10. Jyotisha Vedanga and Indus symbols

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This message is to inform you that statements and explanations pertaining to "Calendar Theory" and "Jyotish Vedanga" have become obsolete and wrong. The corrected version is available in my second website. Follow the 
below given link for my second website --
https://sites.google.com/site/indusharappacivilization/home  

Whereas the "Necropolis Theory" explaining the nature of Indus excavation sites, stands on it's own legs firm to the ground. Only, passing of time will bring forth the truth. I am maintaining this old website just to show the thought process through which the final success is obtained. Details and statements relating to various other issues dealt in this website are valid and correct.

ASTRONOMY AND CALENDAR

A Nakshatra) or) lunar mansion is one of the 27 or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology. Therefore, each represents a division of the ecliptic similar to the zodiac (13°20’ each instead of the 30° for each zodiac sign). The orbit of the moon is 27.3 days, so the Moon takes approximately one day to pass through each Nakshatra.

The starting point for the Nakshatra is the point on the ecliptic directly opposite to the star Spica called Chitra in Sanskrit (other slightly-different definitions exist).  The ecliptic is divided into each of the Nakshatra eastwards starting from this point. The list of Nakshatras is found in the Vedic texts and also in the Shatapatha Brahmana. The first astronomy text that lists them is the Vedanga Jyotisha of Lagadha. As per Hindu mythology the Nakshatras, were invented by Daksha, and are personified as daughters of the deity and as mythological wives of Chandra, the moon god. Some even make them the daughters of Kashyapa, the brother of Daksha.

Each of the Nakshatra is governed as 'lord' by one of the nine grahas in the following sequence: Ketu (South Lunar Node), Shukra (Venus), Ravi or Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon), Mangala (Mars), Raahu (North Lunar Node), Guru or Brihaspati (Jupiter), Shani (Saturn) and Budha (Mercury). This cycle repeats itself three times to cover all the 27 Nakshatras. The lord of each Nakshatra determines the planetary period known as the Dasha, which is considered of major importance in forecasting the life path of the individual. (Nakshatra) (Wikipedia, 2009)

 Old Babylonian astronomy

Old Babylonian astronomy refers to the astronomy that was practiced during and after the First Babylonian Dynasty and before the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Babylonians were the first to recognize that astronomical phenomena are periodic and apply mathematics to their predictions. Tablets dating back to the Old Babylonian period document the application of mathematics to the variation in the length of daylight over a solar year. Centuries of Babylonian observations of celestial phenomena are recorded in the series of cuneiform tablets known as the Enuma Anu Enlil. The oldest significant astronomical text that we possess is Tablet 63 of the Enuma Anu Enlil, the Venus, which lists the first and last visible risings of Venus over a period of about 21 years. It is the earliest evidence to show that planetary movements also have recognizable periodic movements.

The other Babylonian astronomy book “Mul-apin”, contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal and settings of the planets. This book also records lengths of daylight as measured by a water clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalation.

    Lunar calendar

 A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon. The only widely used purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar, whose year always consists of 12 lunar months. A feature of a purely lunar year, on the Islamic calendar model, is that the calendar ceases to be linked to the seasons, and drifts each year by 11 days (or 12 days in case of leap year), and comes back to the position it had in relation to the solar year approximately every 33 Islamic years. It is used predominantly for religious purposes. In Saudi Arabia, it is also used for commercial purposes. Most lunar calendars, except the Hijri, are in fact lunisolar. That is, months are kept on a lunar cycle, but then intercalary months are added to bring the lunar cycles into synchronisation with the solar year. Because there are about twelve lunations (Lunar months) in a solar year, this period (354.37 days) is sometimes referred to as a lunar year. (wikipedia)

Luni-solar calendars

Most lunar calendars are, in fact, lunisolar; such as the Chinese, Hebrew, and Hindu, and most calendar systems used in antiquity. All these calendars have a variable number of months in a year. The reason for this is that a year is not evenly divisible by an exact number of lunations, so without the addition of intercalary months the seasons would drift each year. This results in a thirteen-month year every two or three years. Lunar calendars differ as to which day is the first day of the year. For some lunar calendars, such as the Chinese calendar, the first day of a month is the day when an eclipse appears in a particular time zone. Many other lunar calendars are based on the first sighting of a lunar crescent. The length of a month orbit/cycle is difficult to predict and varies from its average value. Because observations are subject to uncertainty and weather conditions, and astronomical methods are highly complex, there have been attempts to create fixed arithmetical rules. The average length of the lunar month is 29.53 days. This means the length of a month is alternately 29 and 30 days. (wikipedia)

