Full Bibliography

Law Reviews
1. Moskowitz, Joel S. “From Parental Rights And Responsibilities.” 50 Washington Law Review 623 (1975)
When the state chooses to override a parent’s wish, the burden is on the state to establish that in order to function effectively as a citizen one must be versed in the subject to which the parent objects.
2. Alvare, Helen M. “Beyond the Sex-Ed Wars: Addressing Disadvantaged Single Mothers’ Search For Community.” Akron Law Review. 2011, 44 Akron L. Rev. 167.
Sex education programs in public schools assume that students are sexually active before marriage, and respond by instructing about birth control methods and the programs are directed towards nonmarital sex and pregnancy.
3. Case, Mary Anne. “Feminist Fundamentalism as an Individual and Constitutional Commitment.” American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law American University Journal of Gender. Social Policy & the Law, 2011, 19 Am. U.J. Gender Soc. Pol'y & L. 549.
Sex education is justified for instruction in public school because public schools are supposed to educate students to function in a democratic society and knowledge of sex is thereby relevant.
4. Ferstenberg Jr., Frank F. “In This Issue: Young Disadvantaged Men: Fathers, Families, Poverty, and Policy.” The American Academy of Political and Social Science The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science. May 2011, 635 Annals 131.
A sharp decline in single parenthood in the 1990’s led to a decline in comprehensive sex education, which must be reversed because underserved communities need to know information regarding contraceptives and reproductive health services.
5. Ferrin, Scott Ellis. “Symposium Section: Rights, Religion, Regard, Contact: The Common School Ideal.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 205.
It is illegal in Utah to supply sex education to minors without parental consent.
6. Myers, Richard S. “Symposium Section: Same-Sex Marriage, Edication, and Parental Rights.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 303.
Parents have limited rights to have their kids opt-out of sex education, depending on state rules, but that does not mean that the kids should be opted out.
7. Randall, E. Vance. “Symposium Section: Same-Sex Marriage and Education: Implications for Schools, Students, and Parents.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 385.
Comprehensively reviews same-sex marriage and sex education with a specific focus on California’s Proposition 8 and how sex education related to that issue.
8. Fossey, Richard; Rogers, Kevin. “Symposium Section: Same-Sex Marriage and the Public School Curriculum: Can Parents Opt Their Children Out of Curricular Discussions about Sexual Orientation and Same-Sex Marriage?” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 423.
Some states allow for students to have their parents opt them out of sex education, but not all states have the same rules.
9. Russo, Charles J. “Symposium Section: Respect for Me But Not for Thee: Reflections on the Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on Education.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 471.
Certain schools allow parents to exempt their children from sex education on the grounds of religion.
10. Smit, Marius H. “Symposium Section: Underneath the Radar: The Impact of Same-Sex Sexuality and Secularism on Education in South Africa.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 513.
Many people feel that schools teach sex education because of a lack of such education at home.
11. Wardle, Lynn D. “Symposium Section: The Impacts on Education of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage And Lessons from Abortion Jurisprudence.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 593.
Sex education is not actual education but rather indoctrination of beliefs that are directly contrary to religious beliefs.
12. Smit, Marius H. “Symposium Section: Underneath the Radar: The Impact of Same-Sex Sexuality and Secularism on Education in South Africa.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal. 2011 BYU Educ. & L. J. 513.
Moral responsibility lies with the parents and not at all with the school, which means that it is not the duty of the school to teach sex education.
13. Mille, Jennifer M. “Understand Fetal Pain: How Changed Circumstances Demand a Legal Response.” Cumberland Law Review. 2009 / 2010, 40 Cumb. L. Rev. 463.
Sex education is misleading, unavailable or unnecessary in today’s day and age.
14. Stine, Emily J. “When Yes Means No, Legally: An Eighth Amendment Challenge to Classifying Consenting Teenagers As Sex Offenders.” DePaul University DePaul Law Review. 2011, 60 DePaul L. Rev. 1169.
Society may actually benefit from a mandatory sex program to teach teenagers the potentially dangerous ramifications of sexual interaction.
15. Koppelman, Andrew. “Constitutional Law Symposium: The Same-Sex Marriage Divide.” Drake University Drake Law Review. 2010, 58 Drake L. Rev. 905.
Abstinence-only education increases the likelihood that a girl will not know how to use contraceptives when she has her first sexual encounter.
16. Rosenbury, Laura A.; Rothman, Jennifer E. “Sex in and out of Intimacy.” Emory Law Journal 2010, 59 Emory L.J. 809.
Comprehensive sex education could give students a better chance to be able to embrace an active role in defining their own sexualities.
17. “Tenth Annual Review of Gender and Sexuality Law: Education Law Chapter: Sex Education In Schools.” Ed. Nader, John. The Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law. 2009, 10 Geo. J. Gender & L. 533.
Reviews many results of studies conducted about the differences between comprehensive sex education and abstinence-only education.
18. “Symposium and Notes Issue of Gender and Sexuality Law: Transcript: Sex Ed In Public Schools: Did Your Teachers Get It Right?” The Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law. 2009, 10 Geo. J. Gender & L. 931.
Overview of the three different kinds of sexual education in the United States, in addition to a mild review of a book concerning the topic.
19. Beckstrom, Darryn Cathryn. “Balancing Civic Vales and Parents’ Free Exercise Rights.” The Corporation of Gonzaga University, Gonzaga Law Review. 2009 / 2010. 45 Gonz. L. Rev. 149.
In some cases, it may be possible to prove that opt-out programs for comprehensive sex education are not enough, and parents could have legal grounds for objection.
20. Emerson, Jennifer Adams. “Chalk Talk: ‘Who’s in a Family?’: Parental Rights and Tolerance-Promoting Curriculum in Early Elementary Education.” Jefferson Law Book Company Journal of Law & Education. October 2011. 40 J.L. & Educ. 701.
Parents have an equal right as the school to determine what children are taught in terms of sex and sexuality.
21. Atzet, Ian. “Teaching Contraception in Utah’s Abstinence-Only Public Schools.” Journal of Law & Family Studies. 2010, 12 J. L. Fam. Stud. 273.
Discusses the current policies of the sex education curricula throughout the United States.
22. Anderson, Michelle J. “Sex Education and Rape.” University of Michigan Law School Michigan Journal of Gender & Law. 2010, 17 Mich. J. Gender & L. 83.
Even comprehensive sex education leaves students clueless when it comes to addressing/expressing sexual desires and preventing/addressing rape.
23. Hendricks, Jennifer S.; Howerton, Dawn Marie. “Teaching Values, Teaching Stereotypes: Sex Education and Indoctrination in Public Schools.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law. March 2011, 13 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 587.
The way sex education is commonly taught in schools breeds gender stereotypes and discrimination.
24. Cooley, Lauren. “Accommodating Diversity: Teaching About Religion in Public Schools.” Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion. Spring 2011, 12 Rutgers J. Law & Relig. 347.
Sex education is one of the many areas that religion and education conflict.
25. Kuehnel, Sarah Smith. “Abstinence-Only Education Fails African American Youth.” Washington University Law Review. 2009, 86 Wash. U. L. Rev. 1241.
