Revised Version - Necropolis Theory

 

 Abstract of Necropolis theory on Indus Valley civilization

The name Mohenjo Daro itself means, “It was the mound of the dead,” and the name itself is self-explanatory. The view that nearly 50,000 people were living at the time of its demise in Mohenjo Daro is not acceptable theory, because such crowded condition would have resulted in outbreak of diseases. It is likely that Indus people built mortuary houses in these sites and these clustered mortuary houses give the impression of a city. The structure identified as granary is doubtful; the photographs available at the web site (Harappa.com) shows that it looks more like a brick kiln rather than a granary. Storing grains in such large scale is a difficult job, grains will rot, and there will be insect and rat attack; considering all these factors it can be concluded that the structure was not a granary but could be a brick kiln. The photo of blocked drain presented in the same web site shows that it could be simply an entrance to a tomb. Photograph of the well shows that it could be a tunnel (Shaft Grave) to inner burial chamber at a lower level, but it looks like a well. The potteries also look like that as if they have been tailor made to needs of funeral practices. Some of them show a protruding tube, meant for funneling the sacrificial blood into ground. The “toilets” described by archaeologists seem to be “ordinary holes” meant for pouring blood or sacrificial goods into underground burial chambers.

Key words: Blocked drain, Blood sacrifice, Brick kiln, Burial chambers, Funeral practices, Granary, Harappa, Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo Daro, Necropolis, Tomb, and Toilets


Necropolis theory on Indus civilization

                                    
The name Mohenjo Daro itself means, “It was the mound of the dead,” and the name itself is self-explanatory. Even in Medieval times, it is likely that these sites could have been used as burial places; existence of Islamic tomb at Harappa and Buddhist stupa at Mohenjo Daro further substantiates this proposition. Nevertheless, archaeologists are going to various lengths to prove otherwise. This place was a necropolis not a metropolis as imagined by various archaeologists. For example, the standard view is that nearly 50,000 people were living in Mohenjo daro at the prime of its existence. This is not an acceptable proposition, because 50,000 dead bodies could have been kept in such a congested condition, but not 50,000 living people. Such a large number of people living in an insanitary condition would have resulted in outbreak of epidemics and massive number of deaths. 

                                The standard view about Mohenjo-daro is that, in ancient times it was most likely one of the administrative centres of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. It was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, and perhaps in the world, during its peak period of existence. The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley. Now the time has come that this view had to be properly reconsidered.

                       No such big cities existed at that period in any part of the world. Large number of people living in big congested cities would have resulted in outbreak of diseases and death in large numbers. In ancient times because of the said reason, many of the villages did not grow beyond the population of few thousands. At the maximum, a town could have with stood a population of 10,000 not more than that. However, the archaeologists estimate that nearly 50,000 to 1, 00,000 people would have lived in the city of Mohenjo daro and Harappa would have sustained equal number people. Such high density of population was not possible at that time; hence, a proper explanation is needed for the dense construction of houses in these sites. It is likely that only dead bodies were kept in those houses and people were not living in those sites. This new hypothesis explains the high density of houses found in these sites. The new theory being put forward is that these sites were necropolises not metropolises as popularly imagined so far.


Drainage system 

Figure 1 : Entrance of a Tomb

                        Much is being said about the drainage system of the two cities. No doubt, that experts dealing with these sites, believed that sustaining such huge population could have been possible because it had such a good drainage system. A closer look at the photographs presented in website Harappa.com shows that the drainage is 6 feet high and it is elevated and broad enough to allow a person to walk through the passage way. Indian cities do not have a drainage pipe more than four feet even today at modern times. What was the necessity to build such a passageway? No doubt, they were passageways, but not for cleaning the blocked drains but they were passageways to enter the tombs and the inner burial chambers or the burial rooms. These passageways would have been closed after the placing mummified bodies inside the burial chambers. The closed passageways are clearly visible in the photos presented in Harappa.com. These closed passage ways gives  the false impression that later day occupants have blocked the drainage and built new houses.

