The LAB (Laboratory of Aging Bilingualism)

Tamar H. Gollan, Ph.D., Professor

Department of Psychiatry; University of California, San Diego

email: tgollan AT health DOT ucsd DOT edu


Welcome to the Laboratory of Aging Bilingualism - the LAB. Going from left to right in the photo above that's me (Tamar Gollan), Alena Stasenko, Mayra Murillo, Miguel Mejia, Jessie Quinn, Dalia Lopez Garcia, Britney Escobedo, Zhuji Zhang, Anne Neveu, Chuchu Li, and Haoxue Zhang. Of course we all speak English, but more than half of us also speak Spanish, we have three Mandarin speakers, and we have several other languages represented including Hebrew, Russian, French, and Italian, and at lower proficiency levels we have some German, Gujarati, Hindi, and Japanese.

The LAB in the news:

People who speak more than one language seem to do so effortlessly. But things aren't always what they seem. By considering how the cognitive system juggles multiple languages, bilinguals and multilinguals provide a unique experimental tool for investigating how all humans process language, and how language skills and general cognitive abilities work in concert to allow us to produce and understand language in rapid communicative exchanges in complex environments and largely without making mistakes.

Research in the LAB is funded by the National Institute of Health (NIA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). We are studying how bilinguals control their two languages, and how the ability to switch languages changes with Alzheimer's disease. We also have a project in collaboration with Drs. Karen Emmorey, Peter Hauser, and Mike McKee on language and cognitive assessment of older deaf signers, and are working with Dr. Matt Goldrick on his study, which we hope will reveal why bilinguals occasionally produce accent errors (in which they accidently produce a word in one language but with the accent of the other language).

Young participants are tested primarily on the UCSD campus in the Language Production Lab (photo below). We have been holding weekly lab meetings together with Vic Ferreira's lab since 2002. Our healthy aging bilinguals, and our bilinguals with Alzheimer's disease, come mostly from a longitudinal study based at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Center.


Bilinguals enjoy many advantages. Most importantly they can communicate with a broader audience, and have diverse cultural experiences. However, bilinguals need to learn and efficiently retrieve about twice as many words as monolinguals. Such learning takes time, and it would be very surprising if this doubled load didn't produce any differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Indeed we have found that, when compared with monolinguals, bilinguals name pictures more slowly (by about 80 milliseconds; Gollan, Montoya, Fennema- Notestine, & Morris, 2005), and can produce fewer words in category generation (especially semantic categories such as Animal names; Gollan, Montoya, & Werner, 2002). Additionally, bilinguals are more likely to have a tip-of-the-tongue or TOT state (Gollan & Silverberg, 2001), and are more likely to produce tongue twister errors (Gollan & Goldrick, 2012).

In other testing conditions we find no differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. For example, bilinguals have the same number of TOTs as monolinguals when trying to retrieve words that are similar across languages (e.g., trompeta which is the Spanish word for trumpet; Gollan & Acenas, 2004), or when retrieving proper names which are also similar across languages (e.g., Tamar is Tamar in both Hebrew and in English; Gollan, Bonanni, & Montoya, 2005). The appearance of a bilingual disadvantage in some but not in other tasks helps us to understand what sorts of processing is required to complete these tasks, and helps to shape models of bilingualism, language processing, and cognitive control.

Most people assume bilinguals might be different from monolinguals because of interference between languages. But another possibility is simply that bilinguals spend less time than monolinguals in using words and syntactic structures specific to each language (because bilinguals use each language only some of the time whereas monolinguals use the same language all the time). On this view, performance differences between bilinguals and monolinguals should be attributed to reduced frequency of use or a “frequency lag(Gollan, Montoya, Cera, & Sandoval, 2008; Gollan, Slattery, Goldenberg, Van Assche, Duyck, & Rayner, 2011). Our research in the LAB questions the simple idea that all of the consequences of bilingualism should be attributed to competition or interference between languages. Bilinguals differ from monolinguals in many ways; it would be too simplistic to try to explain all of those differences with just one cognitive mechanism. An important point is that frequency-lag and interference are not mutually exclusive accounts - both are likely to be right. When viewed in this way, the goal of our research is to discover all the cognitive mechanisms that produce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals, to determine which mechanism best explains each effect we observe, and to figure out what these effects tell us about the cognitive system and language processing more generally (e.g., we found that bilinguals’ memory for word lists is affected by which language is tested first, but not because of interference between languages, see Mizrahi, Wixted, & Gollan, 2021).

