5.Month names in English and Sanskrit




Comparative table showing corresponding months of other calendars
Months (Rasi)Gregorian CalendarTamil calendar
and /
Full moon position (Nearest star or constellation)
Saka eraSign of Zodiac
(Sun Position)
Full moon day --2013 /
Moon near to constellation
Simmam (Lion)August- SeptemberAavani (Sravan)
Shravana means "to Hear"
Star --Capricorn --crocodile (Magar)

Sravan- Bhadrapada(Leo)Aug-21




Aquarius
Kanni (Virgo)September–OctoberPurattasi (Bhadrapada)
Extending between the constellations of Pegasus and Andromeda; Uttara Bhadrapada nakshatra etymologically implies the 'possession of lucky feet'. 

Bhadrapada - Asvina(Virgo)Sep-19                    
Fishes
Thulam (Libra)October–NovemberAippasi (Asvin)

Ashvin means light in the Sanskrit language, and Ashvini is the first star that appears in the evening sky, in Hindu constellation it is the head of Aries, or the first of the 27 Nakshatras. Ashvin also stands for the Divine twins, the "Ashvins", considered to be the Hindu Gods of vision, in Hindu mythology.

In Anglo-Saxon, Aescwine means 'of great wealth, swift'.


Asvina - Kartika(Libra)Oct-19

Aries
Vrishchikam (scorpio)November–DecemberKarthigai (Kartika)
Star --Pleiades
Kartika - Agrahayana(Scorpio)Nov-17

Taurus
Dhanu  (Sagittarius)December–JanuaryMargazhi (Margashirsha)
Star ---Orion
Agrahayana - Pausa(Sagittarius)Dec-17


Orion
Makaram (Capricorn)January–FebruaryThai(Pausa) (Punarpoosam)
(Poosam means flower)
Star --Castor and Pollux)

Pausa - Magha(Capricorn)Jan-27


Crab --cancer-
Kumbha ( Aquarius)February–MarchMaasi (Magha)
Star (Regulas star in Leo)


Magha - Phalguna(Aquarius)Feb-25


Leo
Meenam(Fish)March–AprilPanguni (Phalguna)
Star Denebola --In the tail of Lion

Phalguna - Chaitra(Pisces)Mar-27


Virgo
Mesham (Aries)April–MayChithirai (Chitra)
Star --Spica --Alpha Virginis -
Virgo constellation


Chaitra - Vaisakha(Aries)Apr-25


Libra
Vrishabha (Bull)May–JuneVaikasi (Vaisakha)
(Vishaka means forked)
( Star -- Alha, Beta- Librae)


Vaisakha - Jyaistha(Taurus)May-25


Scorpio
Mithun (Twins)June–JulyAani (Jyaistha)
(Jyaistha means Prime)
(Alpha Scorpionis)

Jyaistha - Asada(Gemini)June-23


Sagittarius -
Dhanush
Karkadakam (Crab)July–AugustAadi (Asada)
Uttara Ashadha nakshatra is the twenty first nakshatra among the twenty seven that are present according to the Vedic astrological beliefs.  It spans through the constellations of Sagittarius up to Capricorn. The nakshatra is symbolized by the tusk of elephant or by a small bed.
Asada - Sravana(Cancer) July-22

Capricornus -Crocodile
Note--1--Moon Calendar also follows similar principle like Heliacal rising of a sun ---in moon calendar ---the month is named after the star nearest to full moon position -----this also follows the --stars in the ecliptic pathway ----similar to sun----it is not random  ---it just follows the serial order ---just like ----sun---

Comparative chart of Sanskrit-Tamil-Gregorian months

 Note ---the  columns A and B are Lunar months

remaining columns C,D,E,F are details of Solar months

 

Lunar months

(Sanskrit)

(A)

Lunar months (Tamil)

(B) 

(Rashi)
Saur Maas
(solar months)

(C)

Ritu
(season)

(D)

Gregorian
months

(E)

Zodiac

(F)

1.        

Chaitra 

Chitthirai

Mesh

Vasant
(spring)

March/April

Aries

2.        

Vaishākh 

Vaikāsi

Vrishabh

April/May

Taurus

3.        

Jyaishtha 

Āani

Mithun

Grishma
(summer)

May/June

Gemini

4.        

Āshādha 

Āadi

Karkat

June/July

Cancer

5.        

Shrāvana 

Āvani

Simha

Varsha
(monsoon)

July/Aug

Leo

6.        

Bhaadra or, Bhādrapad 

Puraṭṭāsi

Kanya

Aug/Sept

Virgo

7.        

Āshwin 

Aippaci/Aippasi

Tula

Sharad
(autumn)

Sept/Oct

Libra

8.        

Kārtik 

Kārtthikai

Vrishchik

Oct/Nov

Scorpius

9.        

Agrahayana or, Mārgashīrsha

Mārkazhi

Dhanu

Hemant
(autumn-winter)

Nov/Dec.

Sagittarius

10.    