 Heliacal rising

The heliacal rising of a star (or other body such as the moon, a planet or a constellation) occurs when it first becomes visible above the eastern horizon at dawn, after a period when it was hidden below the horizon or when it was just above the horizon but hidden by the brightness of the sun. Each day after the heliacal rising, the star will appear to rise slightly earlier and remain in the sky longer before it is hidden by the sun. Eventually, the star will no longer be visible in the sky at dawn because it has already set below the western horizon. This is called the heliacal setting. A star will reappear in the eastern sky at dawn approximately one year after its previous heliacal rising. Because the heliacal rising depends on the observation of the object, its exact timing can be dependent on weather conditions. (Wikipedia)

         Not all stars have heliacal risings: some may (depending on the latitude of observation on the earth) remain permanently above the horizon, making them always visible in the sky at dawn, before they are hidden by the brightness of the sun; others may never be visible at all (like the North Star in Australia). Constellations containing stars that rise and set were incorporated into early calendars or zodiacs. The ancient based their calendar on the heliacal rising of Sirius and devised a method of telling the time at night based on the heliacal risings of 36 stars called decan stars (one for each 10° segment of the 360° circle of the zodiac/calendar). The Sumerians, the Babylonians, and the ancient Greeks also used the heliacal risings of various stars for the timing of agricultural activities.

Jyotish wheel

      The jyotish wheels are used by present day astrologers, this wheel is prepared according to jyotisha vedanga and it shows various days based on Nakshatra (star) constellations. It looks like that jyotisha vedanga had preserved the Indus calendar and is being used in present day for astrology instead of being used as calendar. In the present day secularized calendar, “days” are numbered and counted from 1 to 30 days, whereas in Indus period the days were named after individual names of Nakshatras. These Nakshatra names are still available in present day panchangams and are being used in scheduling of religious festival days. In present day panchangam, two kinds of calendars are being presented together. First is lunar calendar and second is luni–solar calendar. The lunar calendar uses twenty eight names (for 28 days), whereas luni-solar calendar counts the days on number basis as in modern calendar. The luni-solar month is divided into two halves of 14 days each, 14 days of waxing moon and 14 days of waning moon.  The existence of two calendars shows that the present day calendar is retaining old lunar calendar and also evolved to adopt the luni-solar calendar. Thus the continuity of Indus culture is being maintained in Indian calendars also. This theory being proposed in this book is that during the Indus period, each of the day was assigned with a Nakshatra name and not number. The details are as given below in the table.

The Indus seals could not be deciphered properly because the context under which these seals were used is not known. Because of that reason the explanations offered so far are unsatisfactory or explains only part of the signs, which are doubtful. Now with the new theory that Indus sites were necropolis not metropolis there should be some proper explanation for the seals. The new theory proposed in this book is that the symbols represent the “star constellations” and in turn the star constellations represent days of the moon calendar month.  All these details are listed out and tabulated.  The details are as per the table given below:

 Jyotish wheel table 

 

 

NAKSHATRA

Rasi/ Indian zodiac/

Western zodiac/

Location

Sanskrit meaning

Ruler

( Earlier Moon gods)/

Deity

(later solar gods)

Body part of

Kala-

Purusha

symbol

Indus symbol

1

Asvini/Dasra/ Dasradevata/

 

Mesha

 

Aries

 

Beta @gamma

Arietis

Possessing horses/

The horse woman/

ASvaryuj= she who yokes horses/ mounted on horseback/ cavalier/ horse tamer

Ketu

 

 

Kumara

 

 

Top of foot


 

goat


Horse head/

Horse/

 

Goat in goat seal (seem to be earlier period symbol.)