The lack of comprehensive sex education leads to highly detrimental effects later on in life directly connected to the lack of this education.
26. Taylor, John E. “Family Values, Courts, And Culture War: The Case of Abstinence-Only Sex Education.” Publications Council of the College of William and Mary William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal. May 2010, 18 Wm. & Mary Bill of Rts. J. 1053.
Abstinence-sex education has been proven to be ineffective as a public health strategy in a number of different ways.
27. Philhower, Samuel J. “How Abstinence Education Has Established Itself at the Center of Public Policy.” The State University of New Jersey Women's Rights Law Reporter. Fall 2009, 31 Women's Rights L. Rep. 147.
Abstinence-only education has solidly rooted itself as a staple of formulating public policies.
28. Bauries, Scott R. “Is There an Elephant in the Room?: Judicial Review of Education Adequacy and the Separation of Powers in State Constitutions.” University of Alabama Alabama Law Review, 2010 61 Ala. L. Rev. 701.
The courts vary in their honoring of educational rights within the public education system.
29. Usman, Jeffery Omar. “Good Enough for Government Work: The Interpretation of Positive Constitutional Rights in State Constitutions.” Albany Law School Albany Law Review, 2010. 73 Alb. L. Rev. 1459.
Reviews the separation of church and state in regards to state’s rights according to the constitutional laws of each state.
30. Bartholet, Elizabeth. “Ratification by the United States of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Pros and Cons from a Child’s Rights Perspective.” The American Academy of Political and Social Science The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, January 2011. 633 Annals 80.
Children have certain powerful and affirmable rights given to them in the constitution.
31. Steilen, Matthew. “Parental Rights and the State Regulation of Religious Schools.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2009. BYU Educ. & L. J. 269.
The right to religion is given in the constitution and is therefore part of the given rights that can be given in public schools.
32. Olsen, Chad. “Constitutionality of Home Education: How the Supreme Court and American History Endorse Parental Choice.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2009. BYU Educ. & L. J. 399.
The Supreme Court of the United States historically endorses and enforces the rights of parents to have a say in their child’s education.
33. McNeal, Laura. “Access Granted: The Winkelman Case Ushers in a New Era in Parental Advocacy.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2010. 10 BYU Educ. & L. J. 129.
Parents have a right in court to defend their decisions regarding their child’s public school education.
34. Palomino, Rafael. “Religion and Neutrality: Myth, Principle, and Meaning.” Brigham Young University Law Review, 2011. B.Y.U.L. Rev. 657.
It is the right of the parent to decide what kind of religious instruction they give to their children.
35. McMillin, Michael J. “The Road to Implementing the UNCRC: Maintaining Parental Authority in the Religious Education of Children.” Oklahoma City University Law Review, 2010. 35 Okla. City U.L. Rev. 853.
Parents have a fundamental right to influence the religious upbringing of their children.
36. Fossey, Richard; Rogers, Kevin. “Same-Sex Marriage and the Public School Curriculum: Can Parents Opt Their Children Out of Curricular Discussions about Sexual Orientation and Same-Sex Marriage?” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2011. BYU Educ. & L. J. 423.
Parents have the right to opt their children out of sexual education if they feel it is inappropriate or don’t like the curriculum.
37. Russo, Charles J. “Respect for Me But Not for Thee: Reflections on the Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on Education.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2011. BYU Educ. & L. J. 471.
A student doesn’t have to learn about sex education from school if his parents don’t want him to.
38. Macias, Steven J. “The Huck Finn Syndrome in History and Theory: The Origins of Family Privacy.” Journal of Law & Family Studies, 2010. 12 J. L. Fam. Stud. 87.
The family has the right to object to curriculum in public school education because of their privacy rights.
39. Walsch, Nichole. “Fundamental, but Not Fundamental Enough: Missouri's Balancing Test in the Area of Parental Rights.” Curators of the University of Missouri Missouri Law Review, Spring 2010. 75 Mo. L. Rev. 641.
Reviews the standards in Missouri of balancing the parental rights, including the realm of sex education.
40. Post, David G. “Another Big Year for the First Amendment: Sex, Lies, and Videogames.” Cato Supreme Court Review, 2010 - 2011. 2010-11 Cato Sup. Ct. Rev. 27.
Minors have certain determined rights according to previous court decisions within the first amendment of the constitution.
41. Schad, Samantha. “Adolescent Decision Making: Reduced Culpability in the Criminal Jutice System and Recognition of Capability in Other Legal Contexts.” Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, 2011, 14 J. Health Care L. & Pol'y 375.
Although minors have some rights according to law, they do not have lots of rights in other contexts.
42. Jones, Elizabeth N. “School Daze: A Proposal for Education Code Reform in California.” Southwestern Law Review, 2011, 40 Sw. L. Rev. 425.
Education in California seriously needs help and should soon experience an overhaul.
43. Vorwald, Courtney. “As Iowa Goes, So Goes the Nation: Varum v. Brien and its Impact on Marriage Rights for Same-Sex Couples.” The Journal of Gender, Race & Justice, Winter 2010, 13 J. Gender Race & Just. 465.
Iowa sets a sort of standard on what minor’s rights are throughout the rest of the nation.
44. Summers Jr., Samuel T. “Keeping Vermont’s Public Libraries Safe: When Parents’ Rights May Preempt Their Childrens’ Rights.” Vermont Law Review, Spring 2010. 34 Vt. L. Rev. 655.
Parents, in some cases, have the right to override the rights of the children.
45. Van Dyk, Jon M. “The Privacy Rights of Public School Students.” University of Hawai'i Law Review, Summer 2010. 32 Hawaii L. Rev. 305.
Parents have certain rights over their children in some cases, and children have very little rights in public school.
46. Byrn, Mary Patricia; Ives, Jenni Vainik. “Which Came First the Parent or the Child?” The State University of New Jersey Rutgers Law Review, Winter 2010, 62 Rutgers L. Rev. 305.
Discusses whether the parents or the children are the ones entitled to have more rights.
47. Hamilton, Vivian E. “Immature Citizens and the State.” Brigham Young University Law Review, 2010. B.Y.U.L. Rev. 1055.
Reviews the rights of immature citizens in the eyes of different state laws.
48. Olsen, Theodore. Supreme Court. United States. Citizens V. Federal Election Commision. Washington, D.C.: , 2010. Print.
Could be used to argue that the decision for sex education can not be decided by a bought position.
49. Campfield, . United States. Tennessee Supreme Court. SENATE BILL 49 . 2010. Print.
A debate over sex ed being taught as solely heterosexual.
50. Fetter-Harrott, Allison. “Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage and Public Schools: Implications, Challenges, and Opportunities.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2011. BYU Educ. & L. J. 237.
Parents have the right to view and challenge their children’s education records and therefore have supreme influence on their children’s education in public schools.
51. Palomino, Rafael. “Religion and Neutrality: Myth, Principle, and Meaning.” Brigham Young University Law Review, 2011. B.Y.U.L. Rev. 657.
Religion is strongly influential on sex education and its rights in public schools.
52. Albala, Ilene. “Mandatory HPV Vaccinatio: Is there a happy medium?” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Social Change, 2008 - 09. 12 U. Pa. J.L. & Soc. Change 221.
People who believe in abstinence-only education are less likely to think that mandatory HPV vaccination is a good thing.
53. Usman, Jeffery Omar. “Good Enough for Government Work: The Interpretation of Positive Constitutional Rights in State Constitution.” Albany Law Review, 2010. 73 Alb. L. Rev. 1459.