In recent work we are finding evidence for a link between language control and non-linguistic task control (e.g., switching declines in aging in related ways across linguistic and non-linguistic tasks; Weissberger, Wierenga, Bondi, & Gollan, 2012), and resolving nonlinguistic conflict shares some overlapping processes with switching languages, although not always in expected ways (Garcia & Gollan, submitted). In some contexts, bilinguals’ ability to speak in a nondominant language seems to rely on inhibition of the dominant language (Goldrick & Gollan, submitted; Kleinman, & Gollan, 2018; Declerck, Kleinman, & Gollan, 2020; but see Li & Gollan, 2021), and such inhibitory control might be impaired in older bilinguals (Stasenko, Kleinman, & Gollan, 2021). However, we also observe some profound limitations on the extent to which bilingual language processing declines in aging. First, bilinguals - even older bilinguals - almost never produce the wrong language by mistake (only 0-3% of the time; Gollan, Salmon, & Sandoval, 2011). In addition, some age related "deficits" reflect the burden of responding to laboratory task demands. When aging bilinguals are allowed to voluntarily choose which language to use to name pictures, aging-related switching difficulties largely vanish and old bilinguals choose to switch as often as young bilinguals (Gollan & Ferreira, 2009). We have even found that bilinguals with Alzheimer's disease maintain surprisingly good ability to inhibit the dominant language in some tasks (Gollan, Stasenko, Li, & Salmon, 2017; Gollan, Li, Stasenko, & Salmon, 2020), and to access names in a non-dominant language (Gollan, Salmon, Montoya, & da Pena, 2010; Gollan, Stasenko, & Salmon, submitted). We have also found that older bilinguals are in some ways "better bilinguals" than young bilinguals (e.g., they retrieve low frequency words in their non-dominant language relatively more easily than would be expected given their ability to retrieve higher frequency words; Gollan, et al., 2008). The frequency-lag account provides a ready explanation for this finding; older bilinguals have had more time than young bilinguals in which to learn and efficiently retrieve twice as many words. Older bilinguals may also have greater ability to rate their own proficiency level in each language (Neveu & Gollan, in preparation), while young adult bilinguals may under- or over-estimate their abilities in each language in unpredictable ways (Tomoschuk, Ferriera, & Gollan, 2019).

The best part about studying bilinguals is that by trying to figure out how bilinguals manage activation of their two languages, and how they are different from monolinguals, we get to find out about all kinds of things such as why we get stuck in tip-of-the-tongue state states, why we make speech errors, how we choose among competing responses when we speak, how word-frequency is represented in the lexicon, what makes for efficient switching between tasks, and how all these abilities change as we get older (to find out how you can switch languages for free, see Kleinman & Gollan, 2016; Li & Gollan, 2022). Although our studies suggest that bilinguals sometimes rely on general cognitive abilities to maintain control over which language they speak in other cases we observe striking dissociations which suggest development of specialized linguistic control abilities (Gollan & Goldrick, 2016; 2018; Segal, Stasenko, & Gollan, 2018). In more simple terms, this means that bilinguals are not constantly faced with competition between languages - interference effects are limited, special cognitive mechanisms develop to prevent interference, and simpler forces (like frequency of use) seem to have more powerful effects on language proficiency and how bilinguals access their two language systems than cognitive control per se.


Many cognitive assessment tests rely on language and were not designed for use with bilinguals. After observing that bilinguals are not always accurate in rating their own language proficiency, we developed the Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and a more recent fast administration procedure for the test (the MINT Sprint; Garcia & Gollan, 2021), which provides an objective measure of proficiency and bilingualism in speakers of English, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese, Hebrew (or any combination of these languages). Our naming tests are validated against oral proficiency interviews and are useful for tracking progression of naming impairments in bilinguals and monolinguals with Alzheimer's disease (Ivanova, Salmon, & Gollan, 2013; Stasenko, Jacobs, Salmon, & Gollan, 2019). In April of 2015, all the ADRCs across the country began using an abridged version of the MINT in their annual evaluations (replacing the Boston Naming Test).

