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NEW INTERPRETATIONS

ON

INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION

R.JEYA KUMAR 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

                                        

 

 

 

                                       

                                                 

 

                                          

 

                                             CONTENTS

 

 

           DEDICATION.. 6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. 7

PREFACE. 8

CHAPTER-I 11

DARK AGES. 11

CHAPTER-II 22

GENERAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTS. 22

CHAPTER-III 41

Click here to find out more!GENETIC ARCHAELOGY. 41

CHAPTER-IV.. 48

ORIGIN OF INDO-EUROPEANS. 48

Chapter-V.. 62

MINOAN CIVILIZATION.. 62

CHAPTER-VI 71

MEGALITHIC CIVILISATION.. 71

CHAPTER-VII 80

SUMERIAN CIVILISATION.. 80

CHAPTER-VIII 95

INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION.. 95

CHAPTER-IX. 110

INTERPRETATIONS OF MIDDLE EASTERN SEALS. 110

CHAPTER- X. 120

ASTRONOMY AND CALENDAR. 120

CHAPTER-XI 134

NAVAGRAHAS. 134

CHAPTER-XII 142

INTERPRETATION OF INDUS SYMBOLS. 142

CHAPTER- XIII 160

VEDIC PERIOD.. 160

Figure 1: Geb and Nut. 36

Figure 2: Depiction of Kalan dignified and original 37

Figure 3: Depiction of Kalan. 37

Figure 4: Funeral Jars or storage jars?. 69

Figure 5: Dolmen. 72

Figure 6: Ziggurat. 90

Figure 7: Marduk killing vritra. 93

Figure 8: Marduk priest. 93

Figure 9: Great bath. 100

Figure 10: Goat seal. 102

Figure 11: Naked Goddess. 112

Figure 12: Centaurs of Three big cultures. 115

Figure 13: Water carrier. 117

Figure 14: Indus seal - unicorn. 118

Figure 15: Planetary positions as per Hindu temple. 137

Figure 16: Planet chart (or) Horoscope. 138

Figure 17, Inanna fighting animals. 149

Figure 18: The Goat seal 150

Figure 19, Yogi Seal. Figure 20, Orion and surrounding constellations. 151

Figure 21, Hunter on tree. (Indus seal depiction). 153

Figure 22, Orion and Canis Major constellations. 153

Figure 23: Sign of double axe. 154

Map 1: Human migration routes. 12

Map 2: Proposed Saraswati River valley. 30

Map 3: Migration direction of Anatolian farmers. 49

Map 4: IE Migration as per Renfrew hypothesis. 50

Map 5:  IE migration as per Kurgan hypothesis. 51

Map 6: Map of Crete and Santorini. 64

Map 7 , Megalithic Architecture – Spread. 74

Map 8: Map of Sumeria. 81

Map 9: Extent of Indus valley civilisation. 98

Map 10: Sky map. 122

Table 1: Human migration details. 14

Table 2: Evolution of man and different metal ages. 26

Table 3: General chronology. 28

Table 4:  Minoan chronology. 63

Table 5: Sumerian chronology. 82

Table 6:  Analysis of symbols as per Hemtun. 116

Table 7: Jyotish Wheel. 132

Table 8: Details of Horoscope chart. 140

Table 9: Vedic chronology. 162

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He not only guided me like the North Star,

but he was the boat, on which I sailed;

and crossed the sea of life.

She was not only the paddle,

which helped me through the ocean;

but she was the life jacket,

which assured me that

I was not alone in this world.

 

 

 

This book is dedicated to my father, Late Shri Ramasamy, who had inspired me to take up the civil service job. His suggestion that study of history is an integral part of civil service examination had resulted in my eternal love for this subject. He had also opened my eyes to a never-ending source of literature, which has become my hobby as well as the guiding lamp in my life. In addition to that, this book is further dedicated to my mother, Late Smt. Andal, who had nursed her hopes on our success in life through education and sustained it with lots of sacrifice throughout her life.

 

 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

      It is important that a proper acknowledgement is written after completion of the book. Earlier, I used to find it amusing the way authors used to make praises of their wives and family members for their support and patient bearing of the difficulties. Now, after attaining maturity on the ways of life and the experience of writing a book; I realise that writing a book is a long term effort and it materialises because of proper understanding among family members. I am grateful to my wife Shobana for patiently listening to my new theories and ideas on Indus culture.  She also helped me by teaching, ‘how to handle the MS-Word programme’. My thanks are due to my daughter Krishna Priya for helping me out through various intricacies of GIMP-2 programme (Image manipulation programme). I am highly indebted to all my family members who had been helpful to me in numerous ways, which will need lot of space and time to list out. If I start narrating their help and my indebtedness to them, major portion of this book will go towards writing my family history. Hence I restrict myself with the statement that without the love and affection of my family members this work could not have succeeded at all.

  I am highly indebted to shri A.Selvaraj IRS (Rtd. CCIT) and shri M.Ravi IPS; for their lifelong support and their moral support during this period. I am equally grateful to shri R.C. Mishra IRS for his silent support, and policy of allowing freedom of expression.  I am thankful to Shri Balachandran and Shri Bharathi Bhaskaran for their editing work of this book, without which it could not be published in this short time schedule. I am thankful to Shri Srinivasan, for his timely help in correcting the manuscripts, and patiently listening to various theories of mine on Indus valley Civilisation.

