b) Indus Astronomy and Sumerian symbols

 Indus astronomy and calendar symbols 

                                           Every culture needs some kind of calendar for time planning. That also means they need symbols and conventions that at least some people understand and can use the same symbolism and conventions. Hemtun observes that all three big cultures of ancient time had many things in common. The best example is that of calendar symbols. The calendar symbols of three big cultures are given below for comparison. The first two symbols are from Sumer and Egypt respectively and the third symbol is a seal is from Indus valley.

Centaurs of Three big cultures 

(Adapted after Benght Hemtun, Website-Catshaman) 

                                       In Sumer and Egypt, these symbols designate five seasons of a year. The Gemini constellation identify the first season (spring season), which is shown as front toes of the horse. Constellations Cancer, Lynx and Ursa Major put together makes the archer, and this archer indicates the second season of Sumerians. The other seasons are marked by other constellations like Scorpio and rear portion of the horse. The constellation Scorpio is explicitly shown in the first seal and still is the popularly used zodiac symbol. In Indus symbolism there is a change because the spring starts with Bull constellation (Auriga constellation) for Indus people. This Auriga constellation is shown as human portion of the female centaur like creature. The hind portion of this centaur is shown like a tiger not a horse. Hemtun is of the opinion that even though there are variations in image, the basic theme is that it is a composite picture indicating various seasons. All the three old civilisations had used the same idea, which shows the cultural link that existed among these cultures.