Review of what the states can do according to the state consitutions.
54. Misken, Kenneth M. “When Abstinence Is the Best Policy.” American Bankruptcy Institute, 30-3 ABIJ 50, April, 2011, , McGuireWoods LLP; McLean, Va.
Outlines when abstinence is actually the best policy in the United States education system.
55. Vandewalker, Ian. “Of Permission Slips and Homophobia: Parental Consent Policies for School Club Participation Aimed at Gay-Positive Student Groups.” The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal, Fall 2009. 19 B.U. Pub. Int. L.J. 23.
Details the problems that happen when closed-minded sexual discrimination is present in schools, a potential consequence of the lack of comprehensive sex education.
56. Landel, Morgane. “Has the U.K. Violated Its International Obligations by Failing to Introduce Mandatory Sex Education in Schools?” Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 2010. 35 Brooklyn J. Int'l L. 369.
Reviews how sex education fits in in public schools in the United Kingdom and its constitutionality there.
57. Mitchell, Thomas A. “We're Only Fooling Ourselves: A Critical Analysis of the Biases Inherent in the Legal System's Treatment of Rape Victims: (Or Learning from our Mistakes: Abandoning a Fundamentally Prejudiced System & Moving Toward a Rational Jurisprudence of Rape).” Buffalo Journal of Gender, Law & Social Policy, 2010, 18 Buff. J. Gender L. & Soc. Pol'y 73.
Demonstrates how the United States is largely against accepting the dark side of sexuality as a whole, and probably influences how sex education is treated in many schools.
58. McClain, Linda C. “Twenty Years After Employment Division v. Smith: Assessing the Twentieth Century’s Landmark Case on the Free Exercise of Religion and How It Changed History: Religious and Political Virtues and Values in Congruence or Conflict?” Yeshiva University Cardozo Law Review, May 2011, 32 Cardozo L. Rev. 1959.
How the United States treats religion within the country an how that changes the way politics work here.
59. Goldberg, Jordan; Soohoo, Cynthia. “The Full Realization of Our Rights: The Right to Health in State Constitutions.” Case Western Reserve Law Review Case Western Reserve University, Summer 2010. 60 Case W. Res. 997.
Sex education in public schools is an issue of health education.
60. “Young Disadvantaged Men: Fathers, Families, Poverty, and Policy.” The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2011, 635 Annals 131.
How sex education or the potential lack thereof affects young men.
61. Cahn, Naomi; Carbone, June. “Lifting the Floor: Sex, Class, and Education.” The University of Baltimore Law Forum, Fall 2009, 39 U. Balt. L.F. 57.
How sex, class and education changes everything when it comes to the political structure of the United States, which directly influences the potential for sex education.
62. Mawdsley, Ralph D. “Employment, Sexual Orientation, and Religious Beliefs: Do Religious Educational Institutions Have a Protected Right to Discriminate in the Selection and Discharge of Employees?” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2011. BYU Educ. & L. J. 279.
Describes how religion influences the business and job sector of the United States.
63. Smit, Marius H. “Underneath the Radar: The Impact of Same-Sex Sexuality and Secularism on Education in South Africa.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2011. BYU Educ. & L. J. 513.
The impact of sexuality and education in South Africa.
64. Wardl, Lynn D. “The Impacts on Education of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage and lessons from Abortion Jurisprudence.” Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal, 2011. BYU Educ. & L. J. 593.
How changes in sexuality legislation changes the education in the United States.
65. Natbony, Jessica. “Eleventh Annual Review of Gender Sexuality Law: Educational Law Chapter: Sex Education in Schools.” The Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law, 2010. 11 Geo. J. Gender & L. 273
66. Graves, Nicholas K. “First Amendment: Papa Don’t Preach: Badger Catholic v. Walsh Muddies the Line Between Church and State.” Chicago-Kent College of Law, All Rights Reserved. The Seventh Circuit Review, Fall, 2010, 6 Seventh Circuit Rev. 230.
Highlights the problems with not separating the rights of church and state when it comes to education.
67. Strasser, Mark. “Religion in the Schools: On Prayer, Neutrality, and Sectarian Perspectives.” Akron Law Review, 2009. 42 Akron L. Rev. 185.
Discusses the power of religion in schools and how it influences education.
68. Lester, James Conrad. “Inculcation into Indoctrination Predicting Justice Sotomayor's Impact on Teachers' Speech in the Public School Classroom.” Alabama Law Review, 2011. 62 Ala. L. Rev. 663.
Teachers have a profound impact on what students learn and their perspectives in the public school classroom.
69. Powers, David M. “The Political Intersection of School Choice, Race, and Values.” Alabama Law Review, 2009. 60 Ala. L. Rev. 1051.
Values have a significant impact on public education schools.
70. Shreve, Gene. “Religion, Science and the Secular State: Creationism in American Public Schools.” The American Journal of Comparative Law, 2010. 58 Am. J. Comp. L. 51.
Creationism and evolution are another side of the scientific coin of the abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education debate.
71. Rehfeld, Andrew. “The Child as Democratic Citizen.” The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, January 2011, 633 Annals 141.
Children also count as citizens under the eyes of the law in certain cases.
72. Dillard, Carter. “Prospective Parents and the Children's Rights Convention.” American University International Law Review, 2010, 25 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 485.
Children have certain rights according to the government.
73. Kirsch, Emily White. “Extending Rust v. Sullivan to Ensure that Teachers do not Distort the Government Message.” Cleveland State Law Review, 2010. 58 Clev. St. L. Rev. 185.
Teachers have to watch what they say and instruct so that they do not distort any kind of government message, which is further applied to what teachers can say in class at all.
74. Liu, Goodwin. “The Bush Administration and Civil Rights: Lessons Learned.” Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy, 2009. 4 Duke J. Const. Law & Pub. Pol'y 77.
The Bush Administration changed sex education laws and pushed hard for abstinence-only education instead of comprehensive sex education.
75. Shotwell, Kristin D. “Secretly Falling in Love: America's Love Affair with Controlling the Hearts and Minds of Public School Teachers.” Jefferson Law Book Company Journal of Law & Education, January 2010. 39 J.L. & Educ. 37.
Teachers have a direct effect on what students learn and the way that they learn it, but the teachers are being controlled by outside forces and therefore don’t actually get to call the shots.
76. Depoian, Carolyn. “Homosexuality, the Public School Curriculum and the First Amendment: Issues of Religion and Speech.” Law & Sexuality Law & Sexuality: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Legal Issues, 2009. 18 Law & Sex. 163.
Religion and speech directly influence what can be heard in public school classrooms, specifically in the realm of sex education.
77. Stone, Geoffery R. “The Second Great Awakening: A Christian Nation?” Georgia State University Law Review, Summer 2010. 26 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 1305.
Christianity and its values are infiltrating the United States and influencing everything else.
78. “The Best of a Bad Lot: Compromise and Hybrid Religious Exemptions.” Harvard Law Review, April 2010. 123 Harv. L. Rev. 1494.
Religion infiltrates education and therefore has a great impact on what is taught in schools.
79. Tumbiolo, Stephanie R. “Intimately Linked: Examining Religious Protection for Student Expressions of Sexual Abstinence.” St. John's Law Review Ass'n. Journal of Catholic Legal Studies, 2009. 48 J. Cath. Leg. Stud. 117.
Students have certain rights to learn and/or express favor for practicing sexual abstinence.