The lack of tools available for cognitive assessment of bilinguals puts them at risk for being diagnosed with an impairment where none is present. To make matters even more complex, cognitively intact bilinguals sometimes produce an "Alzheimer's-like pattern" on some tests. For example, the bilingual fluency disadvantage is greater on semantic than on letter category fluency (Gollan, Montoya, & Werner, 2002), and bilinguals name fewer pictures correctly than monolinguals (Gollan, Fennema-Notestine, Montoya, & Jernigan, 2007). Interestingly, some language measures do not reveal a bilingual disadvantage (so long as bilinguals are tested in their dominant language; see Mizrahi et al., 2021).

Currently, we are trying to determine the best way to test bilinguals for the purpose of identifying cognitive impairment in its earliest stages. Recently, we adapted another test we initially developed for bilinguals for detecting Alzheimer’s risk in monolinguals (based on CSF biomarkers). When reading aloud mixed-language paragraphs, bilinguals will spontaneously translate some of the words to avoid switching in their speech (we observed this phenomenon in Spanish-English bilinguals (e.g., Gollan, Schotter, Gomez, Murillo & Rayner, 2014),Chinese-English bilinguals (Li & Gollan, 2018; Schotter, Li, & Gollan, 2019), and Hebrew-English bilinguals (Fadlon, Li, Prior, & Gollan, 2019). Bilinguals with Alzheimer’s disease produce more of these translation errors, and monolinguals produce a similar type of error we have been calling autocorrect errors, which demonstrate promise for detection of cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer’s pathology even before a diagnosis can be made (Gollan, Stasenko, Li, Galasko, & Salmon, 2020).

Our work with the read aloud task and the MINT and MINT Sprint demonstrates how research on bilinguals can lead to broader insights about cognitive processing, and to development of tests and procedures that are useful in bilinguals and monolinguals alike.


Dr. Tamar H. Gollan is a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego. She received a Ph.D. in Clinical Neuropsychology and Cognitive Psychology from the University of Arizona and completed an Internship at the UCSD-Consortium/Vet Affairs, a postdoc at the UCSD Center for Research in Language, and a fellowship at Pomona College.

Dr. Gollan’s research on bilingualism, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease is most cited for its contributions to theories about how bilinguals differ from monolinguals, development of objective measures of language proficiency (e.g., the Multilingual Naming Test or MINT), linguistic retrieval failures (the tip-of-the-tongue or TOT phenomenon), and relationships between bilingual language switching and domain general executive control. Her research has been funded continuously since 2002 by independent investigator awards from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH, including NIA, NICHD, and NIDCD).

Dr. Gollan is faculty in two Joint Doctoral Programs between UCSD and SDSU (Clinical Psychology, and Language and Communicative Disorders), she is director of the Latino Core of the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at UCSD, and serves on the editorial board of five journals focused on (Bilingualism: Language and Cognition; Psychology and Aging; the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition; the Journal of Memory and Language; and Cognition).


Gollan, T.H., Stasenko, A., Li, C., Smirnov, D.S., Galasko, D., & Salmon, D.P. (in press). Autocorrection if→of function words in reading aloud a novel marker of Alzheimer’s risk, Neuropsychology, Special Issue: Novel neuropsychological instruments for the prodromal and preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

Li, C., Ferreira, V.S., & Gollan, T.H. (2022). Language control after phrasal planning: Playing Whack-a-mole with language switch costs, Journal of Memory and Language, 126, 104338.