                              We are not able to correlate this passageway to the entry passage of a tomb because the roof of the burial chamber had fallen down. The burial chambers would have been constructed in nominal way (dummy constructions) like a room. Most probably, the roofs would not have been made of high quality construction material like that off a regular living house. Naturally, those roofs have not survived the time and the roofs have fallen down in course of time. Passageways have withstood the onslaught of time because there is no wood usage in those cobbled arch pathways, but burial rooms have not survived. In this scenario, we are not able to visualize that it could have been a tomb. Two important evidences of these excavation sites are burial chambers and passageways, but these two facts have not been linked together. Interpreting only the passageways has resulted in wrong conclusions.
 

Figure 2 : Dyer's Platforms 

                              This enclosed hall shown in the illustration has been named as Dyer's workshop. From the depiction, we can assume that huge pots would have been kept in those circular platforms, which created a depression in the middle. It is clear that some kind utensils with round bottoms were kept in those platforms. Generally, flat bottom metal vessels called "vats" are used for such dyeing purposes. Earthen pots with narrow mouth will not fit into the role of dying vats. Earthen pots cannot withstand the rigor of dyeing activity. In addition to that dying of clothes would have required, heating system for warming up dying solution for proper adhesion to clothes, but no such heating facility is seen. If the purpose of these plat forms are considered in light of the new theory, then the utility of above said platforms will perfectly fall into place. It is likely that these platforms could have been used for keeping " Burial pots" (Funeral pots with dead body inside),

Platforms for grinding mills or burial pots?

Figure 3: Grinding Mill Platforms 

                                There are five to six round platforms clustered together in a narrow space near the so-called granary. At present, these platforms are being described as plat forms for grinding grains. The usage for the plat form is still not clear. If the above said view that the rooms were actually burial chambers, then the use of plat form will also fall into place. It looks like that those plat forms were built to keep the funeral burial pots over them; such a huge pot containing mummified body would have required a stable plat form. The picture of platform in the website Images of Asia.com  shows that three or four such plat forms were placed side by side in a single room. What happened to the grinding mill stones? If so many platforms are available, why the grinding stones are missing? The grinding stones would have been made of granite, and chances are more the grinding stone should have survived rather than the brick platform. Bricks are fragile and should have been destroyed much before  the grinding stones. If so many platforms were used for grinding grains, then Mohenjo Daro should have been an industrial centre consisting of many grain-milling factories beating all other civilizations of that time. The new interpretation on the platforms is that these platforms were used for keeping funeral burial pots not for grinding mills.


Granary or Brick -kiln?


Figure 4: Granary 

                                   The structure identified as granary is doubtful as per American history professor Kenoyer; he suggests that it could be simply a big hall. (Kenoyer)   Scrutiny of the photographs available at the web site Harappa.com  shows that it looks more like a brick kiln rather than a big hall. (Harappa.com) Other possibility is that it could have been the kiln used for firing the massive number of funeral potteries used in those sites. Note that the bricks extracted from these two places were used as ballast for the considerable length of the railway line during British period. Note that large numbers of bricks were used in construction of these burial tombs. For such a large-scale consumption of bricks, they should have been manufactured on industrial scale. 

                                   Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were important places of those times, and it is likely that mortuary business was carried out in industrial scale in these places at ancient times. The industry, which survived at these sites, was funeral industry and business was mummification. Further, Kenoyer says that some ventilation pipe like structure exists which lead to the conclusion that it was a granary. The ventilation arrangement is an essential module in a brick kiln for proper burning of bricks. The granary depiction in various simulated models gives a feeling that it was a brick kiln rather than a granary.

                                  Storing grains in such large scale is a difficult job, the grains should be properly dried, or it will rot within days of storage. Large scale insect attack will also occur in granaries and control of rats will be next to impossible task in such large-scale storage of grains. Considering all these factors it can be safely concluded that the structure was definitely not a granary. In addition to that, there is another valid question, “Whether Indus people had any such huge surplus production of grains to store in such big granaries?” It is unlikely that Indus people would have had enormous surplus production to store in such granaries.