Court Cases
1. Collins v. Faith School District (South Dakota Supreme Court, 1998) 1998 SD 17, 574 N.W.2d 889.
One incident of inappropriate classroom discussion about homosexuality does not mean that the teacher is incompetent.
2. Parker v. Hurley 2008 U.S. LEXIS 6692 (U.S., Oct. 6, 2008)
Parental rights aren’t infringed upon when students learn about differences in sexual orientation.
3. Grossman v. S. Shore Pub. Sch. Dist. 2006 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 50521 (W.D. Wis., July 19, 2006)
The school district has the legal right to decide what curriculum is supplied to students.
4. Age of Majority Educational Corp. v. Preller 512 F.2d 1241; 1975
The non-profit sex clubs reserves their rights, but are not allowed to air pornography publicly.
5. Clark v. Holmes No. 71-1709, United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, 474 F.2d 928; 1972 U.S. App.
Teacher does reserve the right to teach only what he students want to learn about.
6. Medeiros v. Kiyosaki No. 4918, Supreme Court of Hawaii, 52 Haw. 436; 478 P.2d 314; 1970
Parents can’t prevent sex education from being taught in school with ample forewarning and information on curriculum on the grounds of freedoms of privacy and religion.
7. Smith v. Ricci A-98, Supreme Court of New Jersey, 89 N.J. 514; 446 A.2d 501; 1982
Implementation of sex education programs does not interfere with the right to freedom of religion.
8. State ex rel. Wasilewski v. Board of School Directors, Supreme Court of Wisconsin 14 Wis. 2d 243; 111 N.W.2d 198; 1961
A teacher cannot be put on suspension without pay for conduct deemed inappropriate, which was sex education in school.
9. Brown v. Hot, Sexy and Safer Productions, Inc. (1995) 64 USLW 2268, 104 Ed. Law Rep. 106
Although parents have the right to choose alternative forms of schooling, but do not reserve the right to dictate the type of education in public school.
10. Pierce v. Society of Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary 268 U.S. 510 (1925)
The court ruled that the state may not unreasonably interfere with the liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control. A child is not the mere creature of the state.
11. Fields v. Palmdale School Dist. 427 F. 3d 1197 - 2005
Traditional, fundamental parental rights do not exist beyond their front door and the school can teach what they wish.
12. Meyer v. Nebraska 262 U.S. 390 (1923)
The individual citizen has the fundamental right to direct the upbringing of his own children.
13. Morrow v. Wood 35 Wis. 59, 17 Am. Rep. 47 471 (1874)
The schools cannot compel the child to pursue study that is forbidden by the parents.
14. State Ex Rel Sheibley v. School District #1 of Dixon County Et AL. 31 Neb. 552, 48 NW 393 (1891) The right of the parent... to determine what studies his child shall pursue is paramount to that of trustees or teachers.
15. Hardwick v. Bd. of Trustees 205 p. 49 Cal. (1921)
The court commented that religious reasons were not the only basis for legitimate parental objection. It can also be a question of morals which may concern the conscience of those who are not affiliated with any particular religious sect.
16. Prince v. Massachusetts 321 U.S. 158 (1944)
Parental rights of bringing up children cannot be interfered with, and there must be freedom from all substantial arbitrary impositions and purposeless restraints.
17. Griswold v. Connecticut 381 U.S. 479, 486 (1965)
The state cannot interfere with the rights of a parent to control his child’s education, and we hold a fundamental right to knowledge.
18. Finot v. Pasadena City Board of Education 58 Cal., Rptr. 520; 250 Cal. 2d 226 (1967)
The state cannot interfere with a parent’s right to make affirmative decisions concerning his child’s disposition, particularly where spiritual, cultural or psychological factors are involved.
19. People Ex Rel. Vollmar v. Stanley 255 p. 610 Colo. (1927)
Children cannot be compelled to take instruction not essential to good citizenship. The school board’s control over instruction does not mean that every child should be required to take every subject which the board puts on the list.
20. Wisconsin v. Yoder 406 U.S. (1972)
The state cannot assert the role of parents over the parents’ interest. The state’s interest in universal education is not totally free from a balancing process when it impinges on other fundamental rights and interests.
21. Michigan v. Nobel Nos. S-791-0114-A, S-791-0115-A (57th O. Ct., City of Allegan, Michigan, Filed 12/12/79.)
State statutes must give way to the documented and sincere religious beliefs of the parents to educate their children.
22. Ohio v. Whisner 47 Ohio st. 2d, 181 (1979)
State Department of Education minimum standards cannot deprive parents of their traditional interest to direct the upbringing and education of their children by violating their First and Fourteenth Amendments rights to the U.S. Constitution.
23. Valent v. New Jersey State Bd. of Education 274 A. 2d 832 N.J. (1971)
Parents can choose if their kids should be allowed to receive sex education instruction.
24. Hardwick v. Bd. of Trustees of Fruitridge School District 54 Cal. App. 696 205 p 49 (1921)
Parents do not have the right to absolutely control their children.
25. Shepherd v. State 306 p. 2d 346 (1957)
The parent has the ultimate constitutional right to govern or control his own children.
26. Citizens for Parental Rights v. San Mateo County Board of Education 425 U.S. 908 (1976)
Family life and sex education programs are constitutional and parents cannot demand their removal from public school curriculum.
27. Spence v. Bailey 465 F2d 797 (1972)
It was constitutionally unacceptable, the court ruled, to force a student to engage in training that opposes his religious beliefs, including in education.
28. Mozert v. Hawkins County Board of Education 827 F.2d 1058 (1987)
Children can still read information that is contrary to their religious beliefs is the material does not persuade them to change their religious beliefs.
29. Troxel v. Granville (99-138) 530 U.S. 57 (2000) 137 Wash. 2d 1, 969 P.2d 21
Parents reserve the right to direct their children’s upbringing.
30. Gruenke v. Seip 225 F. 3d 290 - 2000
Parents have primary rights in their children’s upbringing.
31. C.N. v. Ridgewood Board of Education 146 F. Supp. 2d 528 (D.N.J. 2001)
Parents are in a unique sphere of rights in which schools cannot interfere.
32. Parker v. Hurley 474 F. Supp. 2d 261 (D. Mass. 2007)
Parents can’t pick and choose which school books their children can use throughout the course of their education in public school.
33. Leebaert v. Harrington 332 F.3d 134 (2d Cir. 2003)
The school cannot base its curriculum on the desires of each parent and still meet the basic requirements for learning.
34. Blau v. Fort Thomas Public School District 401 F.3d 381 (6th Cir. 2005)
Parents have the right to decide whether to send their children to public school, but do not have the right to direct how a public school teaches the child.
35. Arnold v. Board of Education 880 F.2d 305. 55 Ed.
School administrators do not have the right to coerce students into behavior like abortions without parental consent.
36. Leebaert v. Harrington 332 F. 3d 134 (2003)
School districts are within their rights to require students to attend health classes taught by legally qualified professionals.
37. Board of Educ., Island Trees Union Free Sch. Dist. No. 26 v. Pico 457 U.S. 853,
856-58 (1982)
The first amendment limits the power of local school boards to limit what is available in school libraries.
38. Bowen v. Kendrick, 487 U.S. 589, 623 (1988)
The government has a strong interest in encouraging sexual restraint among young people.
39. Caudillo v. Lubbock Indep. Sch. Dist., 311 F. Supp. 2d 550, 571 (N.D.
Tex. 2004)
Both the state and the school both have a compelling interest in protecting students from sexually transmitted diseases.
40. Miller v. California 413 U.S. 15 (1973)
Established obcenity standards that may potentially apply in the case of sex education material in school.