Li, C., & Gollan, T. (2022). Language-switch costs from comprehension to production might just be task-switch costs. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 25(3), 459-470. doi:10.1017/S1366728921001061

Garcia, D., & Gollan, T. (2021). The MINT Sprint: Exploring a Fast Administration Procedure with an Expanded Multilingual Naming Test. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1-17. doi:10.1017/S1355617721001004

Stasenko, A., Kleinman, D., & Gollan, T. H. (2021). Older bilinguals reverse language dominance less than younger bilinguals: Evidence for the inhibitory deficit hypothesis. Psychology and Aging, 36, 806-821.

Ahn, D., Ferreira, V.S., & Gollan, T.H., (2021) Selective activation of language specific structural representations: Evidence from extended picture-word interference. Journal of Memory & Language, 120, 104249.

Li, C., & Gollan, T.H., (2021). What cognates reveal about default language selection in bilingual sentence production, Journal of Memory & Language, 118, 104214. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2020.104214

Mizrahi, R., Wixted, J.T., & Gollan, T.H. (2021) Order effects in bilingual recognition memory partially confirm predictions of the frequency-lag hypothesis, Memory, 29:4, 444-455, DOI: 10.1080/09658211.2021.1902538

Tomoschuk, B., Duyck, W., Hartsuiker, R., Ferreira, V., & Gollan, T. (2021). Language of instruction affects language interference in the third language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1-12. doi:10.1017/S1366728921000043

Pyers, J.E., Magid, R., Gollan, T.H. & Emmorey, K. (2021), Gesture helps, only if you need it: Inhibiting gesture reduces Tip-of-the-Tongue resolution for those with weak short-term memory. Cognitive Science, 45: e12914.

Segal, D., Prior, A., & Gollan, T. H. (2021). Do all switches cost the same? Reliability of language switching and mixing costs. Journal of Cognition, 4(1), 3.

Tomoschuk, B., Ferreira, V.S., Gollan, T.H (2020). Translation distractors facilitate production in single- and mixed-language picture naming, Language, Cognition and Neuroscience (PLCP) doi:

Declerck, M., Kleinman, D. & Gollan, T.H. (2020). Which bilinguals reverse language dominance and why? Cognition, 204, 104384.

Gollan, T.H., Smirnov, D.S., Salmon, D.P., & Galasko, D. (2020). Failure to stop autocorrect errors in reading aloud increases with aging especially with a positive marker for Alzheimer’s disease. Psychology & Aging, 35, 1016-1025.

Stasenko, A., Hays, C., Wierenga, C., & Gollan, T.H. (2020). Cognitive control regions are recruited in silent reading of mixed-language paragraphs in bilinguals. Brain and Language, 204, 104754.

Ahn, D., Abbott, M.J., Rayner, K., Ferreira, V.S., Gollan, T.H. (2020). Minimal overlap in language control across production and comprehension: Evidence from read-aloud versus eye-tracking tasks. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 54, 100885.

Gollan, T.H., Li, C., Stasenko, A., & Salmon, D.P. (2020). Intact reversed language-dominance but exaggerated cognate effects in reading aloud of language switches in bilingual Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 34, 88-106.

Suárez, P.A., Marquine, M.J., Díaz-Santos, M., Gollan, T., Artiola i Fortuny, L., Rivera-Mindt, M. Heaton, R. & Cherner, M. (2020). Native Spanish-speaker’s test performance and the effects of Spanish-English bilingualism: results from the neuropsychological norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) project, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2020.1861330

Segal, D., Kavé, G., Goral, M., & Gollan, T.H. (2019). Multilingualism and cognitive benefits in aging. Multilingualism and Cognitive Benefits in Aging. In Simona Montanari, Suzanne Quay (Eds.), Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Multilingualism: The Fundamentals (pp. 351– 374). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Smirnov, D.S., Stasenko, A., Salmon, D.P., Galasko, D., Brewer, J.B., & Gollan, T.H. (2019). Distinct structural correlates of the dominant and nondominant languages in bilinguals with Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 132, 107131.

