1.Ashuras and Devas

1. In my opinion --- the fight between Ashuras and  Devas  --- literally means fight between deities of Lunar months and Solar months -- it should not be literally taken as fight between Aryans And Dravidians --it was merely a calendar war -- and war between solar priests and lunar priests ---

2. Note that  ancient Indian kings are descendants either of Solar dynasty (Surya Vamshi) or Lunar dynasty (Chandra Vamshi)--it is likely that those king supported solar calendars were Surya vanshi and those kings supported lunar calendar were Chandra vanshi --- the conflict between these two groups are eternal like Devas and Ashuras.

3. Mahabharata war ---many references about calendar ---
At the time of calculation of 12+1 year --vanavas of Pandavas -- ends with Virada war --- instead of fighting battle--- Dhuryothan argues with Bheeshma that 12+1 year is not over ---Bheeshma says that 12+1 period is over  ---

.There is a possibility that this 12 years period is indicating the Khumbamela period---in turn-- this Khumbamela is held in total solar eclipse periods only ---which shows that during this eclipse period all the calendar priests assemble at important holy sites and correct their calendar to a new accurate year ---this +1 period might have indicated the correction months ---thus solar eclipses are very important to correct the calendars ----(note that solar eclipse occurs on the day of  killing Sindhu king Jayathratha ---10th day(?) of the war)
Follow Andis Kaulins for more information about solar eclipse and correcting calendars----- by following the link---

 it is not that battle is important --it is a reconciliation between solar calendar and lunar calendar that matters --Dhuryodhana calculates on the basis of solar calendar (to checked) whereas Yudhishtir calculates on the basis of lunar calendar (to be checked) ---

4. During ancient days the calendar priests could have corrected calendars after a gap of 12 years, because the calendar calculations go haywire and seasons do not fall in correct time --- then ploughing and planting will not fall in correct time -- hence it needed a periodical adjustment --

5. On the arrival of messenger of Yudhishtir ---Rajpurohit of Panchala also --argues only one point -- this 12+1 period is over as per lunar calendar 
refer the differences to solar months and lunar months in the following web page --Months names in English and Sanskrit----

6.How do you conclude that Dhuryodhana is supporter of solar calendar--
note that Karna is offspring of Sun god -- but he sides with Dhuryodhana -
Whereas Padavas may be ---really representing five planets visible to ancient astronomers --- accompanied by Panchali (God Venus)

7. The marriage of Panchali with five Pandavas ---should not be taken literally -- it is an astronomical story --- where the movements of five planets along with Venus should be  taken into consideration --- 

8. Various places visited by the Pandavas during their forest sojourn (Vanvas) (slavery period) should not be literally taken as the places of Gangetic plain --- it should be considered as the constellation visited by them during their journey along the ecliptic path in the heavens (sky)

9. this 12+1 period  could  be the period of Saros cycle (14+4 years) (metonic cycle)
(this 12+1 period is not exactly coinciding with 14+4 period)

The Metonic cycle is related to two less accurate subcycles:

  • 8 years = 99 lunations (an Octaeteris) to within 1.5 days, i.e. an error of one day in 5 years; and
  • 11 years (i.e. 19 less 8) = 136 lunations within 1.5 days, i.e. an error of one day in 7.3 years.

By combining appropriate numbers of 11-year and 19-year periods, it is possible to generate ever more accurate cycles.

10. or it could be the general slavery bondage period --in ancient Sumeria and a a regular custom among Jews --- 

11.  The Rear Side of the Narmer Palette


As we have seen, the front side of the Narmer Palette has an astronomical, calendric significance. What about the back side? The back side of the Narmer palette shows Narmer as the “King of the pole“vanquishing the solar eclipse. The God of Light defeats the God of Darkness. The solar eclipse is represented by Narmer’s dark enemy. Narmer is protected to the right by the falcon of heaven above. We read the graphic elements with the falcon asHR-M(r)DZ “God of Light“, as in the later Persian Ahura Mazda. The defeated enemy kneels before Narmer. This enemy is identified by the hieroglyphs as ANG(r)-MEN, i.e. “Angru Mainyu”, the later “Ahriman”, or the “God the Darkness“. These are the two opponents of the much later teachings of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). The back side of the Narmer Palette therefore shows the victory of light over the powers of the eclipse. Perhaps this was the origin of the later Persian cuneiform view that Capricorn was “the father of the light“.

(Reference -Para-8. of the web page--https://sites.google.com/site/greekinfluenceonindia/mahabharatha-and-trojan-war/solar-eclipse-and-calendar-calculation