Peer-Reviewed Articles
1. Dallard, Cynthia. “Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens.” The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. February 2001. Volume 4, Number 1. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/04/1/gr040109.html
Lawmakers tend to focus on more conservative sex education legislation while parents and teens tend to desire the exact opposite.
2. Glanzer, Perry L. “Disestablishing sex.” Phi Delta Kappan; Sep2011, Vol. 93 Issue 1, p59-61.
The potential of incorporating religion into sex education in the United States in public school.
3. Fossey, Richard; Rogers, Kevin. “Same-sex Marriage and the Public School Curriculum: Can Parents Opt Their Children out of Curricular Discussions About Sexual Orientation and Same-sex Marriage?” Brigham Young University Education & Law Journal; 2011, Issue 2, p423-470, 48p.
The potential need to incorporate new statutes into law in order to allow parents to protect their children from sexual orientation instruction in states where same-sex marriage is legal.
4. Bandiera, Frank; Dodge, Brian; Jeffries, William; Reece, Michael. “Beyond abstinence-only: relationships between abstinence education and comprehensive topic instruction.” Sex Education; May2010, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p171-185.
Discussion about whether abstinence-only or comprehensive sex education is the right way to go for public schools in the United States.
5. Natbony, Jessica. “Sex education in schools.” Georgetown Journal of Gender & the Law; 2010 Annual Review, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p273-295.
The legal aspect of sex education in the United States, including state policies and abstinence-only education.
6. Brown, Emily J. “When insiders become outsiders: Parental objections to public school sex education programs.” Duke Law Journal; Oct2009, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p109-144.
The argument that parents reserve the right to decide what kind of sex education their child receives, especially when it comes to morally questionable material.
7. Jenkins, Peter L. “Morality and Public School Speech: Balancing the Rights of Students, Parents, and Communities.” Brigham Young University Law Review; 2008, Vol. 2008 Issue 2, p593-621.
The need to balance out the rights of students, parents and communities when it comes to selecting the type of sex education in a given school.
8. Michener, James A. “Sex education.” Clearing House; May/Jun2006, Vol. 79 Issue 5, p210-214.
The study revolves around the value and methods of teaching sex education in public high school.
9. Williams, Rhys H. “Talk About Sex: The Battles over Sex Education in the United States.” Sexualities; Feb2004, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p119-121.
An examination of a book that studies how sex education in the United States influence culture.
10. Rajani, Nicole; Starkman, Naomi. “The Case for Comprehensive Sex Education.” AIDS Patient Care & STDs; Jul2002, Vol. 16 Issue 7, p313-318.
The need for increased comprehensive sex education in the United States as a means to prevent the spread of STDs.
11. Vergari, Sandra. “Morality Politics and Educational Policy: The Abstinence-Only Sex Education Grant.” Educational Policy; May2000, Vol. 14 Issue 2, p290.
The impact that moral politics has on educational policy in the United States, specifically its ability to block out comprehensive sex education.
12. Kaeser, Lisa; Landry, David J.; Richards, Cory L. “Abstinence Promotion and the Provision Of Information About Contraception in Public School District Sexuality Education Policies.” Family Planning Perspectives; Nov/Dec99, Vol. 31 Issue 6, p280.
Public school’s curriculum concerning abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education and how few schools choose the latter option.
13. Ramos, Pilar S. “The condom controversy in the public schools: Respecting a minor's right of privacy.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review; Nov96, Vol. 145 Issue 1, p149.
Whether it’s more important to protect a minor’s right to privacy or promote comprehensive sex education.
14. Scales, Peter. “Overcoming Future Barriers to Sexuality Education.” Theory Into Practice; Summer89, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p172.
A discussion of the narrow views on sex education within public school education.
15. Kirby, Douglas; Scales, Peter. “An Analysis of State Guidelines for Sex Education Instruction in Public Schools.” Family Relations; Apr81, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p229.
Analyzation of state guidelines of sexual education, cross-referenced and examined for the entire country.
16. Mahoney, E. R. “Sex Education in the Public Schools: A Discriminant Analysis of Characteristics of Pro and Anti Individuals.” Journal of Sex Research; Nov79, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p264.
An analysis of the types of people who are in favor of sexual education in the United States being comprehensive versus those who are not.
17. Chappell, Allison T.; Gibson, Sarah; Maggard, Scott R. “A Theoretical Investigation of Public Attitudes Toward Sex Education.” Sociological Spectrum; Mar/Apr2010, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p196-219.
An examination on public attitudes toward sex education, including the impact of many societal factors like militarism and religion.
18. Heidrich, Susan; Keller, Mary; Royer, Heather. “Young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships and sexual activity.” Sex Education; Nov2009, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p395-408.
An investigation of the descriptions of middle schoolers’ perceptions of romantic relationships and how that ties into sexual activity starting at the middle school level.
19. Jensen, Robert E. “Using Science to Argue for Sexual Education in U.S. Public Schools Dr. Ella Flagg Young and the 1913 ‘Chicago Experiment’.” Science Communication; Dec2007, Vol. 29 Issue 2, p217-241.
A review of the revolutionary experiment that pushed for sexual education in public schools on a scientific basis.
20. Leong, Nancy. “Examining the Conservative Family Planning Agenda.” Georgetown Journal of Gender & the Law; 2006 General Issue, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p81-113.
The harmful effects of the conservative family planning agenda, which limits and restricts sexual education in the United States.
21. Walters, Kaylee. "Evaluating the Impact of HIV/AIDS Education on Safe Sex Practices in High School Students ." 2008. Print.
Consequences and health risks of not teaching sex education in schools.