  The other most important help I have taken is from Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. Major portion of the basic facts are from Wikipedia and I found that this it was exceedingly helpful in presenting facts and stitching together many facts on basic issues. If at all any mistakes in basic facts are there, they may be due to the inaccuracies in Wikipedia. But generally I find that facts are properly presented and internet vandals have not taken an upper hand on Wikipedia.

 Next in order is GIMP-2 programme. It is again a free programme from GNOME project, and all the figures in this book are drawn using this image manipulation programme. The figures in this book make it lively and easy to understand. My heartfelt thanks are due to these noble personalities who have developed and sustaining Wikipedia and GIMP programme. Without these facilities this book would have died down in the conception stage itself.

                                                                                                  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PREFACE

 

               Before going into the nitty-gritty of this book, it is important to introduce myself and my credentials to write on this topic. I did my graduation in the subject of Agriculture at Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu and post graduation from IARI, New Delhi. My only qualification in the field of history subject is that I prepared for the history paper in Indian civil service examination four times and secured good marks. I have been going through various history books for the past 25 years as a hobby and find that it is the best way to pass the time. Other than that I do not have any kind of professional qualification in this field.

          I came across the book “The secrets of Crete” written by Wunderlich, (Wunderlich, 1974), while I was preparing for civil service examination. I was fascinated by the fact that many of the cultural traits attributed to Cretans were similar to that of South Indian culture. I felt that definitely there was strong link between India and Mediterranean region in the cultural aspects. I continued with my search for cultural roots of Dravidians with that of Mediterranean cultures. During the course of this search, I noticed the theory proposed by Wunderlich that Cretan palace was a necropolis and not a palace for living people. This remarkable insight made a deep impact in my mind, and I felt that it was the same occurrence in Indus sites also, that these sites have been wrongly classified as mega polis, whereas in reality they were only necropolis. I waited for some historian to come out with a new insight on this issue, but unfortunately no one has come out with this idea that these sites could be burial grounds. Finally I decided that the best to bring forth this theory should be through my own effort and time will tell how far my theory was correct.

               In addition to the above mentioned objective, this book is written with two sections of people in mind. One is the student community, who are preparing for civil service examination and the other one is the common Indian, who is interested in developing a layman’s view of Indian History and culture. Further, the intention of this book is that there should be some clarity in understanding our ancient legacy, so that we will be better prepared to meet the future challenges as a nation as well as an individual. It is also important that we should be able to understand the perplexing cultural traits and legacies of India to survive and progress in this country. India is a cultural dinosaur, which somehow escaped the fate of extinction. The British rule of India had saved the diversity of this country and simultaneously saved Hinduism from demise. Had it been for the Islamic rule without the interruption of British rule, Hinduism would have vanished in India as it happened to the old pharaonic religion of Egypt.  Many Indians think that British rule was an unmitigated evil with out and kind of positive influence, but I beg to differ. There are many good influences, which has resulted in positive developments in India. Our effort must be to preserve the best of Hindu culture and improve on it, so that our country can grow strong and healthy and survive as a vibrant nation.       

              Even though I started this book with an aim to help a student whose optional subject is history in civil service examination, but does not have a basic idea about ancient Indian history. This book has taken such a course that many of the issues are given totally different interpretation, and if any civil service aspirant reproduces such views, most probably he will not get any mark. Still I hope that this book will help him to understand some fundamental concepts about Indus period and   Vedic   period and he will be able to get some foot-hold on this subject. After getting some idea about the basic issues on Indus culture and Vedic period, the civil service aspirant should expand his knowledge by studying various books available on these topics. It is once again clarified that only standard views expressed by established Historians will be accepted in civil service examination, and these kinds of revolutionary ideas presented in this book will not fetch good marks to the candidates. 

    Now the book has taken such a course that I have trespassed into the domain of professional archaeologists and historians. I never had any such intention to challenge any of the scholars in this field of history. Unfortunately, I have become bogged down into the problems of the various unsettled issues in the field of Indus civilisation and have to give reasonable explanations about various issues. This process has forced me into various uncharted territories of ancient Indian history. I have tried to give proper citation to various points raised in this book; where-ever it was available. I hope and pray that the scholars in this field should take a lenient view and forgive me for any kind of mistake in this book.

                         It is important to understand various contributions made by Archaeologists and Historians by learning about their life and achievements, and develop a proper healthy respect for their efforts in this field, or for that matter in any kind of field. It is not only developing a healthy respect for an individual, it actually helps in understanding and remembering the subject. For example if a student tries to remember various events and incidents that happened during the time of independence movement, it will be really difficult task to remember those events chronologically. The simplest way to understand and remember the independence movement is to study the life history of Mahatma Gandhi. Life history of Gandhi is totally linked to freedom movement; whatever happened in his life is reflected in the freedom movement. Hence, the easiest way to remember freedom movement is to remember life history of Gandhi. Any of the simple biography available in the market will suffice, but the best option is to read his auto biography, which is very easy to read but makes a deep impact on the mind.

                Keeping in mind the above said principle, I have tried to give a brief introduction about various important persons we come across in this book. I hope you will enjoy and appreciate this effort. Any valuable suggestions of the readers may kindly be sent to the e-mail address of mine; krishnapriya1993@gmail.com.

-         Author

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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