There is no horse symbol but Aswins are described as great medicine men and honey bee and honey comb are symbols of them

Honey bee-


-------------

Honey comb


2

Bharani/Yama/

Mesha

 

Aries

35,39,& 41 Aries

BharaNa= Act of bearing/ 


Shukra

 

Yama=

God of Death

Sole of foot


Sole of foot is not available, may be the pedestal should be construed as the sole of foot

Yoni(Vagina)/ or

Elephant

BharaNa= Act of bearing/ also in the womb/

Yoni

 

3

Kritika/Agneya/

 

Mesha-Vrishabha

 

Aries- Taurus

 

Pleiades

Belonging or relating to fire or its deity Agni/

One who cuts

Ravi

 

Agni

Head of kala-

Purusha


Razor/

Cutter/ scissors/

 Flame/Knife/ spear

Cutter

 

4

Rohini

Brahmi

Vrishabha=bull

 

Taurus

Alpha Tauri

i.e. Aldebaran

 

The growing one/or the red one/ also a red cow/

Daughter of surabhi/

Kamadhenu

 

Figured by wheeled vehicle/temple/ fish

 

Soma

 

 

Brahma/

Prajapathi

Auriga constellation is part of bull constellation in earlier period , later it became the sacred tree- Ficus religiosa

Fore head of

Kala- Purusha



Asko Parpola says that this symbol looks like a cow’s head. It looks like the Kalan’s                  fore-head, which is the head of a bull.

Temple/ Ox-cart/

Chariot/ Banyan tree / Fish/

Vrishabha

Is bull

-------------

 

These two wheels may be representing a wheeled vehicle.

Temple/ ox-cart/

 

 wheeled vehicle/

-------------

 

5

Mrigashira/

Agrahayani/

Vrishabha- Mithuna/

Taurus-Gemini/

Head of Orion

Name of the demon(or) vritra in the form of deer slain by Indra/

---------------------

Game of any kind , (Esp.) deer, gazelle, antelope,

Stag, musk deer

Kuja

 

Chandra

 

Eye brows of

Kala- Purusha

The Deer’s head/

Group of lotuses

Deer , antelope

 

6

Aarda/ Aarudra ( in Tamil)/

Mithuna/

Gemini (Twins)

Betelgeuse;

Alpha Orionis

Wet, moist, damp, moisture,

Fresh, succulent, green (as a plant, living, fresh, new, soft, tender , fresh ginger

Raahu

 

 

Rudra

Eyes of Kala Purusha

Quiver-Gemini

Human Head/

 Moist, damp,

wet, dew- fresh, not dry, succulent,

green,/ Tear drop/ A Diamond

Moist-

Succulent; green plants

 

7

Punarvasu

 

Castor and Pollux/

Alpha and beta Geminorum

Twin, doubled, two fold, a double band or bandage, the twined ones

Guru

Earth as Aditi (mother of Gods)

Nose of Kala-

Purusha


Quiver of arrows/

archer’s bow

Archer with bow


8

Pushya

Sidhya / Tishya

---------------------

Kataka/ Karka

(Crab)

Cancer

Cancri

The blossom or flower/i.e. the uppermost or best of anything./ nourishment

Tishya is the name of heavenly archer

Shani

-----------------------

Brihaspati

(Guru/ Jupiter)

Face of kala-

Purusha


Cow’s udder (earlier period)

----------------

(Later period symbols)

Flower/ Lotus/

Arrow and Circle

Udder/

Teat.

Flower


Later period

Heavenly archer

9

Aslesha/

Naga/

 

Karka ( crab)

Cancer/

 

Head of hydra-

Sigma hydrae

Intimate connection, contact, embracing, intwining, entanglement

Serpent

Bhuja= A bending curve, a curve; the arm, the breast, the hand, the trunk of an elephant, branch , bough

 

Budha

 

Sarpas the snake that became a god/

Naga

Ears of Kala- Purusha


Bending curve,

the arm



Coiled snakes



10

Magha/ pritriya

Simha/

Leo/

Leonis/

Regulus (star)

A gift, reward, bounty, wealth, power, a kind of flower, drug or medicine, a species of grain.

Ketu

 

Auspicious events/ no body parts.

Palanquin/ royal

chamber containing

a throne./ Royal throne

 

11

Purva Phalguni

Simha

------------------

Leo

Leonis

Best portion, the womb, uterus, vulva, vagina, place of rest, receptacle, seat, abode, home, lair, seed grain, part of fire pit, a mine, copper, name of a river

Shukra

 

Part of fire pit

Right hand of kala

 

 Yoni, A swinging

hammock,

Front legs of a cot

Yoni, Vagina,

Seed grain



12

Uttara Phalguni/ Aryamna

Simha- Kanya

Leo – Virgo

Leonis

Denebola (star)

The latter reddish one, the spring season, small, minute, feeble, weak, pith less,  un substantial, insignificant, worthless

Shukra

 

Right hand



Right hand of Kalan is forked or bearing a fork/Trishul

Bed, Back legs

of a cot/ four legs of a cot/ Hammock

Right hand,

Bed.