Stasenko, A., & Gollan, T.H. (2019). Tip-of-the-tongue after any language: Reintroducing the notion of blocked retrieval, Cognition, 193

Fadlon, J., Li, C., Prior, A., Gollan, T.H. (2019). Using what’s there: Bilinguals adaptively rely on orthographic and color cues to achieve language control. Cognition, 191

Weissberger, G.H., Gollan, T.H., Bondi, M.W., Nation, D.A., Hansen, L.A., Galasko, D., Salmon, D.P. (2019). Neuropsychological deficit profiles, vascular risk factors, and neuropathological findings in Hispanic older adults with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 67, pp. 291-302.

Stasenko, A., Jacobs, D., Salmon, D.P, & Gollan, T.H. (2019). The Multilingual Naming Test

(MINT) as a measure of picture naming ability in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 25, 821-833.

Emmorey, K., Li, C., Petrich, J., & Gollan, T. H. (2019). Turning languages on and off: Switching into and out of code-blends reveals the nature of bilingual language control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 46, 443-454.

Schotter, L., Li, C., & Gollan, T.H. (2019). What reading aloud reveals about speaking: Regressive saccades implicate a failure to monitor, not inattention, in the prevalence of intrusion errors on function words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 2032-2045.

Tao, L, Cai, Q. & Gollan, T.H. (2019). Effects of Cumulative Language Exposure on Heritage and

Majority Language Skills: Spanish and Mandarin Heritage Speakers in the USA Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism

Gollan, T.H., & Goldrick, M. (2019). Aging deficits in naturalistic speech production and monitoring revealed through reading aloud. Psychology and Aging, 34, 25-42.

Segal, D., Stasenko, A., Gollan, T.H. (2019). More Evidence that a Switch is Not (always) a Switch: Binning Bilinguals Reveals Dissociations between Task and Language Switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148, 501-519.

Tomoschuk, B., Ferreira, V.S., Gollan, T.H. (2019). When a seven is not a seven: Bilingual Self Ratings Differ Between and Within Language Populations. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22, 516-536.

Li, C., & Gollan, T.H. (2018). Cognates interfere with language selection but enhance monitoring in connected speech. Memory and Cognition, 46, 923-939.

Reyes, A., Paul, B.M., Marshall, A., Chang, Y.A., Bahrami, N., Kansal, L., Iragui, V.J., Tecoma, E.S.,Gollan, T.H., & McDonald, C.R. (2018). Does bilingualism increase brain or cognitive reserve in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy? Epilepsia, 59, 1037-1047.

Zlatar, Z.Z., Muniz, M.C., Espinoza, S., Gratianne, R., Gollan, T.H., Galasko, D., Salmon, D.P. (2018). Subjective Cognitive Decline, Objective Cognition, and Depression in Older Hispanics Screened for Memory Impairment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 63, 949-956.

Segal, D., & Gollan, T. (2018). What’s left for balanced bilinguals? Item familiarity and language proficiency affect hemispheric processing of metaphors. Neuropsychology, 32, 866-879.

Li, C., & Gollan, T.H. (2018). Cognates facilitate switches and then confusion: contrasting effects of cascade versus feedback on language selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Language, Memory & Cognition, 44, 974-991.

Gollan, T.H., & Goldrick, M. (2018). A switch is not a switch: Syntactically driven bilingual language control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 44, 143-156.

Kleinman, D., & Gollan, T. H. (2018). Inhibition accumulates over time at multiple processing levels in bilingual language control. Cognition, 173, 115-132.

Stasenko, A., Matt, G.E., & Gollan, T.H. (2017). A relative bilingual advantage in switching with preparation: Nuanced explorations of the proposed association between bilingualism and task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146,1527-1550.

Gollan, T. H., Stasenko, A., Li, C., & Salmon, D.P. (2017). Bilingual language intrusions and other speech errors in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain & Cognition, 118, 27-44.

Li, C., Goldrick, M., & Gollan, T.H (2017). Bilinguals’ Twisted Tongues: Frequency Lag or Interference? Memory & Cognition, 45, 600-610.

Ivanova, I., Ferreira, V.S., & Gollan, T.H (2017). Form overrides meaning when bilinguals monitor for errors. Journal of Memory and Language, 94, 75-102.

Gollan, T.H., & Goldrick, M. (2016). Grammatical constraints on language switching: Language control is not just executive control. Journal of Memory and Language, 90, 177-199.

