Jyotisha Vedanga and Indus symbols- (Table)

Any reader of this website please be informed that statements and explanations pertaining to "Calendar Theory" and "Jyotish Vedanga" have become obsolete and wrong. The corrected version is available in the second website. Follow the link for second website --https://sites.google.com/site/indusharappacivilization/home.
Whereas the "Necropolis Theory" explaining the nature of Indus excavation sites, stands on it's own legs firm to the ground. Only, passing of time will bring forth the truth. I am maintaining this website just to show the thought process through which the final success was obtained. Further, other details and statements relating various other issues are valid and correct.
Jyotish wheel

                     The jyotish wheels are used by present day astrologers, this wheel is prepared according to jyotisha vedanga and it shows various days based on Nakshatra (star) constellations. It looks like that jyotisha vedanga had preserved the Indus calendar and is being used in present day for astrology instead of being used as calendar. In the present day secularized calendar, “days” are numbered and counted from 1 to 30 days, whereas in Indus period the days were named after individual names of Nakshatras

                      These Nakshatra names are still available in present day panchangams and are being used in scheduling of religious festival days. In present day panchangam, two kinds of calendars are being presented together. First is lunar calendar and second is luni–solar calendar. The lunar calendar uses twenty eight names (for 28 days), whereas luni-solar calendar counts the days on number basis as in modern calendar. The lunar month is divided into two halves of 14 days each, 14 days of waxing moon and 14 days of waning moon. 

                  The existence of two calendars shows that the present day calendar is retaining old lunar calendar and also evolved to adopt the luni-solar calendar. Thus the continuity of Indus culture is being maintained in Indian calendars also. The theory being proposed in this book is that during the Indus period, each of the day was assigned with a Nakshatra name and not number. The details are as given below in the table.

                      The Indus seals could not be deciphered properly because the context under which these seals were used is not known. Because of that reason the explanations offered so far are unsatisfactory or explains only part of the signs, which are doubtful. Now with the new theory that Indus sites were necropolises and not metropolises, there should be some proper explanation for the seals. The new theory proposed in this book is that the Indus symbols represent the “star constellations” and in turn the star constellations represent days of the moon calendar month. 

                  All these details about symbols are available in the web site maintained by Barbara Pijan Lama and the article on Nakshatra in Wikipedia. These symbols in this table below are drawn after the pictographs available the book of Asko Parpola. The only action carried out by me is that "I have merged both these data (symbol names and Indus seal pictographs) into single table for easy reference.  The details are as per the table given below:

 

Jyotish wheel table (Ref---Barbara Pijan Lama) (Wikipedia) and (Asko Parpola)

 

 

Nakshatra/

Rasi/ 

Indian zodiac/

Western zodiac/

Location

Sanskrit meaning

Ruler

( Earlier

 Moon gods)/

Deity

(later 

solar gods)

Body part of

Kala-

Purusha

symbol

Indus 

symbol

1

Asvini/Dasra/ Dasradevata/

 

Mesha

 

Aries

 

Beta @gamma

Arietis

Possessing horses/

The horse woman/

ASvaryuj= 

she who yokes horses/ mounted on horseback/ cavalier/ horse tamer

Ketu

 

 

Kumara

 

 

Top of foot


 

goat


Horse head/

Horse/

 

Goat in goat seal (seem to be earlier period symbol.)

There is no horse symbol but Aswins are described as great medicine men and honey bee and honey comb are symbols of them

Honey bee-


-------

Honey comb


2

Bharani/Yama/

Mesha

 

Aries

35,39,&

 41 Aries

BharaNa= Act of bearing/ 


Shukra

 

Yama=

God of Death

Sole of foot


Sole of foot is  not available, may be the pedestal should be construed as the sole of foot

Yoni(Vagina)/

 or

Elephant

BharaNa= 

Act of 

bearing/ 

also in the

 womb/

Yoni

 

3

Kritika/ 

Agneya/

 

Mesha-  

Vrishabha

 

Aries- Taurus

 

Pleiades

Belonging or relating to fire or its deity Agni/

One who cuts

Ravi

 

Agni holding

 a knife


Head of kala-

Purusha


Razor/

Cutter/ scissors/

 Flame/Knife/ 

spear


Cutter

 

wool-cutter

4

Rohini

Brahmi

Vrishabha=bull

 

Taurus

Alpha Tauri

i.e. Aldebaran

 

The growing one/or the red one/ also a red cow/

Daughter of surabhi/

Kamadhenu

 

Figured by wheeled vehicle/ temple

Soma

 

 

Brahma/

Prajapathi

Auriga constellation is part of bull constellation in earlier period , later it became the sacred tree- Ficus religiosa

Fore head of

Kala- Purusha



Asko Parpola says that this symbol looks like a cow’s head. It looks like the Kalan’s                   fore-head, which is the head of a bull.