Newspaper Articles
1. Phillips, Anna M. “New York Archdiocese Criticizes Sex-Ed Mandate.” New York Times. 10 August 2011.
New York Catholic church disagreed with recent legislation that sex education be taught in all middle and high schools in the state.
2. “Sex Education in America.” NPR. 24 February 2004.
Most parents in the United States agree with the type of sex education that is taught in schools and do not feel that there needs to be any changes in the curriculum.
3. Stames, Todd. “Sex Education in NYC Schools Becomes Mandatory.” Fox News. 10 August 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/08/10/sex-education-in-nyc-schools-becomes-mandatory/
New requirements in New York allow students to learn how to properly use a condom in school as part of mandatory education.
4. Martin, Roland. “Sex Education Should Be Mandatory in All Schools.” CNN. 29 October 2011. http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/29/opinion/martin-sex-education/index.html
This article discusses the question of why it is okay to teach kids about everything from science to English and all other subjects in between, but sex education is strictly debated.
5. de Vise, Daniel. “Sex-Ed Dispute Aired in Court.” The Washington Post. 17 January 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/01/16/AR2008011601835.html
The legality of teaching a group of students that homosexuality is an innate trait.
6. Turque, Bill. “D.C. schools prepare for nation’s first sex-education standardized testing.” The Washington Post. 14 September 2011.
The district is treating sexual health just like any other realm of health and hoping to education students about it as well, starting with testing what they already know.
7. “Orange County and Planned Parenthood.” Los Angeles Times. 19 March 2009. http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-ed-parenthood14-2009mar14,0,3396500.story
An opinion piece on how Planned Parenthood is necessary for sex education in LA county, could show that they have to step in and fill the role when the state isn’t teaching sex ed.
8. “Sex Education.” Science Daily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/s/sex_education.htm
Sex education is the topic of much debate in the country.
9. “Abstinence-only sex education misleads the masses.” Golden Gate Xpress. 24 August 2011. http://www.goldengatexpress.org/2011/08/24/column-sex-education/
The most common type of sex education is the worst kind, according to this opinion piece.
10. “Chicago bill would stress abstinence-only education.” Chicago Tribune. 2 November 2011.
The Wisconsin state legislature was musing over a bill to promote abstinence over contraception.
11. Nolte, Anne. “Why Today’s Sex Education Won’t Work.” New York Post. 16 August 2011.
Making sex education mandatory in schools is not going to fix the current problems because sex education has little impact on the behavior of teenagers.
12. Estrella, Sarah. “CDC reports increase in teen condom use, contraception.” Examiner. 14 October 2011. http://www.examiner.com/sex-education-in-national/cdc-reports-increase-teen-condom-use-contraception
Evidence shows that teens are less likely to be sexually experiences, which correlates to increased comprehensive sex education.
13. Estrella, Sarah. “Sex Ed: Sen. Lautenberg, Rep. Lee introduce Real Education for Healthy Youth Act.” Examiner. 3 November 2011. http://www.examiner.com/sex-education-in-national/sex-ed-sen-lautenberg-rep-lee-introduce-real-education-for-healthy-youth-act                                                                                                 The introduction of the legislation is particularly impressive because it would be the first time that the right to sexual education was formally recognized in the United States.
14. Estrella, Sarah. “Overwheming majority of states choose PREP over Title V abstinence-only education funds.” Examiner. 23 October 2011.
The PREP funds come in support of comprehensive sex education, and even fewer states applied for the abstinence-only funds.
15. Estrella, Sarah. “ New study: Is the internet filling the sexual health informational gap for teens?” Examiner. 6 January 2011.
The decrease in comprehensive sex education has consequently led to an increase in use of the internet to answer sexual questions for teens.
16. Estrella, Sarah. “Orgeon State University cancels Tristan Taormino’s ‘Modern Sex’ keynote lecture.” Examiner. 19 January 2011.
Taxpayers were supposed to fund the event, but state senators began boycott it when they found out about Taormino’s appearance.
17. La Rousse, Jordan; Sade, Samantha. “Professor apologizes for on-campus live sex act.” Examiner. 6 March 2011. http://www.examiner.com/sex-scandal-in-national/professor-apologizes-for-on-campus-live-sex-act
A man and his fiance performed a live sex act during an after school demonstration at Northwestern University which prompted questions about what students can and cannot see on school property.
18. Estrella, Sarah. “Sen. Lautenberg, Rep. Lee introduce act to repeal Title V abstinence-only funds.” Examiner. 16 March 2011.
The legislators want to redirect funds from the Title V abstinence-only education to the comprehensive sex education funding PREP.
19. La Rousse, Jordan; Sade, Samantha. “Massachusetts sex education website under fire.” Examiner. 27 April 2011. http://www.examiner.com/sex-scandal-in-national/massachusetts-sex-education-website-under-fire
The state-funded website is designed for teenagers to get any and all sex education questions answered and has come under fire because some people don’t think it’s an appropriate use of funds.
20. Estrella, Sarah. “CDC: Sexual minority youth at increased risk in nearly every behavior measured.” Examiner. 15 June 2011. http://www.examiner.com/sex-education-in-national/cdc-sexual-minority-youth-at-increased-risk-by-every-behavior-measured
The article includes a full description of the study and some statistics, which could easily be used as additional information to create the case for comprehensive sex education.
21. Estrella, Sarah. “Congress introduces act to repeal abstinence-only sex education.” Examiner. 8 October 2010.
Congress has decided that the abstinence-only sex education promoted during the Bush era has done nothing but harm youth in the United States and they want to repeal it.
22. Go, Alison. “Wisconsin Cancels ‘Sex Toys 101’ Event.” U.S. News & World Report. 30 April 2008. http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/paper-trail/2008/04/30/wisconsin-cancels-sex-toys-101-event
The school shut down the event supposedly because of a school policy, but more likely because of the fliers used to promote the event.
23. “Obama budget eliminates funding for abstinence-only sex education.” U.S. News & World Report. 7 May 2009. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/blogs/on-women/2009/05/07/obama-budget-eliminates-funding-for-abstinence-only-sex-education
He’s cut the funding, which is a direct push in the United States towards comprehensive sex education throughout the country, especially when the nation is running dangerously low on funding overall.
24. Schlesinger, Robert. “Study shows abstinence sex education works, but not well enough.” U.S. News & World Report. 2 February 2010. http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/robert-schlesinger/2010/02/02/study-shows-abstinence-sex-education-works-but-not-well-enough
A new study released shows evidence that abstinence-only education does work sometimes.
25. “Children, Sex, and the Media: 3 Ways for Parents to Gain Control.” U.S. News & World Report. 1 September 2010. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/blogs/on-parenting/2010/09/01/children-sex-and-the-media-3-ways-for-parents-to-gain-control
Ultimately, kids and teenagers tend to get more sex education from TV than from school.
26. “8 Traits of Teens Who Abstain From Sex.” U.S. News & World Report. 7 January 2009. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/blogs/heart-to-heart/2009/01/07/8-traits-of-teens-who-abstain-from-sex
Encouraging teenagers to live abstinent lives is crucial in this age of over-sexed media.
27. Go, Alison. “UMass’s Controversial Safer-Sex Brochure.” U.S. News & World Report. 27 February 2008. http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/paper-trail/2008/02/27/umasss-controversial-safer-sex-brochure
Explicit brochures had people outraged and incited a feud in the school over what should be done over the the material.
28. Kotz, Deborah. “A Debate About Teaching Abstinence.” U.S. News & World Report. 19 December 2007. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/articles/2007/12/19/a-debate-about-teaching-abstinence
Perhaps people should learn both sides of the debate over abstinence-only education.
29. Landau, Elizabeth. “Gaps found in young people’s sex knowledge.” CNN. 15 December 2009.
Even though teenagers know that they need to use contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, many do not regularly do so when having sex.
30. Hayes, Ashley. “Study: Abstinence program most effective at delaying sex among adults.” CNN. 2 February 2010.
Abstinence-only education really does help some teens from having sex.
31. Landau, Elizabeth. “$250 million for abstinence education not evidence-based, groups say.” CNN. 31 March 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/03/31/abstinence.education/index.html
Kids and teenagers, even those who have already started having sex, do in fact respond to abstinence-only sex education.
32. “More youngsters having unsafe sex: global study.” Chicago Tribune. 25 September 2011. http://www.chicagotribune.com/health/sns-rt-us-sex-youthtre78o3be-20110925,0,5515365.story
There’s speculation that some teenagers are receiving the wrong type of sex education in schools.
33. Moon, Melissa. “Abstinence is the emphasis of sex education bill in MS.” Chicago Tribune. 4 March 2011.
Mississippi attempted to pass a bill in order to mandate sex education in the United States, which isn’t mandatory at all in the state.
34. Prupis, Nadia. “Study finds sex education failing in California.” New American Media. 28 April 2010.
Public school is not required to teach comprehensive sex education in California, and it’s failing in several aspects on all fronts.
35. Weiss, Mike. “Abstinence-only sex ed finds few scientific fans / Birth control taught in shrinking number of schools, study says.” SFGate. 11 February 2007.
Comprehensive sex education is on the decline in California and nobody likes that, according to a study.
36. Healy, Vikki Ortiz. “Sex ed hits the road.” Chicago Tribune. 20 April 2011. http://www.chicagotribune.com/health/ct-met-sex-ed-20110420,0,1098839.story
With less and less money being pumped into school budgets, sex education is taking the hit.
37. Stobbe, Mike. “CDC: Sex education is common for kids, but birth control methods aren’t always taught.” Chicago Tribune. 15 September 2010. http://www.chicagotribune.com/health/sns-ap-us-med-sex-education,0,7700188.story
Only about two-thirds of teenagers actually know birth control methods, even though all teenagers in the United States go through sex education in some form at some time throughout their education.
38. “Wisconsin Senate Bill Requires Sex Education Focus on Abstinence, Marriage.” The Huffington Post. 3 November 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/03/wisconsin-senate-bill-requires-abstinence-sex-ed_n_1074499.html
The bill requires abstinence-only education to be taught in Wisconsin schools, and has recently gained footing in the state’s legislature.
39. Tom, Pamela. “New sex-ed guidelines for California schools.” ABC7. 14 March 2008. http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/education&id=6019931
California has changed its ideas for sex education in the state and is pushing to have sex ed taught as early as fifth grade.
40. Smith, Jordan. “Just Say No!” The Austin Chronicle. 28 October 2011. http://www.austinchronicle.com/news/2011-10-28/just-say-no/
Rick Perry has said in the past that abstinence-only education works, and the teen pregnancy rate in Texas is proof that it doesn’t.