Kleinman, D., & Gollan, T. H. (2016). Speaking two languages for the price of one: Bypassing language control mechanisms via accessibility-driven switches. Psychological Science, 27, 700-714.

Van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Gollan, T.H. (2016) Linking comprehension and production: Crossmodal transfer effects between picture naming and lexical decision during first and second language processing in bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 89, 37-54.

Ivanova, I., Murillo, M., Montoya, R.I., & Gollan, T.H. (2016). Does language control decline in older age? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 86-118.

Emmorey, K., Giezen, M.R., & Gollan, T.H. (2016). Insights from bimodal bilingualism: Reply to commentaries. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(2), 261–263.

*Emmorey, K., Giezen, M.R., & Gollan, T.H. (2016). Psycholinguistic, cognitive and neural implications of bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(2), 223–242.

*Gollan, T.H., Starr, J., Ferreira, V.S. (2015). More than Use it or Lose it: The number of speakers effect on Heritage Language Proficiency, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 147-155.

Weissberger, G.H., Gollan, T.H., Bondi, M.W., Clark, L.R., Wierenga, C.E. (2015). Language and Task Switching in the Bilingual Brain: Bilinguals are Staying, not Switching, Experts. Neuropsychologia, 66, 193-203.

Tao, L, Taft, M. & Gollan, T.H. (2015). The bilingual switching advantage: Sometimes related to bilingual proficiency, sometimes not. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21, 531-544.

*Gollan, T. H., Kleinman, D., & Wierenga, C. E. (2014). What's easier: Doing what you want, or being told what to do? Cued versus voluntary language and task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 2167-2195.

Sheng, L., Lu, Y., & Gollan, T.H., (2014). Assessing language dominance in Mandarin-English bilinguals: Convergence and divergence between subjective and objective measures. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 364-383.

*Kroll, J. F., & Gollan, T. H. (2014). Speech planning in two languages: What bilinguals tell us about language production. In V. Ferreira, M. Goldrick, & M. Miozzo (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of language production (pp. 165-181). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gollan, T.H., Schotter, E.R., Gomez, J., Murillo, M., Rayner, K. (2014). Multiple levels of bilingual language control: Evidence from language intrusions in reading aloud. Psychological Science, 25, 585-595.

Ivanova, I., Salmon, D.P., Gollan, T.H. (2014). Which language declines more? Longitudinal versus cross-sectional decline of picture naming in bilinguals with Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20, 534-546.

Wardlow, L., Ivanova, I., & Gollan, T.H. (2014). The cognitive mechanisms underlying perspective taking between conversational partners: evidence from speakers with Alzheimer׳s disease.Neuropsychologia, 56, 184-195.

Gollan, T.H., Ferreira, V.S., Cera, C., Flett, S. (2014). Translation-priming effects of tip-of-the-tongue states. Language and Cognitive Processes, 29, 278-288. DOI:10.1080/01690965.2012.762457.

Suarez, P., Gollan, T.H., Heaton, R., Grant, I., Cherner, M., (2014). Second-language fluency predicts native language Stroop effects: Evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20, 342-348.

Runnquist, E., Gollan, T. H., Costa, A., & Ferreira, V. S. (2013). A disadvantage in bilingual sentence production modulated by syntactic frequency and similarity across languages. Cognition, 129, 256-263.

*Van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Gollan, T.H., (2013). Whole-language and item-specific control in bilingual language production, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1781-1792.

*Prior, A., & Gollan, T.H., (2013). The elusive link between language control and executive control: A case of limited transfer, The Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 622-645.

Kang, S.H.K., Gollan, T.H., & Pashler, H. (2013). Don’t just repeat after me: Retrieval practice is better than imitation for foreign vocabulary learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1259-1265.

Weissberger, G. H., Salmon, D. P., Bondi., M. W., Gollan, T. H. (2013). Which neuropsychological tests predict progression to Alzheimer’s disease in Hispanics? Neuropsychology, 27, 343-355.