13

Hasta(Hand)

Kanya

Virgo

Corvus (The Crow)

The hand, holding in the hand, an elephant’s trunk, the fore arm, some time identified with part of the Corvus constellation

Soma

 

Savitri

Fingers of the hand ( a closed hand ) of kala- Purusha


Palm/ the hand.

HAND/

Elephant/

Crow

 

14

Chitra 

Kanya – Tula

Virgo- Libra

Spica: Alpha

Virginis

Conspicuous, excellent, distinguished, bright, clear, bright-coloured,/ 

Variegated, spotted, speckled.

Kuja

 

Tvashtra, the celestial architect

Neck of kala-Purusha


 Bright jewel

 

 

 

Pearl

Variegated spots- latest seal

15

Swati

Thula

Libra

 The Golden Star- Arcturus

Alpha Bootis

Vayavya= Soma vessels shaped like mortars

Pavana= purifier, purification, clean, pure, wind, or god of wind, breeze , air,

a house holder’s sacred fire,

 

Raahu

Vayu the Wind

a broom, winnowing of corn, an instrument for purifying grain (winnowing fan)

Chest of Kala-

Purusha

 

Sapphire/

A sword/ shoot of a plant / coral

Soma vessels shaped like a mortar?

Winnowing fan?

 

16

 

 

Vishaka – Radha

Thula- Vrischika

Libra – Scorpio

 

Librae

The forked ,two- branched

Radha = the delightful

Lightning; branched / forked

 

Guru/

Indra and Agni

Attitude in shooting (standing with the feet a span apart )

Breasts of Kala Purusha

Potter’s wheel/

Victory arch/



Forked hand

Man bearing fork,

 

Fork is equal to lightning

17

Anuradha – Maitra---------------

Vrischika

-------------

Scorpio

Scorpionis

Additional Delight - --

After Radha

Maitri = friendship, friendliness, benevolence

Mitra = name of an Aditya

Generally invoked with Varuna and Aryaman

Shani

-----------------

Mitra – Varuna , the twin gods

Varuna = keeper of order & law

Stomach of Kala

 Purusha

Umbrella

Triumphal arch way

lotus

Vrischika (Scorpion)

Symbol

 

18

Jyestha – Indra

Vrischika

--------------------

Scorpio

Antares; alpha

Scorpionis

Zakra

Strong, powerful, Mighty

Antares = anti Aries, rival of mars

Budha

------------------

Indra

Right

Torso

 Circular Talisman(Amulet) / Ear ring/

Bracelet

Bracelet,

Circular

Talisman

 

19

Mula – Vichruta – Kali

Dhanus

Sagittarius

The scorpion’s tail/ Scorpionis

The root.

Ketu

 

Nritti another name of kali

Left Torso of kala  Purusha

-----------------

Crouching lion

 

 A bunch of roots tied together.

Elephant goad

 A bunch of roots tied together.


20

Purva Ashadha/

Apah

 

Dhanus

 

Sagittarius

Sagittarii

The former unconquered/

The former invincible/

Ashadha = A staff made of palasa wood, carried by the student during performance of certain vows

Purva = the fore part or eastern, to the east of, former, prior, Preceding

 

Shukra

--------------

Apah, ruling water, one of the eight demigods called vasus/

Aha the vasu ruling the atmosphere

Apa = to drink, to suck up, a quantity of water, to absorb, to take away.

 

Back - Dorsal of kala- Purusha

Back view shows the tail , because of that tail has been shown in the symbol

Tail is worn by tribal chiefs of Sumeria as mark of leadership in hunter stage societies.

