Indus seal and Mother Goddess

1) Mother goddess of Indus valley

See the similarity between Indus seal illustration of Mother Goddess standing on elephant and fighting tigers  and the sky map. In the sky map constellation Ophiuchus forms the body of mother Goddess and Hercules forms the head. The constellation Sagittarius forms the elephant. One notable point here is that Jyotisha Vedanga states that the "elephant tusk" is the symbol of  Sagittarius constellation (Serial no-20 in Jyotisha Vedanga Table). Further Scorpius constellation is shown as associated with Indra as per the detail available in Jyotisha Vedanga (Serial no-18 in the Jyotisha Vedanga table) 

Further the tail of Scorpius constellation has been given the symbol of "Elephant goad" . All these pointers indicate that the Ophiuchus constellation was one of the prime constellation in Indus valley period as well as Vedic period. Note that mother goddess standing on elephant has been gradually transformed into male God (Indra) over period of time.

Another important point to be noted here is that the "wheel" shown above the head of mother goddess is the Draco (Dragon) constellation with pole star in the centre of wheel.Most probably this seal picture would have helped those ancient people in determining the direction during night time as well as the sailors in the sea. It would have helped those ancient people like a magnetic campus.

Cretan mother Goddess and Hercules constellation

See the similarity between these two pictures, the animal like figure sitting over mother goddess is most likely the Hercules constellation, it would have helped those sea faring Minoans to determine the north direction during their sailings. The third picture is from Wikipedia.Note the similarity of Ophiuchus struggling with huge snake with other two pictures presented here. Similar is the story of Apollo killing the great python at Delphi.

Following explanations are earlier interpretations of mine given in the book---the same is being reproduced here for reference purpose:

Hemtun mentions about naked goddess and her role with rain. This Indus seal illustrated here shows a similar goddess who is naked and standing on elephant, crowned by a wheel. Heliacal rising of Auriga constellation might have indicated the beginning of rainy season in those days. Because of that reason Inanna (mother goddess) is always associated with rain. (See the discussion on Inanna under the chapter interpretation of Sumerian seals). Hemtun says that wheels with six pokes means moon calendar. The six segments represent six seasons of two months each. (Or) There is possibility of another explanation also. The wheel represents sun and she is protecting the sun from two horrible animals, which are trying to eat him. The animals are most probably Raahu and Ketu, which are responsible for the Grahana. As per Hindu mythology Grahana happens because these two monsters try to eat the sun. (Or) There could be a third explanation also for the wheel; it might have represented the North Pole star, helping out the sailors in determining the north direction. Out of this discussion one concept is clear; the rain goddess Inanna of Indus people has been replaced by rain god Indra of later day Indo European people. There are two things in common between Inanna and Indra; one is the vahan (vehicle) of these gods (elephant) and the other one is their identification mark (wheel).