Ivanova, I., Salmon, D.P., & Gollan, T.H., (2013). The Multilingual Naming Test in Alzheimer’s disease: Clues to the origin of naming impairments. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19, 272-283.

Emmorey, K., Petrich, J., & Gollan, T.H., (2013). Bimodal bilingualism and the frequency-lag hypothesis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18, 1-11.

Gollan, T.H. & Goldrick, M. (2012). Does bilingualism twist your tongue? Cognition, 125, 491-497.

*Weissberger, G. H., Wierenga, C. E., Bondi, M. W., & Gollan, T. H. (2012). Partially over-lapping mechanisms of language and task control in young and older bilinguals. Psychology and Aging, 27, 959-974.

Emmorey, K., Petrich, J., & Gollan, T.H., (2012). Bilingual processing of ASL-English code-blends: The consequences of accessing two lexical representations simultaneously. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 199-210.

Antón-Méndez, I., Schütze, C.T., Champion, M.K., & Gollan, T.H. (2012). What the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) says about homophone frequency inheritance. Memory & Cognition, 40, 802-811.

***Gollan, T.H., Weissberger, G., Runnqvist, E., Montoya, R.I., & Cera, C.M. (2012) Self-ratings of spoken language dominance: A multi-lingual naming test (MINT) and preliminary norms for young and aging Spanish-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 594615.

Kamat, R., Ghate, M., Gollan, T.H., Meyer, R., Vaida, F., Heaton, R.K., Letendre, S., Franklin, D.,

Alexander, T., Grant, I., Mehendale, S., Marcotte, T.D., and the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (HNRP) Group (2012). Effects of Marathi-Hindi Bilingualism on

Neuropsychological Performance. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18, 305-313.

*Gollan, T.H., Sandoval, T., & Salmon, D.P. (2011). Cross-language intrusion errors in aging bilinguals reveal the link between executive control and language selection Psychological Science, 22, 1155-1164.

***Gollan, T.H., Slattery, T.J., Goldenberg, D., van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Rayner, K. (2011).

Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: The frequency-lag hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 186-209.

**Gollan, T.H., Salmon, D.P., Montoya, R.I., & Galasko, D.R. (2011). Degree of Bilingualism Predicts Age of Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease in Low-Education but not in Highly-Educated Hispanics, Neuropsychologia, 49, 3826-3830.

*****Prior, A. & Gollan, T.H. (2011). Good language-switchers are good task-switchers: Evidence from Spanish-English and Mandarin-English bilinguals. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 682-691.

*Silverberg, N.B., Ryan, L.M., Carrillo, M.C., Sperling, R., Petersen, R.C., Posner, H.B., Snyder, P.J., Hilsabeck, R., Gallagher, M., Raber, J., Rizzo, A., Possin, K., King, J., Kaye, J., Ott, B.R., Albert, M.S., Wagster, M.V., Schinka, J.A., Cullum, C.M., Farias, S.T., Balota, D., Rao, S., Loewenstein, D., Budson, A.E., Brandt, J., Manly, J.J., Barnes, L., Strutt, A., Gollan, T.H., Ganguli, M., Babcock, D., Litvan, I., Kramer, J.H. and Ferman, T.J. (2011), Assessment of cognition in early dementia. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7: e60-76.

Gollan, T.H., Salmon, D.P., Montoya, R.I., Da Pena, E. (2010). Accessibility of the nondominant language in picture naming: A counterintuitive effect of dementia on bilingual language production. Neuropsychologia, 48, 1356-1366.

Antón-Méndez, I. & Gollan, T.H. (2010). Not just semantics: Strong frequency and weak cognate effects on semantic association in bilinguals. Memory and Cognition, 38, 723-739.

**Sandoval, T.C., Gollan, T.H., Ferreira, V.S., & Salmon, D.P. (2010). What causes the bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency: The dual-task analogy. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 231-252.

*****Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Green, D.W., & Gollan, T.H. (2009). Bilingual minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 89-129.

****Gollan, T.H., & Ferreira, V.S., (2009). Should I stay or should I switch? A cost-benefit analysis of voluntary language switching in young and aging bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35, 640-665.