                                  This new theory of “necropolises” may give raise to a doubt that there is no evidence for dead bodies being kept in burial pots. Even though burial in urns was a standard practice in ancient times, that practice had disappeared long time back. There were large numbers of medium sized  pots  excavated from these sites, which can be seen in the museums. Such medium sized pots will not accommodate full dead body. But, those medium sized burial pots could accommodate the bones  exhumed from low burial pits and re-interned, which was another standard practice of disposal of dead bodies in ancient times.

                                There are no evidences of preserved bodies at Indus sites because such preserved bodies would have crumbled on exposure to light. The grave robbers had played a significant role in robbing these mortuary temples and destroying  mummies. During the process of extracting valuables from preserved bodies , the robbers would have exposed the mummies to the elements, which naturally destroyed those mummies within few  days or months.    George Wunderlich  gives a detailed account on this issue, why no such mummies have been found in the palace structure at Crete.  (Wunderlich)   Arthur Evans had  wrongly concluded the Minoan funeral parlour as a “palace” because of the same reason that no mummies were found at the time of excavations. In this regard, the explanations given by George Wunderlich are informative, enlightening and are applicable to the situation in Indus sites also.

 Well or Shaft of a grave?                    



Figure 5: Well 

                                     Photograph of the well shows that the parapet wall is starting from ground level and goes up to two-storey level of the nearby building. See the figure-5 and compare the level of well and nearby wall ( Harappa.com).The well is not going down into earth, instead of that it is growing up towards sky. Most probably it is a shaft (passage way) to inner burial chamber at a lower level, but it looks like a well. 


Figure 6: Heart Shaped well.

                                     Some wells are oval shaped some are heart shaped (Photos of Harappa.com). I am yet to see an oval shaped parapet wall of a well construction in any of existing wells in India. See the heart shaped parapet wall has been built over a brick platform. The wall is hardly one foot in height and there is no well below. Then, what is the purpose of this construction? It is simply a grave. Most probably, a mourning man could have built this grave for his  young dead wife showing his love and affection by the heart shape. 

Toilet or Simply a Hole on the grave? 

Figure 7: Toilet 

                                      The photo of blocked drain presented in the web site Harappa.com shows that it was simply an entrance to the tomb. It is highly impossible that such huge drains of man’s height would have been built during those ancient times. Even as on today, Indian metro-cities are having only drainage pipes of two to four feet diameter. In such a situation building six feet high drainage channels are absolutely ill-logical and without any requirement for such a facility. Most probably, Harappans would have used open toilets, as is the practice in rural India even today, not sophisticated toilets as imagined by some archaeologists. 
Most of the open toilets of India used to be simply a  short wall (of one foot height, one feet breadth and  three feet length) on which a person will squat, not a platform with a hole. Platform with a hole means your body parts will be touching the  surface of the seat, which could be in highly soiled and contaminated condition. Such a scenario is unthinkable, even in ancient times. Even if some toilet like structure had been found, most likely that such facilities would have been used for cleaning dead bodies and flushing out internal remains during mummification process. This is the explanation given by George Wunderlich for “Cretan Palace toilets” and the same is applicable here in Indus sites. 

 Blood  sacrifice pots          
                  
Figure 8: Protruding Pot.

                                  The potteries are also tailor made for funeral purpose. Some of them show a protruding tube, meant for funneling the sacrificial blood into ground. Most probably these protruding pots would have been placed on the soft ground filled with blood of sacrificed animal. The protrusion would have helped to keep the pot straight on the funeral mound. Breaking the protruded portion would have allowed the blood to flow. The blood would have been allowed to drain away slowly giving the impression to the worshiper that the souls of ancestors were drinking blood that had been offered in the pots. See, the small hole in the middle pot shown in the above given photo. That small hole would have allowed the seepage of blood into ground.  The “toilets” described by archaeologists seem to be “ordinary holes” meant for pouring blood into underground chambers to nourish the dead body in the underground burial chambers. (or) Such protruded  pots would have been kept on these "toilet holes" to allow the blood to seep away slowly.
 