41. Spicuzza, Mary. "Senate approves sex ed bill promoting abstinence." Wisconsin State Journal

03 Nov 2011, Early n. pag. Print.

An example of where and why sex education is restricted to abstinence only
42. "Comprehensive Sex Education Bill Introduced in House and Senate." Human Rights Campaign. 02 Nov 2011: n. page. Print.
Shows the arguments for all inclusive sex education(i.e. homosexual sex education)
43. Broverman, Neal. "Calif. Legislature Passes Gay Education Bill." Advocate. 05 Jul 2011: n. page. Print.

An example of where and why sex education is passed.

44. Kok, Gerjo. "Planned Development and Evaluation of AIDS/STD Education for Secondary School Students in the Netherlands: Short-Term Effects." Health
World View on sex education, exploring the risk and reward system.
45. Kroger, Fred. "STD Education: Challenge for the 80s." Journal of School Health. 51.4 (1981): n. page. Print.
Reviews the STD education problems that emerged during the AIDS crisis of the 1980’s.

1. “Single-Sex Education: The Pros and Cons.” http://www.greatschools.org/find-a-school/defining-your-ideal/1139-single-sex-education-the-pros-and-cons.gs
Addresses potential parental concerns that teaching children about sex in classrooms with both genders may be inappropriate.
2. “Stories of Sex Education.” http://www.avert.org/learning-sex.htm
Showcases personal stories about the downfalls or merits of sex education in school.
3. “Sex Education in America: A View From Inside the Nation’s Classrooms.” Kaiser Family Foundation. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/3048-index.cfm
Results from studies with raw survey results regarding the present and future status of sex education in America.
4. “Implementing Sex Education.” Planned Parenthood. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/resources/implementing-sex-education-23516.htm
Explains the upsides to having comprehensive sex education in schools, including why abstinence-only education doesn’t work.
5. “State Policies on Education in Schools.” National Conference of State Legislatures. http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=17077
Contains all state requirements for sex education in the United States.