Pyers, J., Gollan, T.H., & Emmorey, K. (2009). Bimodal bilinguals reveal the source of tip-of-the tongue states. Cognition, 112, 323-329.

**Mindt, M.R., Arentoft, A., Kubo Germano, K., D'Aquila, E., Scheiner, D., Pizzirusso, M., Sandoval, T.C., & Gollan, T.H. (2008). Neuropsychological, cognitive, and theoretical considerations for evaluation of bilingual individuals. Neuropsychology Review, 18, 255-268.

*****Gollan, T.H., Montoya, R.I., Cera, C.M., & & Sandoval, T.C., (2008). More use almost always means smaller a frequency effect: Aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 787-814.

****Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H. B. & Thompson, R., & Gollan, T.H. (2008). Bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 43-61.

*Gollan, T.H., Fennema-Notestine, C., (2007). What is it about bilingualism that affects BNT performance? A reply to commentaries. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 215-218.

**Gollan, T.H., Fennema-Notestine, C., Montoya, R.I., & Jernigan, T.L. (2007). The Bilingual Effect on Boston Naming Test performance. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 197-208.

Gollan, T.H., Salmon, D.P., Paxton, J.L. (2006). Word association in early Alzheimer's Disease. Brain and Language, 99, 289-303.

**Gollan, T.H., & Brown, A.S. (2006). From tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) data to theoretical implications in two steps: When more TOTs means better retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 462-483.

**Finkbeiner, M., Gollan, T.H., & Caramazza, A. (2006). Lexical access in bilingual speakers: What’s the (hard) problem? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 153-166.

***Michael, E., & Gollan, T.H. (2005). Being and becoming bilingual: Individual Differences and consequences for language production. In J.F. Kroll & A.M.B. de Groot (Eds.), The handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 389-407). NY: Oxford University Press.

*Thompson, R., Emmorey, K., Gollan, T.H. (2005). “Tip of the fingers” experiences by deaf signers: Insights into the organization of sign-based lexicon. Psychological Science, 16, 856-860.

*****Gollan, T.H., Montoya, R.I., Fennema-Notestine, C., Morris, S.K., (2005). Bilingualism affects picture naming but not picture classification. Memory & Cognition, 33, 1220-1234.

*Gollan, T.H., Bonanni, M.P., & Montoya, R.I. (2005). Proper names get stuck on bilingual and monolingual speakers tip-of-the-tongue equally often. Neuropsychology, 19, 278-287

****Gollan, T.H. & Acenas, L.A. (2004). What is a TOT?: Cognate and translation effects on tip-of-thetongue states in Spanish-English and Tagalog-English bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30, 246-269.

Morris, S.K., Fennema-Notestine, Gollan, T.H., & Jernigan, T.L., (2003). Hispanic Bilinguals & English Monolinguals Show BOLD Activation Differences on an fMRI Picture Classification Paradigm. Neuroimage, 19, 1331.

*****Gollan, T.H., Montoya, R.I., Werner, G.A. (2002). Semantic and letter fluency in Spanish-English bilinguals. Neuropsychology, 16, 562-576.

*Gollan, T., & Kroll, J. F. (2001). Bilingual lexical access. In B. Rapp (Ed.), The handbook of cognitive neuropsychology: What deficits reveal about the human mind (pp. 321-345). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Gollan, T.H. & Frost, R. (2001). Two Routes to Grammatical Gender: Evidence from Hebrew. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30, 627-651.

**Gollan, T.H. & Silverberg, N.B. (2001) Tip-of-the-tongue states in Hebrew-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 63-83.

*****Gollan, T.H., Forster, K.I., & Frost, R. (1997). Translation priming with different scripts: Masked priming with cognates and non-cognates in Hebrew-English bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23, 1122-1139.

Gollan, T.H., Forster, K.I., & Frost, R. (1995). Asymmetrical access to bilingual lexical representations. Brain & Language, 51, 134-137.

Sokol, S.M., Macaruso, P., & Gollan, T.H. (1994). Developmental dyscalculia and cognitive neuropsychology. Developmental Neuropsychology, 10, 413-441.

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this web-page last updated in October, 2022