Temple/ Ox-cart/

Chariot/ Banyan tree / Fish/

Vrishabha

Is bull

-------------

 

These two wheels may be representing a wheeled vehicle.

Temple

 

 wheeled

 vehicle/

ox-cart/

-------

 

5

Mrigashira/

Agrahayani/

Vrishabha- Mithuna/

Taurus-Gemini/

Head of Orion

Name of the demon(or) vritra in the form of deer slain by Indra/

-------------

Game of any kind , (Esp.) deer, gazelle, antelope,

Stag, musk deer

Kuja

 

Chandra

 

Eye brows of

Kala- Purusha

The Deer’s head/

Group of lotuses

Deer ,

 antelope

 

6

Aarda/ Aarudra 

( in Tamil)/

Mithuna/

Gemini (Twins)

Betelgeuse;

Alpha Orionis

Wet, moist, damp, moisture,

Fresh, succulent, green (as a plant, living, fresh, new, soft, tender , fresh ginger

Raahu

 

 

Rudra

Eyes of Kala Purusha

Quiver-Gemini


Human Head/

 Moist, damp,

wet, dew- fresh, 

not dry, succulent,

green,/ 

Tear drop/ A Diamond

Moist-

Succulent; 

green plants

 

7

Punarvasu

 

Castor and Pollux/

Alpha and beta Geminorum

Twin, doubled, two fold, 

a double band or bandage, 

the twined ones


Guru

Earth as Aditi (mother of Gods)

Nose of Kala-

Purusha


Quiver of arrows/

archer’s bow

Archer with 

bow


8

Pushya

Sidhya / Tishya

-------------

Kataka/ Karka

(Crab)

Cancer

Cancri


The blossom or flower/i.e.

 the uppermost or best of anything./ nourishment

Tishya is the name of heavenly archer

Shani

--------------

Brihaspati

(Guru/ Jupiter)

Face of kala-

Purusha

Mouth of Kalan
(horizontal view of Cancer constellation)

Cow’s udder (earlier period)

-----------

(Later period symbols)

Flower/ Lotus/

Arrow and Circle

Udder/

Teat.

Flower



9

Aslesha/

Naga/

 

Karka ( crab)

Cancer/

 

Head of hydra-

Sigma hydrae

Intimate connection, contact, embracing, intwining, entanglement

Serpent

Bhuja= A bending curve, a curve; the arm, the breast, the hand, the trunk of an elephant, branch , bough

 

Budha

 

Sarpas the snake that became a god/

Naga

Ears of Kala- Purusha


Bending curve,

the arm



Coiled snakes



10

Magha/ pritriya

Simha/

Leo/

Leonis/

Regulus (star)

A gift, reward, bounty, wealth, power, a kind of flower, drug or medicine, a species of grain.

Ketu

 

Auspicious events/ no body parts.

Palanquin/ royal

chamber containing

a throne./

 Royal throne

 

11

Purva Phalguni

Simha

-----------

Leo

Leonis

Best portion, the womb, uterus, vulva, vagina, place of rest, receptacle, seat, abode, home (hut)

lair, seed grain, part of fire pit, a mine, copper, name of a river

Shukra

 

Part of fire pit

Right hand of Kalan

 

 Yoni, A swinging

hammock,

Front legs of a cot

-----------

part of fire pit


Yoni, Vagina,

Seed grain


Seedling germinating from the
womb of
 mother
goddess

12

Uttara Phalguni/ Aryamna

Simha- Kanya

Leo – Virgo

Leonis

Denebola (star)

The latter reddish one, the spring season, small, minute, feeble, weak, pith less,  un substantial, insignificant, worthless

Shukra

 

Right hand



Right hand of Kalan is forked or bearing a fork/Trishul

Bed, Back legs

of a cot/ four legs of a cot/ Hammock

Right hand,

Bed.