Paush 

Thai

Makar

Dec/Jan

Capricornus

11.    

Māgh 

Māsi

Kumbha

Shishir
(Winter-Spring)

Jan/Feb

Aquarius

12.    

Phalguni

Panguni

Meen

Feb/Mar

Pisces

 

Note --

1.The Stars/constellations of Lunar months and solar months do not tally --- that shows the difference in origin of both these calendars.  -- of course the difference will exist --- because the lunar calendar is based on movement of moon through different constellations   - but sun calendar is opposite --- movement of sun through different constellation at Heliacal rising  -- hence the constellations mentioned in these two calendars will not tally and will be invariably different ---hence the names of months also differ---- 

For example take the name of first month of luni-solar calendar of India i.e. Chitra, it means that Moon is nearer to star Chitra in this month. In Solar calendar this month correlates to the month of Aries, whereas star Chitra (Spica) is in Virgo constellation. Because of this fundamental difference in nomenclature , names of Indian calendar months create confusion.


2.For example ---Karthigai indicates Pleiades constellation but in solar calendar it is indicating Scorpius constellation ---

3. In my opinion --- the fight between Ashuras and  Devas  --- literally means fight between deities of Lunar months and Solar months -- it should not be literally taken as fight between Aryans And Dravidians -- (of course practical reality was that Aryans and Dravidians were fighting also )--- it was merely a calendar war -- and war between solar priests and lunar priests ---(Ashuras and Devas)

4. Note that all ancient Indian kings are descendants Solar dynasty (Surya Vamshi) or Lunar dynasty (Chandra Vamshi)--it is likely that those king supported solar calendars were Surya vanshi and those kings supported lunar calendar were Chandra vanshi --- the conflict between these two groups are eternal like Devas and Ashuras.


 Months (from Wikipedia)

The number of days in a month varies between 29 and 32.

The following list compiles the months of the Tamil Calendar.

No.Month (Tamil)Sanskrit Name *Month (English)Gregorian Calendar equivalent
01.சித்திரைChaitraCittiraimid-April to mid-May
02.வைகாசிVaisākhaVaikācimid-May to mid-June
03.ஆனிJyaishthaĀnimid-June to mid-July
04.ஆடிĀshāḍhaĀṭimid-July to mid-August
05.ஆவணிShrāvaṇaĀvaṇimid-August to mid-September
06.புரட்டாசிBhādrapada/PrauṣṭhapadaPuraṭṭācimid-September to mid-October
07.ஐப்பசிAshwinaAippaci/Aippasimid-October to mid-November
08.கார்த்திகைKārttikaKārttikaimid-November to mid-December
09.மார்கழிMārgaṣīrṣaMārkazhimid-December to mid-January
10.தைPausha/TaiṣyaTaimid-January to mid-February
11.மாசிMāghaMācimid-February to mid-March
12.பங்குனிPhalgunaPaṅkunimid-March to mid-April

Note: The Sanskrit months above would start one month ahead of Tamil months (????) (to be verified)

Month names

There are 12 months in Hindu lunar Calendar:

  1. Caitra (চৈত্র, ಚೈತ್ರ, चैत्र, చైత్రం, சித்திரை, മേടം) Meṣa (Aries)[6]
  2. Vaiśākha (বৈশাখ, ವೈಶಾಖ,वैशाख, వైశాఖం, வைகாசி, ഇടവം) Vṛṣabha (Taurus)[7]
  3. Jyeṣṭha (জ্যৈষ্ঠ, ಜ್ಯೇಷ್ಟ, ज्येष्ठ, జ్యేష్ఠ, ஆனி, മിഥുനം) Mithuna (Gemini)[8]
  4. Āṣāḍha (আষাঢ়, ಆಷಾಡ, आषाढ, ఆషాఢం, ஆடி, കര്‍ക്കടകം) Karka (Cancer)[8]
  5. Śrāvaṇa (শ্রাবণ, ಶ್ರಾವಣ, श्रावण, శ్రావణం, ஆவணி, ചിങ്ങം) Siṃha (Leo)[8]
  6. Bhādrapada or Bhādra also Proṣṭhapada (ভাদ্র, ಭಾದ್ರಪದ, भाद्रपद,भाद्र,प्रोष्ठपद, బాద్రపదం, புரட்டாசி, കന്നി) Kanyā (Virgo)[8]
  7. Āśvina in,sometimes Aśvayuja (আশ্বিন, ಆಶ್ವಯುಜ,आश्विन,अश्वयुज, ఆశ్విజం, ஐப்பசி, തുലാം) Tula (Libra)[8]
  8. Kārtika (কার্তিক, ಕಾರ್ತಿಕ, कार्तिक, కార్తీకం, கார்த்திகை, വൃശ്ചികം) Vṛścika (Scorpio)[8]
  9. Agrahāyaṇa or, Mārgaśīrṣa (অগ্রহায়ণ, ಮಾರ್ಗಶೀರ್ಷ, मार्गशीर्ष,अग्रहायण, మార్ఘశిరం, மார்கழி, ധനു) Dhanus (Sagittarius)[8]
  10. Pauṣa (পৌষ, ಪುಷ್ಯ, पौष, పుష్యం, தை, മകരം) Makara (Capricorn)[8]
  11. Māgha (মাঘ, ಮಾಘ, माघ, మాఘం, மாசி, കുംഭം) Kumbha (Aquarius)[8]
  12. Phālguna (ফাল্গুন, ಫಾಲ್ಗುಣ, फाल्गुन, ఫాల్గుణం, பங்குனி, മീനം)Mīna (Pisces)[8]