Mortuary temples and Oracles:

                               This blood offering practice can best be understood by verifying the passage in the Greek classic book Odyssey. (Homer). In chapter XI ,  Homer narrates how Odysseus entered the underworld and consulted his dead mother's soul. In addition to that he comes across  other dead friends souls and learns about the happenings at Ithaca. Odysseus's   intention was to know about the future, so that he can decide the future course of action. Ancient Indus culture could have contained similar ideas. The Indus mortuary temples would have been such a place like the under world mentioned in Odyssey. It is possible that  some oracles would have lived  in those mortuary temples and acted as medium to consult the dead people. It is likely that ancient Indus  worshipers would have visited these places to consult  their ancestors through the medium of oracles.
                        
  Burial place and cremation ground:    
    
figure-9, mound of broken pots.
                              
                                  One of the photographs presented in the website Images of Asia shows enormous amount of broken pottery. The broken pieces have been heaped into small mounds. Such a scenario is not possible in an ordinary site. Traditional explanation will be that it would have been a potter’s yard. If a potter produced and broke all his pots or produced such poor quality of pots that large number of pots broke at the manufacturing stage itself, then such a potter would not have survived for long. The probable explanation is that these sites at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were necropolises, and for centuries, ancient Hindus could have carried out their funeral ceremonies here. During such funeral ceremonies, many pots will be deliberately broken. That explains the large amount of broken potteries seen in the photograph.

                               Many theories about decline of IVC are also doubtful, because it never declined at all in the real sense. Many of the cultural ideas depicted in Indus seals are still being practiced as on today. It looks like that as if Indus culture had declined, because of the deserted nature of excavation sites. The sites were looking deserted at the time of excavation by British archaeologists because they were burial grounds and not living places. A burial place will naturally give a deserted look because of fear of ghosts and no one will occupy such a place. In contrast to that a living place is a valuable real estate and it will never be deserted, generation after generation it will be rebuilt. Even if new invaders had captured these places, they would have occupied these sites after expelling the inhabitants of these sites. Such a thing did not happen. These Indus sites were not rebuilt because they were haunted places and no one wanted to live in such places. The culture of building elaborate tomb houses vanished with the arrival of Indo-Europeans, who were tomb raiders not tomb makers.

Bones and skeletons Ignored by Archaeologists:

                              Now, a relevant question will definitely be raised, why no human bones have been found in the excavated area, if these places were cemeteries? During excavations some bones and skeletons have been found, in addition to that some areas have been clearly marked as graveyards. Large number of bones collected have been dumped together in kept in storage boxes in Archaeological Survey of India office at Calcutta. Proper stratographic recordings of the place of find  and strata of finding  
 of bones were not done, because the  archaeologists never visualised that these sites could have been burial yards.

                       Large number of skeletons and bones were not found in these sites to fit this new graveyard theory. Mummies or dead bodies were not  found because later day invaders and grave robbers  had destroyed these tombs along with their mummies. When dead bodies and bones were exposed to light and heat, bones would have  pulverized within few days. Similar is the explanation offered by Wunderlich in his book for this analogous question. However, there are sufficient numbers of evidences of skeletons in these sites to support the necropolis theory. In Possehl’s book the map at page 160 (Figure 9.1) shows that skeletons are strewn around all over the place, not restricted to any small location as normally expected. (L.Possehl, 2003) This shows that entire place was used as a burial ground and not merely a small enclosure within the site.

Research work of Gwen Robbins :

                                    The author has done a nice study on skeletons found at IVC sites  and has presented the paper without any distortion. The research paper is a forensic examination  of bones and skeletons found  during the excavations of Indus valley sites. The author is presenting the major reasons for death among the skeletons found in IVC. 
A careful study of the research paper shows that  death due to various diseases was also a major cause of death other than violence. If the Aryans had suddenly invaded those cities and killed those inhabitants, then the skeletons would have been that of healthy individuals only. Whereas, the skeletons also includes of high level of diseased people. Infectious diseases like leprosy and tuberculosis were the major cause of death other than death due to trauma (due to violence).  Which shows that these IVC sites were burial yards and all kinds of diseased people had been buried there. Only deficiency in this research paper is that the author is not aware that those IVC sites were burial yards and she has merely correlated her findings with already existing theories on IVC decline.(Gwen Robbins)