Front of square

A brick used for the sacrificial altar

---------------------

Preceding number eight

---------------------

An ancestor, fore father, or an elder brother

Elephant tusk

Fan

Winnowing fan

Front of brick/ square



21

 

 

Uttara Ashadha

Dhanus – Makara (crocodile)

Sagittarius 

Capricorn

Sagittarii

Uttara = upper, higher , superior

Northern

Ashadha = invincible

Ravi

----------------------

Visve Deva = Guide

Visva = universal

--------------

Waist of Kala – Purusha

 

Back of square

A brick used for the sacrificial altar

Small bed

Crocodile,

 

 Back of square


22

Shravana

Makara

-------------

Capricorn

Aquila, the Eagle

Zru=to hear, listen

Srama = lameness sickness, the ear,

 

Limping, three foot steps

Soma

---------------

 

Vishnu

Genitals of Kala – Purusha


The arrow indicates the genital of kala-Purusha and temple over it

Arrow,

three foot prints side by side

Ears

------------

Arrow.



(23)

 

 

Dhanistha – Sravishtha

Makara – Kumbha

--------------

Capricorn – Aquarius

Delphini

The most famous/ the most heard of/ the wealthiest/   Dhanistha = following the beat    ( or) following the Drummer

Kuja

-----------

The eight Vasus

Anus of kala – Purusha



Flute

Drum


(24)

 

 

Satabisha – Varuna

Kumbha

-----------------

Aquarius

Aquarii

Zata = one hundred,

-------------

Bisha a shoot or sucker , a film or fibre of water Lilly or lotus, or an underground stalk of any plant

------------

 

Raahu

 

Varuna

The whole lotus plant

tAraka =  causing or enabling a pass over, meteor, shooting star, a helmsman, a float, a raft

Right thigh of kala Purusha

 

Flower

---------

A circle enclosing a space

Empty circle

1000 flowers or stars

Circle





water carrier

25

 

 

 

Purva Bhadrapad

----------------

Kumbha/ – Meena

---------------

Aquarius/ – Pisces

Pegasi

Aja= goat,

=one footed,

--------------

Beautiful front feet   (of Shiva?)

Guru

Aja = goat

Ajopada = Rudra

Left thigh

 

Front legs of a funeral cot/,

The first/

Front end of a bed

Swords

Man with two faces

Front leg of cattle

 

 

 

26

 

 

 

Uttara Bhadrapad – /

Ahirbudhnya/

Meena

---------------

Pisces

Pegasi and Andromeda

The later one who possesses lucky feet of a stool or a bench

---------------

Beautiful back feet/ king of nagas / circle formed by snake biting its own tail. /

---------------

Name of mount Meru

Shani/

Ahir Budhiyana,

--------------------

 the serpent or dragon of the deep centre of earth’s Aura

Lower legs/

Or calves of kala-Purusha



Legs of Kalan are cattle legs (bull’s leg)


Back legs of cot/

Twins/

Kalan carrying leg symbol. 


Hind  leg of a cot/ cattle

 

27

 

 

Revati – Paushna

----------------

Meena

-------------------

Pisces

Pisces

Some time identified with Aditi or with Durga.

-----------------

 The wealthy ones or the shining ones ( applied to cows & the waters)

Budha

Pushan the conductor/

-------------------

Pushan is a Vedic deity, originally connected with sun, therefore surveyor of all things and conductor of journeys.

Abdominal cavity or groin of Kala – Purusha

----------------

This body part does not coincide with the regular correspondence shown with the other body parts and Nakshatras in the sky map.

Fish/ or pair of fish

Fish. /or pair of fish

 

 

 

28

Abhijit

Inter calary

Nakshatra

Location Lyrae/ Vegae

Lyra constellation’s name is derived from lyre, a stringed musical instrument

 

 

 

 


Table 6: Jyotish Wheel.

(Barbara, 2009)And (Wikipedia, 2009)

Analysis of these symbols shows that there were two sets of symbols used in IVC. One set of symbol is based on Kalan body parts and other set was based on various kinds of logos depending on the shape of constellations. Out of these two sets of symbols, the Kalan symbols seems to be older one, most likely it was used by moon-priests of IVC. The other way of interpreting it will be that the Dravidians (M-20) might have used these Kalan symbols. The second set of symbols were based on variegated symbols, was used by later day sun-priests. The exact period, on which the change occurred could not be determined, most probably the Sumerian farmers who entered India after the Dravidians might have used these variegated symbols.

 Proper separating out of seals based on age of seal (determined through radio carbon technique) will help in determining the exact time period of this change. This problem is a compounded one because various groups of people for many centuries have used this necropolis as their burial ground. But so far archaeologists have worked on the assumption it was the work of single group of people. The artefacts available for Indus excavation sites should be re-evaluated to arrive at proper conclusion.


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