I. Introduction to warp drives

Force Field Generator, Superluminal Drive and Advanced Trans-stellar Technology
You are reading this essay if you want to understand how warp drives, force field generators and tractor beams fit into our current understanding of physics.  The truth is that the scientific community does not have the ability to generate acceleration fields; they cannot nullify the weight of a spacecraft in the earth's gravity field.   This does not mean that nature ultimately forbids acceleration field generation; it only means that we don't know how to do it. 
First Contact
First contact with a starship with hyperdrive capability from a "let's look at the hardware" point of view might look like this.  You find yourself in a vast open field under the cover of night, the stars twinkle expectantly and the moon shines down to light your way.  You notice another brightly lit object, white as the moon and just as big, and it's moving across the horizon.  It gets bigger as it approaches your position.  With your thumb extended, you see the object grow in size, it is now as big as your outstretched hand as it hovers over you a distance of about 100m.  The dim white light of the spacecraft's underside is accompanied by red, blue, green and yellow lights that flash and dance around the underside; they are more for effect, for beauty sake, than engineering need.  Light from the moon allows you to see that the spacecraft is disk-shaped (hockey puck shaped) with a diameter of about 200meters.  There are flashing colored lights on the side edge (used to draw your attention).  The are some dim white lights on the side, almost unnoticeable, but are critical for staring the ship; they allow the ship to drift horizontally across the horizon.  They are the lateral acceleration system.  For effect, the starship blasts several music notes at you as a greeting.

The large glowing white light on the bottom of the ship is generating artificial gravity fields that counter the earth's gravity field and allow it to descend slowly until it is 10 meters over your head.  The large white light takes up about 60% of the radius, and is centered to the center of the spacecraft.  The "beauty lights" are all on now and have a laser like sharpness.  There are five or six small white lights on the outer edge that flash on/off/dim as if obeying a landing algorithm.  Through all of this, the craft is silent as the rustling wind.  You do feel the brightness of the landing lights.  With the spaceship just above you and all around you, you start to feel weightless under the effects of the spacecraft's artificial gravity field generator.  A square shaped white light "opens' above you.  You hear a woman's voice, it is gentle and
Hello reader!  Are you ready to come aboard the USS Alcubierre?  All you have to do is jump up.  I will catch you and steady your footing.  I have much to show you. 

You need no convincing.  You jump up into the square light.  There is another acceleration field system on the ceiling that steadily guides you to the 1g gravity field aboard the USS Alcubierre.  You  find yourself standing in a large well lit room that looks like the inside of a Federation starship.  You are facing Captain Janeway.  She is smiling at you and extends a hand in greeting. 

Welcome aboard reader!  I want to thank you for taking the time to look around.  I want to show you the engine room and explain how our acceleration field drives work.   

Captain Janeway leads you out of the boarding room, down a long hall to another perpendicular hall.  This one has windows on it.  But they're not exactly windows.  They are LCD screens built into the wall.  They show real time images from cameras on the outside of the spaceship. 

We wish we could use real windows, but they could easily be scorched or they could let too much light in as we cross the lightspeed barrier into hyperspace.  It's much easier to protect a little pinhole camera lens than a large glass window.  It is time for both of us to go to the bridge where I will explain further.
You follow Janeway from one hallway to the next.  It looks like you're aboard a Federation Starship.  A door opens and you follow Janeway to the "bridge".  There appear to be several Starfleet officers performing various tasks at their stations.  Janeway issues orders:
Run final diagnostics on the warp drive systems.  When complete, lay in a course for the binary star system of Alpha Centuari which is 4.3 light years from Earth. 
Reader, I hope you wer'ent expecting a military adventure.  This mission is going to focus on teaching you the basics of how warp drives and gravity field generators work.  After we enter hyperspace, you will be escorted to engineering where you will get to see lots of interesting details about transmitting redshift as a form of propulsion and as a means to control gravity.  
Some of you may have guessed that I have taken this form, that of Captain Janeway, as a means to make you feel more comfortable.
For a few brief moments, you find yourself looking at a grey alien with very large black eyes.  The bridge is now a silvery room with what look like computer terminals.  There are other grey aliens looking at you.  They seem to be expressing enthusiasm, even delight, that you have joined them for the trip.  Captain Janeway continues:
I am a representative of an intergalactic federation that has existed for a very long time.  We are peaceful and only wish to share some knowledge with you.  
"Diagnostics are completed, Captain!  We will depart shortly." 
Please take a seat, reader and watch the forward and rear viewing windows...
Mazulu, please escort our guest down to engineering... 


Edit this stuff
Experts in the field of general relativity have all but given up hope of ever traveling superluminally to the stars.  While critics have attacked GR, hoping that the bad news of a speed limit c might not be true, the evidence in support of relativity is overwhelming.  So the reader must wonder why a superluminal drive is being considered. 
Para 1:  We should have hovercrafts and warp drives by now.  The human race should be able to make regular trips to any planet in the solar system; and to planets in other solar systems.   The scientific community has had enough time to accomplish this and there have been enough examples that this is possible.   It's not like the earth has been ignored by alien civilizations; they've been here and reliable observers have witnessed them (Disclosure Project).  Yes, I know all about general relativity and that information can't go faster than the speed of light; this has been the physics community's excuse for countless decades.   Physicists are supposed to be the smartest people in the world; yet they have used there intelligence only to fool the public, and themselves.   Instead, they have ignored the lessons of Occam's razor.  Occam's razor tells us that the simplest explanation is usually the correct one.  But the physics community has done the opposite of that.  They have made mathematical models that are so hard to understand that physics progress has ground to halt.  ...