Research work of Brad Chase:

                                    Brad Chase has worked on  excavation site at  Gola Dhoro at Gujarat state, India and presented his paper on the issue of animal bones found in that site. The work reveals the presence of large number of animal bones inside the citadel as well as outside the citadel. He concludes that the normal dietary patterns of people of  Gola Dhora included beef, mutton and tortoises.  The bones found in this site indicated killing of large number of cattle. He concludes that that food preferences of people inside the citadel and people outside the citadel differed. Further, he observes that the food preferences of earlier occupants differed from later occupants. All these interpretations are shallow, but finding of large number of animal bones show that  animal sacrifices were carried out inside the citadel as well as outside citadel. It is likely that the graves of important people were located inside citadel and graves of common people were outside citadel. The data shows that there is no significant difference in  finding of  bones of cattle and goat between  outside  area of citadel inside of citadel . Again the problem with this research paper is that even though the data is collected and presented meticulously. The conclusions are far from satisfactory. The deficiency is that the author is not aware of nature of killing of these animal. If he had been aware that animal were sacrificed in a cemetery, his conclusion would have been much more conclusive. If the data provided by Brad chase is analysed in this perspective of grave yard and animal sacrifice, there will be much more fruitful conclusions on this subject.(Brad Chase)

New interpretation on "Great Bath":

figure-10, Great Bath

                    
                                 Close observation of the great bath shows that this structure is entirely made of bricks but no stone is used. No stones are used in the footsteps also. This indicates that this structure was not used on daily basis. Pay attention to any kind of water tank in India, all of them definitely have stone side walls as well as stone footsteps, because when you use these steps on daily basis there will be lot of wear and tear and such kind of brick steps will not suffice. Further, if the water tank is constructed with brick side walls , the bricks will allow the water to seep away as well as the brick will turn into dust in few years time. These observations show that this Great Bath structure was not used for regular bathing purpose and could have been used for some kind of other ceremony. This Great Bath could have been used for ritual bath is  doubtful, because filling water in such a big water tank could have been a difficult task. The second point against the idea of filling-up the tank with water is that it will be almost next to impossible to fill up the tank with manual labour. Whatever water you pour into this kind of tank will seep away in few hours. Only a modern high duty, high volume centrifugal pump alone could fill up such a tank.
  
                           This idea is supported by the finding of Hans George Wunderlich, (German Professor of Geology), described in his book, "Secret of Crete". While contemplating about the mortuary palaces at Knossos at Crete , he concluded that the steps used in those mortuary palaces are made of "White Soft Calcite stones"(Alabaster) (Soft -Soap stones), (Marble stones used in Taj Mahal are harder stones) which could not withstand the rigor of regular usage.  George Wunderlich was a geology professor and his knowledge about quality of stones was fundamental to his new theory that those palaces were "Mortuary Palaces" and not "regular palaces" meant for living. This concept is very much applicable to "Indus- Great Bath".

                           Based on the conclusions of  Wunderlich, his assumptions can be safely applied to this "great bath" of Indus Valley civilization also.  It appears that this structure was a kind of inner courtyard  of a building, where rainwater was collected and allowed to runoff in a small drain. Because later day construction over and above the level of this inner courtyard, it looks like a "water pool". Remember that there are seven strata (layers) of construction in these sites. Probably  the inner courtyard could have been used for sacrifice of animals; animal sacrifice would have been carried out in those enclosed courtyards. Later, after many generations that particular funeral hall would have fallen out of use. Later, entirely new set of family could have occupied and re-used that particular patch of cemetery as their burial yard. In that process they could have  filled up the old structure and built a new layer of funeral chambers and anti-chambers for animal sacrifice.The final conclusion is that "The Great Bath" was simply an inner courtyard, which was used for some kind of ceremony and not  as a  "bathing tank". 