13

Hasta(Hand)

Kanya

Virgo

Corvus (The Crow)

The hand, holding in the hand, an elephant’s trunk, the fore arm, some time identified with part of the Corvus constellation

Soma

 

Savitri

Fingers of the hand ( a closed hand ) of kala- Purusha


Palm/ the hand.


HAND/

Elephant/

Crow

 

14

Chitra 

Kanya – Tula

Virgo- Libra

Spica: Alpha

Virginis

Conspicuous, excellent, distinguished, bright, clear, bright-coloured,/ 

Variegated, spotted, speckled.

Kuja

 

Tvashtra, the celestial architect

Neck of kala-Purusha


 Bright jewel

 

Pearl

Variegated

 spots- 

latest seal


15

Swati

Thula

Libra

 The Golden Star- Arcturus

Alpha Bootis

Vayavya= Soma vessels shaped like mortars

Pavana= purifier, purification, clean, pure, wind, or god of wind, breeze , air,

a house holder’s sacred fire,


 

Raahu

Vayu the Wind

 broom, innowing of corn, an instrument for purifying grain (winnowing fan)


Chest of Kala-

Purusha

 

Sapphire/


A sword/ shoot of a plant / coral


Soma

 vessels 

shaped 

like a mortar


 Man 

holding 

Sapphire/

 lyre


16

 

 

Vishaka – Radha

Thula- Vrischika

Libra – Scorpio

 

Librae

The forked ,two- branched

Radha = the delightful

Lightning; branched / forked

 

Guru/

Indra and Agni

Attitude in shooting (standing with the feet a span apart )

Breasts of Kala Purusha


Potter’s wheel/

Victory arch/



Forked hand

Man 

bearing fork,

 

Fork is 

equal to

 lightning

17

Anuradha 

 Maitra----

Vrischika

-------------

Scorpio

Scorpionis

Additional Delight - --

After Radha

Maitri = friendship, friendliness, benevolence

Mitra = 

name of an Aditya

Generally invoked with Varuna and Aryaman

Shani

------------

Mitra – Varuna , the twin gods


Varuna = keeper of order & law

Stomach of Kala

 Purusha

Umbrella

Triumphal 

arch way


lotus

Vrischika (Scorpion)

Symbol

 

18

Jyestha – Indra

Vrischika

----------

Scorpio

Antares; alpha

Scorpionis

Zakra

Strong, powerful, Mighty

Antares = 

anti Aries, rival of  mars

Budha

----------

Indra

Right

Torso

 Circular Talisman

(Amulet)  /

 Ear ring/

Bracelet

Bracelet,

Circular

Talisman

 

19

Mula – Vichruta 

– Kali

Dhanus

Sagittarius

The scorpion’s

 tail/ Scorpionis

The root.

Ketu

 

Nritti another 

name of kali

Left Torso 

of kala  Purusha

----------

Crouching lion

 

 A bunch of roots tied together.

Elephant goad

 A bunch 

of roots

 tied together.


20

Purva Ashadha/

Apah

 

Dhanus

 

Sagittarius

Sagittarii

The former unconquered/

The former invincible/

Ashadha = 

A staff made of palasa wood, carried by the student during performance of certain vows


Purva = the fore part or eastern, to the east of, former, prior, Preceding

 

Shukra

--------------

Apah, ruling water, one of the eight demigods called vasus/

Aha the vasu ruling the atmosphere

Apa = to drink, to suck up, a quantity of water, to absorb, to take away.

 

Back - Dorsal of kala- Purusha

Back view shows the tail , because of that tail has been shown in the symbol

Tail is worn by tribal chiefs of Sumeria as mark of leadership in hunter stage societies.

Front of square

A brick used for the sacrificial altar

(or)fire pit


----------

Preceding number eight

------------

An ancestor, fore father, or an elder brother

Elephant tusk



Front of 

brick/

 square



21

 

 

Uttara Ashadha

Dhanus – 

Makara 

(crocodile)

Sagittarius 

Capricorn

Sagittarii

Uttara = upper, higher , superior

Northern

Ashadha = invincible

Ravi

----------

Visve Deva = Guide

Visva = 

 universal

---------

Waist of Kala – Purusha

 

Back of square

A brick used 

for the 

sacrificial altar


Small bed

Crocodile,

 

 Back of 

square


22

Shravana

Makara

-------------

Capricorn

Aquila,

( the Eagle)

Zru= to hear, listen

Srama = lameness sickness, the ear,

 

Limping, three foot steps

Soma

-----------

 

Vishnu

Genitals of Kala – Purusha


The arrow indicates the genital of kala-Purusha and temple over it

three foot 

prints side by side


Ears

------------

Arrow.