4. Abstinence in Motion (AIM) Project. [2004]. Giving our most vulnerable first

line of defense: The results of the AIM Community-Based Abstinence Education

Project for Rural Alabama. [Troy, AL]: Abstinence in Motion (AIM) Project, 6


5. Advocates for Youth. [2007]. Illinois abstinence-only programs—Disseminating

inaccurate and biased information. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 11

pp. (Policy brief)

6. Alford S, Keefe M. 2007. Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs: Ineffective,

unethical, and poor public health. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 6 pp.

7. Burt MR, Capizzano J, Zweig JM, Herwantoro S, Fiorillo A. 2005. Youth

development approaches in adolescent family life demonstration projects: Final

report. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 118 pp.

8. Clark MA, Trenholm C, Devaney B, Wheeler J, Quay L. 2007. Impacts of the

Heritage Keepers Life Skills education component: Final report. Princeton, NJ:

Mathematica Policy Research, 110 pp.

9. Collins C, Alagiri P, Summers T, Morin SF. 2002. Abstinence only vs.

comprehensive sex education: What are the arguments? What is the evidence?.

San Francisco, CA: University of California at San Francisco, AIDS Research

Institute, 29 pp. (Policy monograph series)

10. Crosse M, Peterson K, DeMots K, Dooley P, Friday K, Klazkin J, Shefrin A.

2006. Abstinence education: Efforts to assess the accuracy and effectiveness of

federally funded programs. Washingtonm, DC: U.S. Government Accountability

Office, 57 pp.

11. Elizabeth's New Life Center. 2003. Save it, send it: Save sex, send the

message. Dayton, OH: Elizabeth's New Life Center, 22 items.

12. Guttmacher Institute. 2010. Sex and STI/HIV education. New York, NY:

Guttmacher Institute, 3 pp. (State policies in brief)

13. Hauser D. 2004. Five years of abstinence-only-until-marriage education:

Assessing the impact. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 19 pp. (Title V

state evaluations)

14. Hendricks K, Thickstun P, Khurshid A, Malhotra S, Thiele H. 2006. Thattack

on abstinence education: Fact or fallacy? (Upd. ed.). Austin, TX: Medical

Institute for Sexual Health, 24 pp.

15. Howard M, Mitchell ME. 1997, 2003. Managing pressures before marriage: An educational series for preteens. Atlanta, GA: Grady Health System, Adolescent Reproductive Health Center, 1 teaching guide (128 pp.), 1 videotape (VHS ½ inch).

16. Howard M, Mitchell ME. 1997, 2003. Managing pressures before marriage:

Leader's manual. Atlanta, GA: Grady Health System, Adolescent Reproductive

Health Center, 1 teaching guide (172 pp.), 1 videotape, 33:34 minutes, (VHS ½


17. Iowa Department of Public Health. 2003-2004. In the kNOw: Iowa's abstinence education newsletter. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Department of Public Health, irregular.

18. Journeyworks Publishing. 2007. Helping you promote health. Santa Cruz, CA: Journeyworks Publishing, 71 pp.

19. Kay JF, Jackson A. 2008. Sex, lies and stereotypes: How abstinence-only

programs harm women and girls. New York, NY: Legal Momentum, 62 pp.

20. Kempner ME. 2006. Toward a sexually healthy America: Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs that try to keep our youth "scared

chaste". New York, NY: Sexuality Information and Education Council of the

United States, 70 pp.

21. Kepplinger GL. 2006. Abstinence education: Applicability of Section 317P of the Public Health Service Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 8 pp.

22. Kim CC, Rector R. 2010. Evidence on the effectiveness of abstinence education: An update. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 23 pp. (Backgrounder no. 2372)

23. Kirby D. 2002. Do abstinence-only programs delay the initiation of sex among young people and reduce teen pregnancy?. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 7 pp.

24. Manlove J, Franzetta K, McKinney K, Papillo AR, Terry-Humen E. 2004. No  time to waste: Programs to reduce teen pregnancy among middle school-aged youth. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 60 pp. (Putting what works to work)

25. Massachusetts Family Institute and Healthy Futures. 2003. Doin' it right: A

parent's guide to Healthy Futures. Upper Newton Falls, MA: Massachusetts

Family Institute; Dorchester, MA: Healthy Futures, 20 pp.

26. Massachusetts Family Institute and Healthy Futures. 2004. Healthy Futures:

Promoting sexual health through abstinence—Educator briefing. Upper Newton

Falls, MA: Massachusetts Family Institute; Dorchester, MA: Healthy Futures, 4


27. Maynard RA, Trenholm C, Devaney B, Johnson A, Clark MA

Homrighausen J, Kalay E. 2005. First-year impacts of four Title V, Section 510

Abstinence Education Programs. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research,

144 pp.

28. New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Commissioner's

Task Force on Abstinence Education. 2004. Final report. Concord, NH:

Commissioner's Task Force on Abstinence Education, New Hampshire

Department of Health and Human Services, 30 pp.

29. Olsho L, Cohen J, Walker DK, Johnson A, Locke G. 2009. National survey

of adolescents and their parents: Attitudes and opinions about sex and

abstinence—Final report. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates, 195 pp.

30. Rudd MA. 2003. Preventing teen pregnancy: Does abstinence-only education work?. Washington, DC: Voices for America's Children, 5 pp. (Issue brief)

31. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. 2006. A

portrait of sexuality education and abstinence-only-until-marriages programs in

the states. New York, NY: Sexuality Information and Education Council of the

United States

32. Stuart CC. 2005. Abstinence comes to Albuquerque. [No place:] Stuart

elevision Productions, 1 DVD, 1 booklet (21 pp.).

33. Stuart CC. 2007. Abstinence comes to Albuquerque [Rev. ed.]. Concord, MA: Stuart Television Productions, 1 DVD (29:24 minutes), 1 booklet (23 pp.).

34. Trenholm C, Devaney B, Fortson K, Quay L, Wheeler J, Clark M. 2007. Impacts of four Title V, Section 510 abstinence education programs: Final report.

Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 64 pp., plus appendices.

35. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [2005]. Parents, speak up!: A guide for discussing abstinence, sex, and relationships. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 13 pp.

36. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [2005]. Teen chat: A guide for  discussing healthy relationships. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 13 pp.

37. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2008. Abstinence education:

Assessing the accuracy and effectiveness of federally funded programs.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 22 pp.

38. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform—Minority Staff Special Investigations Division. 2004. The content of federally funded abstinence-only education programs. Washington, DC: Committee on Government Reform Minority Office, U.S. House of Representatives, 22 pp.

39. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Oversight and Government

Reform. 2009. Domestic abstinence-only programs: Assessing the evidence.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 673 pp. (Serials No.


40. Wiley D, Wilson K, Valentine R. 2009. Sexuality education in Texas public

schools: Just say don't know. [Austin, TX]: Texas Freedom Network, 66 pp.