Mortuary temple and Mummification source of money:


                       It is likely that mummification would have been carried in these Indus sites. Mummification would have brought  in lot of revenue to those professional physicians and funeral priests. Further, as long as mummies existed, those mummies would have required regular poojas and animal sacrifices supposedly to sustain the souls of those dead persons. All these activities would have sustained the mortuary temples of these places. Even though there is no evidence of mummification in Hindu culture as on today, but the remnants of that practice can be seen in present day rituals for the dead. After cremation of the body, the final ceremony is held only on 40th day, until then mourning period continues. How this period of 40 days of mourning is arrived at? It is simply because of the fact that mummification process requires 40 days for a proper preservation of a body. Verifying the data available with Egyptian mummification techniques will show that it took exactly 40 days to preserve the body.

Dholavira: Citadel or Mastaba 

Figure -11, Slanting walls of citadel, Dholavira.

Figure-12, Slanting wall of mastaba.


                                  The archaeologist who excavated this Dholavira site says that there was a citadel in the centre of the site. The walls shown above in the picture (Left) are being considered as  the remnants of  a citadel. But, if you see the picture of citadel wall, it can be seen that it is a slanting wall and not a perpendicular wall. How the fortification wall will be slanting in nature? The walls of a fort are always vertical and perpendicular to the ground. If you have a sloping wall in the fort, the enemy will climb the walls very easily and the entire purpose of fort will be defeated. But, reality is that the walls of Dholavira are slanting and it can not be a citadel. Whereas consider the walls of mastaba shown in the picture on the right side, the walls are slanting at 30 degree angle and exactly matches with the picture of Dholavira citadel wall shown in the picture. The only other explanation for the structure in Dholavira  is that it is a Mastaba. (Dholavira ; Boot-Pradesh)


Decipherment of seals:

                               The current explanation that the seals were used as some kind token of identity of ownership of goods exchanged in trade does not seem to be accurate. Analysis of Indus inscriptions on seals reveals that these inscriptions describes about the  animals sacrificed, number of animals sacrificed and nature of sacrifice. This issue is being separately discussed in another article. ( Indus Harappa Civilization) (website). Decipherment of Indus inscriptions shows that animals were sacrificed in Indus Valley Civilization.  This finding shows that there is a correlation between  "Necropolis theory" and "Indus seals ". Thus, the "Inscriptions on Indus seals"  substantially supports the "Necropolis theory".

Decline of Indus civilization

                          So many theories have been propounded to explain the decline of Indus culture, but none of the explanation is satisfactory, because it never declined at all in real sense. Imagine the situation that Indus people were using those places as necropolises and later came grave robbers with scant respect for those buried in those places. Those invaders could have destroyed those places, because their main intention was to dig out some valuable items like gold jewellery, utensils, or weapons buried along with the deceased persons.

                               Later entirely new culture came; they were the people who burnt the body, to outsmart the grave robbers. This cremation practice became more prominent and old practice of burial declined, resulting in burning of all funeral materials. It is not only that to avoid grave robbery, our ancestors have resorted to burning of dead bodies, there is also another important reason. The practice of “Black magic” requires the body parts of some deceased persons. The magician will make a “magic portion” out of body parts and the Magician will control the soul of the dead person. That is a recurring theme in all the magic stories of India. Practically also, black magic is still being practiced in India even today. To avoid such a fate to soul, ending in the hands of magicians, our ancestors would have preferred to burn the dead body. This is a strong reason for the shift in funeral practice in Indus Culture. This could have resulted in a scene where it gives an impression that these places were occupied by culture less people. Cultured people were very much there and Indus culture never declined in a proper sense, which explains the re-emergence of all cultural ideas of Indus people in the later period.

                         Similar situation existed in the Greek culture also after the fall of Minoan palace culture.  Greek history also contains a dark period in which no evidence of culture is seen. Later, it re-emerges after a period of 500 years. Wunderlich correctly observes that, it is wrong to conclude that no cultured people existed during that period. Only mistake of those people was that they were practicing burning of corpses instead of burial. The situation narrated by Wunderlich on Greek culture is very similar to the scenario presented in Indus valley.