(23)

 

 

Dhanistha – Sravishtha

Makara – Kumbha

--------------

Capricorn – Aquarius

Delphini

The most famous/ the most heard of/  the wealthiest/    Dhanistha = following the beat    ( or) following the Drummer

Kuja

-----------

The eight Vasus

Anus of kala – Purusha


Flute



Drum


(24)

 

 

Satabisha – 

--Varuna

Kumbha

--------------

Aquarius

Aquarii

Zata = one hundred,

-------------

Bisha a shoot or sucker , a film or fibre of water Lilly or lotus, or an underground stalk of any plant

------------

 

Raahu

 

Varuna

The whole lotus plant

tAraka =  causing or enabling a pass over,  meteor, shooting star, a helmsman, a float, a raft


Right thigh of kala Purusha

 

Flower

---------

A circle enclosing a space

Empty circle

1000 flowers or stars

Circle





water carrier


25

 

 

 

Purva Bhadrapad

-----------

Kumbha/

 – Meena

---------

Aquarius/ – Pisces

Pegasi

Aja= goat,

=one footed,

--------------

Beautiful front feet   (of Shiva?)

Guru

Aja = goat

Ajopada = Rudra

Left thigh

 

Front legs of a funeral cot/,

The first/

Front end of a bed

Swords

Man with two faces

Front leg 

of cattle

 

 

 

26

 

 

 

Uttara Bhadrapad 

/Ahirbudhnya/

Meena

---------------

Pisces

Pegasi and Andromeda

The later one who possesses lucky feet of a stool or a bench

-----------

Beautiful back feet/ king of nagas / circle formed by snake biting its own tail. /

----------

Name of mount Meru

Shani/

Ahir Budhiyana,

---------

 the serpent or dragon of the deep centre of earth’s Aura

Lower legs/

Or calves of kala-Purusha



Legs of Kalan are cattle legs 

(bull’s leg)


Back legs of cot/

Twins/

Kalan carrying leg symbol. 


Hind  leg

 of a cot/

 cattle

 

27

 

 

Revati – Paushna

-----------

Meena

--------------

Pisces

Pisces

Some time identified with Aditi or with Durga.

----------

 The wealthy ones or the shining ones ( applied to cows & the waters)

Budha

Pushan the conductor/

-----------

Pushan is a Vedic deity, originally connected with sun, therefore surveyor of all things and conductor of journeys. He is a psycho pomp (god, who accompanies the dead  in their journey to under world.)

Abdominal cavity or groin of Kala – Purusha

---------

This body part does not coincide with the regular correspondence shown with the other body parts and Nakshatras in the sky map.

Fish/

 or pair of fish

Fish. /or 

pair of fish

 

 

 

28

Abhijit

Inter calary

Nakshatra

Location Lyrae/ Vegae

Lyra constellation’s name is derived from lyre, a stringed musical instrument

 Man holding lyre


 

 

 

Table 1: Jyotish Wheel.

(Barbara, 2009)And (Wikipedia, 2009)

                    Analysis of these symbols shows that there were two sets of symbols used in IVC. One set of symbol was based on Kalan body parts and other set was based on various kinds of logos depending on the shape of constellations. Out of these two sets of symbols, the Kalan symbols seems to be older and were most likely used by moon-priests of IVC. The other way of interpreting it will be that the Dravidians (M-20) might have used these Kalan symbols. The second set of symbols was based on variegated symbols and was used by later day sun-priests. The exact period, on which the change occurred could not be determined, most probably the Sumerian farmers who entered India after the Dravidians might have used these variegated symbols.

                       Proper separating out of seals based on age of seal  will help in determining the exact time period of this change. This problem is a compounded one because various groups of people have used this necropolis as their burial ground for many centuries. But so far archaeologists have worked on the assumption that it was the work of single group of people. The artifacts available from Indus excavation sites should be re-evaluated to arrive at proper conclusion.

 

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