Reference ---



Months of the Indian Civil Calendar
DaysCorrelation of Indian/Gregorian
1. Caitra30*Caitra 1March 22*
2. Vaisakha31Vaisakha 1April 21
3. Jyaistha31Jyaistha 1May 22
4. Asadha31Asadha 1June 22
5. Sravana31Sravana 1July 23
6. Bhadra31Bhadra 1August 23
7. Asvina30Asvina 1September 23
8. Kartika30Kartika 1October 23
9. Agrahayana30Agrahayana 1November 22
10. Pausa30Pausa 1December 22
11. Magha30Magha 1January 21
12. Phalguna30Phalguna 1February 20
* In a leap year, Caitra has 31 days and Caitra 1 coincides with March 21.


The ecliptic is divided into 27 nakshatras, which are variously called lunar houses or asterisms. These reflect the moon's cycle against the fixed stars, 27 days and 7¾ hours, the fractional part being compensated by an intercalary 28th nakshatra. Nakshatra computation appears to have been well known at the time of the Rig Veda (2nd–1st millennium BCE).

The ecliptic is divided into the nakshatras eastwards starting from a reference point which is traditionally a point on the ecliptic directly opposite the star Spica called Chitrā in Sanskrit. (Other slightly different definitions exist.) It is called Meshādi or the "start of Aries"; this is when the equinox — where the ecliptic meets the equator — was in Aries (today it is in Pisces, 28 degrees before Aries starts). The difference between Meshādi and the present equinox is known as ayanāngsha or fraction of ecliptic. Given the 25,800 year cycle for the precession of the equinoxes, the equinox was directly opposite Spica in 285 CE, around the date of the Surya Siddhanta.

The nakshatras with their corresponding regions of sky are given below, following Basham.As always, there are many versions with minor differences. The names on the right-hand column give roughly the correspondence of the nakshatras to modern names of stars. Note that nakshatras are (in this context) not just single stars but are segments on the ecliptic characterised by one or more stars. Hence there are more than one star mentioned for each nakshatra.

#

Sanskrit name

Tamil name

Western star name

1

Ashvinī

Aswini

β and γ Arietis

2

Bharanī

Barai

35, 39, and 41 Arietis

3

Krittikā

Kārthikai

Pleiades

4

Rohini

Rōhii

Aldebaran

5

Mrigashīrsha

Mirugasīridam

λ, φ Orionis

6

Ārdrā

Thiruvādhirai

Betelgeuse

7

Punarvasu

Punarpoosam

Castor and Pollux

8

Pushya

Poosam

γ, δ and θ Cancri

9

Āshleshā

Ayilyam

δ, ε, η, ρ, and σ Hydrae

10

Maghā

Magam

Regulus

11

Pūrva or Pūrva Phalgunī

Pooram

δ and θ Leonis

12

Uttara or Uttara Phalgunī

Uthiram

Denebola

13

Hasta

Astham

α, β, γ, δ and ε Corvi

14

Chitrā

Chithirai

Spica

15

Svātī

Swathi

Arcturus

16

Vishākhā

Visakam

α, β, γ and ι Librae

17

Anurādhā

Anusham

β, δ and π Scorpionis

18

Jyeshtha

Kettai

α, σ, and τ Scorpionis

19

Mūla

Mūlam

ε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ and ν Scorpionis

20

Pūrva Ashādhā

Pūradam

δ and ε Sagittarii

21

Uttara Ashādhā

Uthirādam

ζ and σ Sagittarii

22

Shravana

Tiruvōnam

α, β and γ Aquilae

23

Shravishthā or Dhanishta

Aviṭṭam

α to δ Delphinus

24

Shatabhishā or Shatataraka

Sadayam

γ Aquarii

25

Pūrva Bhādrapadā

Pūruruṭṭādhi

α and β Pegasi

26

Uttara Bhādrapadā

Uttṛṭṭādhi

γ Pegasi and α Andromedae

27

Revati

Rēvathi

ζ Piscium

An additional 28th intercalary nakshatra, Abhijit (α, ε and ζ Lyrae - Vega - between Uttarasharha and Sravana. Last two (third and fourth) Padas of Uttrashada and first two (first and second) Padas of Sravana are considered to be Abhijit. Unless specifically mentioned it is not included in the list of the 27 constellations.

The nakshatra in which the moon lies at the time of sunrise of a day is the nakshatra for the day.














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