Acknowledgements

i)  Many of the photographs used in this article are obtained from the website Harappa.com. I have asked for permission of the manager of this website to use these photos. Awaiting permission from the manager of website Harappa.com. Mean time the photos are being used to improve the quality of presentation with a hope that due permission will be granted. This paper is purely for research and educational purpose and no monetary interest is involved.

ii)  Few of the photographs used in this article are obtained from the website Images of Asia.com. I have asked for permission of the manager of this website to use these photos. Awaiting permission from the manager of website Images of Asia.com. Mean time the photos are being used to improve the quality of presentation with a hope that due permission will be granted. This paper is purely for research and educational purpose and no monetary interest is involved.

iii) Majority of the facts about Indus civilization in this article are obtained from articles about Indus Valley Civilization   presented in Wikipedia (The free encyclopedia). 


iv) Figure-11, Courtesy Frontline magazine, dated july 12,2013, page no.72.
v) Figure -12, courtesy Wikipedia.

 References: 

Brad Chase, http://beef.sabhlokcity.com/Documents/beef-indus-valley-civilisation-1.pdf

Dholavira: Boot Pradesh, https://sites.google.com/site/induscivilizationsite/home/dholovera---photos

Gwen Robbins, http://anthro.appstate.edu/node/289

Harappa.com. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2009, from Harappa.com: http://www.harappa.com 

Homer, Odyssey , http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/odyssey.11.xi.html

Images of Asia.com. Retrieved may 10, 2010, from http://www.imagesofasia.com/html/mohenjodaro/.


Indus Valley Civilization., Retrieved January 28, 2009, from Wikipedia.

Indus Harappa civilization (Website): https://sites.google.com/site/indusharappacivilization/home/b-indus-script-was-based-on-sanskrit-language

Kenoyer, J. M., http://www.wikipedia.or.ke/index.php/Mohenjo-daro

L.Possehl. (2003). The Indus Civilization. A contemporary perspective. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications. 


Wunderlich, H. G. (1974). The secret of crete. Glascow: Macmillon Publishing Co.Ltd.
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To

Dear Editor,

Harappa.Com.

 

I am Jeyakumar Ramasami writing from India. I have few theories on Indus Valley civilization. The first theory is that the excavated sites are "Burial Yards" and not "cities" as popularly imagined so for. Follow the link for my first website ---https://sites.google.com/site/induscivilizationsite/

The second theory is that the Indus scripts are based on Sanskrit language. Follow the link for more information to my second website----https://sites.google.com/site/indusharappacivilization/home


Now, my request is that, I would like to use some of the photos from your website to substantiate my "Necropolis Theory". Kindly give permission for that. I have used only hand drawn pictures so far. To improve the quality of my research paper and presentation in my website, i need some good photos, which are only available in your website. It is purely for educational purpose and research purpose, no monetary interest is involved.


Expecting a positive reply from you at the earliest. Thanking you in anticipation of positive reply. 


Your sincerely,

Jeyakumar Ramasami.

___________________________________________________________________________

To

Dear Editor,

Images of Asia.Com.

 

I am Jeyakumar Ramasami writing from India. I have few theories on Indus Valley civilization. The first theory is that the excavated sites are "Burial Yards" and not "cities" as popularly imagined so for. Follow the link for my first website ---https://sites.google.com/site/induscivilizationsite/

The second theory is that the Indus scripts are based on Sanskrit language. Follow the link for more information to my second website----https://sites.google.com/site/indusharappacivilization/home


Now, my request is that, I would like to use some of the photos from your website to substantiate my "Necropolis Theory". Kindly give permission for that. I have used only hand drawn pictures so far. To improve the quality of my research paper and presentation in my website, i need some good photos, which are only available in your website. It is purely for educational purpose and research purpose, no monetary interest is involved.


Expecting a positive reply from you at the earliest. Thanking you in anticipation of positive reply. 


Your sincerely,

Jeyakumar Ramasami.

___________________________________________________________________________


See the attached file ---- for the  PDF version of the Necropolis theory -----(it is an old version and newest version is as given above).

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Ravi Vararo,
28 Aug 2015, 01:45
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