Bastille Day

File:Prise de la Bastille.jpg


Here are the references for each question in the Bastille Day quiz.

July 14:

as date of Bastille Day:  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/55627/Bastille-Day

as Iraq’s Republic Day:  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html (section on Government, subsection for National Holiday)

1789:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/55627/Bastille-Day

Jacques Necker:
 
"His dismissal, on July 11, 1789, an overt sign of court reaction, did much to provoke the disturbances in Paris that culminated in the storming of the Bastille." http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/407713/Jacques-Necker
 
Camille Desmoulins stirred up crowds into a frenzy upon the news of Necker's dismissal, and the mob carried a bust of Necker. http://books.google.com/books?id=i6MNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA128 (A History of the French Revolution, vol. 1, by Henry Morse Stephens, pp. 128, 132)
 

Gunpowder:

as motive for storming of Bastille:  http://books.google.com/books?id=jN9WU-2X8t4C&pg=PA106  (The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom, by Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt, pp. 106-107)

quantity of gunpowder:   http://books.google.com/books?id=XNjaFDaEMaMC&pg=PA26 (The Terror: The Shadow of the Guillotine: Fance, 1792-1794, by Graeme Fife, p. 26) The Bastille’s governor is reported to have sent a note claiming to have 20,000 pounds of gunpowder, though other sources claim a figure as high as 30,000 pounds.

Seven prisoners:
 
[Claude] Auguste Tavernier is usually described as being one of two lunatics freed from the Bastille, but despite any mental illness, he had been accused of being an accomplice of Robert-François Damiens, who tried to assassinate Louis XV, so Tavernier can arguably be considered an anti-royalist political prisoner.  Four of the prisoners were forgers or counterfeiters.  The other two were Jacques-François-Xavier de Whyte de Malleville (born James Francis Xavier Whyte), an Irish nobleman sometimes classified as a lunatic and sometimes classified as a sexual deviant, and Comte Gabriel-Charles-Joseph-Paulin-Hubert de Solages, consistently described as a sexual deviant incarcerated at his family's request.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jN9WU-2X8t4C&pg=PA44

http://books.google.com/books?id=jN9WU-2X8t4C&pg=PA106 (The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom, by Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt, pp. 44, 106-107)  

Beheading of de Launay:

http://books.google.com/books?id=jN9WU-2X8t4C&pg=PA44 (The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom, by Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt, p. 44) 

http://bastille-day.com/history/Storming-Of-The-Bastille-July-14-1789

Marquis de Sade:

anti-royalist speech on July 2:  http://books.google.com/books?id=fOReeGwdFU8C&pg=PA36 (The Complete Marquis de Sade, foreword, p. 36)

transfer on July 4: http://books.google.com/books?id=7T2WYXK6YFgC&pg=PA101 (Justine: Philosophy in the Bedroom, chronology, p. 101)

The Marquis de Sade was elected to the National Convention in 1790 but was subsequently imprisoned under both Robespierre and Napoleon.

The Man in the Iron Mask:

history:  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/294481/the-man-in-the-iron-mask

portrayal by Leonardo DiCaprio:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120744/

portrayal by Richard Chamberlain:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0074853/

Voltaire:

His incarceration in the Bastille enhanced his subsequent image as an Enlightenment champion of freedom of thought, but unfortunately he died in 1778, eleven years too soon to see the Bastille stormed and destroyed.

taken to the Bastille on May 16, 1717, for writing verses criticizing the regent, Philippe d'Orléans:  http://books.google.com/books?id=a31I7ARvDDgC&pg=PT31 (Voltaire: A Life, by Ian Davidson, pp. 30-31)

taken to the Bastille on April 17, 1726, for challenging Guy-Auguste Rohan-Chabot to a duel:  http://books.google.com/books?id=a31I7ARvDDgC&pg=PT61 (Voltaire: A Life, by Ian Davidson, p. 61)

A Tale of Two Cities:

The storming of the Bastille occupies most of chapter 21 of book II of "A Tale of Two Cities."  A typical passage: "Cannon, muskets, fire and smoke; but, still the deep ditch, the single drawbridge, the massive stone walls, and the eight great towers. Slight displacements of the raging sea, made by the falling wounded. Flashing weapons, blazing torches, smoking waggonloads of wet straw, hard work at neighbouring barricades in all directions, shrieks, volleys, execrations, bravery without stint, boom smash and rattle, and the furious sounding of the living sea; but, still the deep ditch, and the single drawbridge, and the massive stone walls, and the eight great towers, and still Defarge of the wine-shop at his gun, grown doubly hot by the service of four fierce hours."

full text of that chapter:  http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=DicTale.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=27&division=div2

plot summary:  http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/twocities/summary.html

George Washington:

Thomas Paine was one of the intermediaries who helped convey the key from France to the United States.

http://www.mountvernon.org/educational-resources/encyclopedia/bastille-key

Elephant:

http://books.google.com/books?id=3mzSAAAAMAAJ&pg=463 (The Bastille, vol. 2, by Denis Bingham, pp. 463-464) 

The plaster elephant appears in Victor Hugo's novel "Les Misérables" (as well as the 2012 musical film adaptation), in which it provides shelter for the street urchin Gavroche.

Louis XVI:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/349122/Louis-XVI

Louis XVI was a member of the House of Bourbon, branches of which are currently the ruling houses in two other countries, Spain and Luxembourg.

'Nothing' in the king's diary:

http://books.google.com/books?id=jwM6pk3kTcEC&pg=PA172 (Now You Know Royalty, by Doug Lennox, p. 172) 

Champs-Élysées:

Bastille Day military parade:  http://en.parisinfo.com/discovering-paris/major-events/paris-celebrates-july-14th/Military-Parade-on-the-Avenue-des-Champs-Elysées/Military-Parade-on-the-Avenue-des-Champs-Elysées

meaning of name:  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/105234/Champs-Elysees

FIFA World Cup:

France hosted; France won for first time:  http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=1013/index.html

Score of July 12 final:  http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=1013/results/index.html

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