

NBP----northern black polished ware

PGW---painted grey ware culture

BRW—black and red ware culture








 Allegory is a figurative sentence or discourse, in which the principal subject is described by another subject resembling it in its properties and circumstances. The real subject is thus kept out of view, and we are left to collect the intentions of the writer or speaker by the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject. / Anything which represents by suggestive resemblance; an emblem. Or / (Painting and Sculpture.)/ A figure representation which has a meaning beyond notion directly conveyed by the object painted or sculptured.




Allograph is the variation in how letters and other graphemes are written. The letter "a", for example, has two common forms (glyphs) in different typefaces.  (Example typeface allograph: a /ɑ) (These two glyphs form the allograph of letter “A”.)



Anno Domini

 Anno domini (A.D): The term Anno Domini is Medieval Latin, translated as in the year of our Lord). It is sometimes specified more fully as Anno Domini Nostri Iesu (Jesu) Christi ("In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ").



A term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. This can involve the analysis of DNA recovered from archaeological remains, i.e. ancient DNA; the analysis of DNA from modern populations (including humans and domestic plant and animal species).




Common Era (also known as Christian era) is a designation for the period of time beginning with year 1 of the  Gregorian calendar. Both the expressions are abbreviated CE (Christian era is also abbreviated AD, however), and earlier dates are designated BCE, short for "Before the Common Era", "Before the Christian Era". The numbering of years is identical to the numbering in the Anno Domini system, neither system using a year zero


Centum group languages

These are two groups of IE languages. The first group is the one in which “hundred (100)” is pronounced as “centum” and the other group is “satem” group of languages. In the second group of IE languages, “100” is pronounced as “satem” (satham). The European languages fall under the “centum” category, and Iranian and Indian languages fall under the “satem” category.



(Often abbreviated c., Ca, ca or cca. and sometimes italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" or "around". It is widely used in genealogy and historical writing, when the dates of events are approximately known.


Chalcolithic age

Asian archaeologists use this term to indicate the “copper- stone age”, whereas European archaeologists use the common term “copper age”. In this book the term copper age is being preferably used over the term chalcolithic age.



The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year, appearing to move eastwards on an imaginary spherical surface, the celestial sphere, relative to the (almost) fixed stars. More accurately, it is the intersection of the celestial sphere with the ecliptic plane, which is the geometric plane containing the mean orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The name ecliptic arises because eclipses occur when the full or new Moon is very close to this path of the Sun.



“Eteocretan” means “True Cretan people”, the original inhabitant of the island of Crete.


Heliacal rising

See the detailed discussion under the heading Astronomy and calendar.



 The word kurgan is of Turkic origin used in Russian language means mound.



Logograms are commonly known also as "ideograms" or "hieroglyphics", which can also be called "hieroglyphs". Strictly speaking, however, ideograms represent ideas directly rather than words and morphemes.

Since logograms are visual symbols representing words rather than the sounds that make up the word, it is relatively easier to remember or guess the sound of alphabetic written words, while it might be relatively easier to remember or guess the meaning of logograms. Another feature of logograms is that a single logogram may be used by a plurality of languages to represent words with similar meanings.




The word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek  megas meaning great, and lithos meaning stone. "Megalith" also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of large stones are seen as megaliths. The construction of these structures took place mainly in the Neolithic (though earlier Mesolithic examples are known) and continued into the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age.





Old Europe

 Old Europe is a term coined by archaeologist Marija Gimbutas to describe what she perceived as a relatively homogeneous and widespread pre-Indo-European Neolithic culture in Europe, particularly in the Balkans. In her major work, The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe: 6500–3500 B.C. (1982), she refers to these Neolithic cultures as Old Europe. Archaeologists and ethnographers working within her framework believe that the evidence points to migrations of the peoples who spoke Indo-European languages at the beginning of the Bronze age (the Kurgan hypothesis). For this reason, Gimbutas and her associates regard the terms Neolithic Europe, Old Europe, and Pre-Indo-European as synonymous.



 Pechanga means – (Panch: five, Anga: parts) i.e. the calendar made of five parts; they are, Year, Day, Nakshatra, Raahu kalam (good time) and kuligai. (Bad time)




Means religion marked by group of gods, not a single god. (Polytheistic religion)



Philology is the word derived from the Greek word “ philos” meaning "loved, beloved, dear, friend" and  logos "word,  is a branch of the human sciences dealing with language and literature, specifically a literary canon, combining aspects of grammar, rhetoric, historical linguistics (etymology and language change), interpretation of authors, textual criticism and the critical traditions associated with a given language.



Pithoi are earthen jars found in Cretan palaces, Arthur Evans says that pithoi were used for storage of grains, but Wunderlich says they were used for keeping mummies.


Pontic region

The Greek name for “Black Sea” is “Euxine Pontus”. From this root word only the other words like “Pontic Mountain” and “Pontic region” are derived. Pontic region is the area located around Black Sea in northeast Asia Minor and the area along the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea.


Precession (astronomy)

In astronomy, precession refers to a gravity-induced slow but continuous change in earth’s rotational axis or orbital path. Which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years (called a great or Platonic year in astrology).




 H + = Hear.

Rebus is the word derived from Latin meaning "by things". It is a kind of word puzzle that uses pictures to represent words or parts of words. For example: The term rebus also refers to the use of a pictogram to represent a syllabic sound. This adapts pictograms into phonograms. A precursor to the development of the alphabet, this process represents one of the most important developments of writing. Fully developed hieroglyphs read in rebus fashion were in use at Abydos in Egypt as early as 3400 BC



Star in Orion constellation.


Satem group of languages

See “centum” group of languages.



The word steppe summarizes the vast flat grass lands stretching from north of the Black Sea as far as the east of the Caspian, from central Ukraine across the Southern and Volga Federal Districts of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east. The area corresponds to Scythia and Sarmatia of Classical antiquity.






Theocratic Government

Means government controlled by the priests and religious laws. (Theocracy)


Turan Basin

Turan Basin is the area enclosing Northern Afghanistan, North-eastern Iran and Southern Turkmenistan. Turan is the ancient Iranian name for central Asia, literally meaning “The land of the Tur”. The modern words “Turk and Turkish” emerge from this root word.



 There are eight Vasus (gods of abundance). They are as following, Agni(fire),Prithvi (earth), Vayu (wind), Antariksha ( atmosphere), Aditya ( Eternal), Dyaus (sky), Chandramas (moon-Soma) and Nakstrani (star-Dhuruva)