High school physics is about the time when we learn about special relativity, Albert Einstein and E=mc^2.  This is about the time when our hopes and dreams of traveling to other planets on spaceships is crushed by the reality that we can't go faster than the speed of light.  If you're still really enthusiastic about traveling to other planets in a relativity short time period (like a month or less), you might be able to ignore the droning cynicism of the physics experts for a while.  They will pepper you with strange ideas like time dilation and relativistic mass; they will argue that you can't go faster than the speed of light because you get really really heavy when you try.  Then they will drop a bunch of really confusing equations on you.  If you keep asking, they will bomb your enthusiasm with fantastically complicating concepts like curvature of space-time, geodesics, and all of the experimental proof that special and general relativity are correct.  When you start to look dismayed and confused, they will share the concept of the Alcubierre drive.  Very briefly, the Alcubierre drive is a way to curve space-time in such a way that you can travel faster than light; and just as you start to look hopeful again, they crush those hopes by telling you that the Alcubierre drives needs a lot of energy; somewhere between the energy content of Jupiter on up to about a million universes.   Then they remind you that relativity has been experimentally verified and is correct.   Indeed it has been verified; that part is the truth.  Next comes the part that they are lying to you about. 

The Michelson-Morley experiment is part of a very clever ruse to block all attempts at discovering gravity drives and faster than light warp drives.  The ruse works like this.  Back in the late 19th century, there were those who thought that light and electromagnetic energy required a medium in which to propagate; after all, water waves require water, etc.   They called this medium the luminiferous aether.  So somebody said, "hey, if that's true, then we should be able to measure the earth's movement through the aether, right?"  Here lies the heart of the deception and the place where the physics community messed up.  The word aether, which means:  "light-bearing medium", looks almost identical to the word ether, which is an organic molecular solvent, is a gas at room temperature, and is an anesthetic which makes people sleepy.  In 1887, when the Michelson-Morley experiment proved that (1) the earth doesn't move through an anesthetic ether gas and (2) that light is not a wave in the anesthetic ether gas, the physics community immediately, and rashly, assumed that light doesn't need a medium.  Anybody who said otherwise was called a kook, fired from their job, tarred and feathered, and run out of town.  To this day, the quickest way a physicist can get fired is to say that light needs a medium.   
Whether any physicist admits it or not, there is only one reason why the physics community scrapped the aether medium.  Mathematics is elegant, beautiful and precise; reality is none of these things.  Removing the ether medium from physics is no different from ignoring reality.  Albert Einstein, who introduced the mathematics of SR, GR and some QM, pushed the abstract approach about as far as anyone could without losing touch with experimental physics.  Einstein, the father of Modern physics, tried for many years, in vain, to unify quantum mechanics with gravity.  By Occam's razor, they should have realized that there was a problem, that the mathematics wasn't working.  But they didn't.  Instead, they pursued 26 dimensional mathematics in the form of superstring theory and M-Theory. 
"You don't need a medium", - xxx.   The ether theory was not abandoned right away.  The Lorentz ether theory survived for ... 
Albert Einstein and space-time curvature
Intended flow of thoughts:  Why was the ether theory was abandoned.  The way that they modeled the ether was incorrect.  There is a right way to model the ether using waves (touch on this very briefly).  They abandoned the ether medium in favor of pure mathematics; this was a bad idea...  why?  If you don't have a medium, then what causes the laws of physics to exist at all?  Mathematics?  Geometry?  Nothingness? 
If there is no medium, then our knowledge of physics is limited to the Standard Model and gravity.  Without knowledge of what space-time is and how it connects to the Standard Model, quantum mechanics or light, then there is no way to build a gravity field generator, or an Alcubierre drive.  Physicists have fantasized about using black holes to curve space-time (create gravity), but there are very common sense reasons why this won't work.  Even if we could find a black hole near our solar system, there would be no way to move it because (1) it's too heavy and (2) there is also no way to bolt it down to your spaceship or tow it because it will eat anything that comes into contact with it.  Ultimately, the physics community is completely lost as to what space is, what time is, what a space-time continuum is, and how these are related to quantum mechanics.    They know that space-time curvature is the same as gravity, but they don't understand what space-time is actually doing when it does curve.  At present, the physics community has no clue how to curve space-time ...

In spite of this, there is hope.  I was able to consult with some gravity propulsion drive experts. They had a lot to say. 

Yes, curving space-time is the secret to warp drives and traveling faster than light.  No, black holes are not used to travel across the universe.  Black holes will only let you travel to one place: the event horizon.  To build a warp drive, you have to know what the space-time continuum is made of.  Yes, weave of space-time is a good metaphor; if you know what the fibers are made of. 


"Oh, you mean that space is the thing that is moving", - Scotty, Star Trek.  The smallest unit of space and time is the fiberino, and is described as a wave function.  It has length built into it; it has time built into it.  It can carry energy as an excitation.  It transmits light at c.  

There is room for some fantasy in theoretical physics.  An example of this is time travel.  General relativity allows clocks to run at different rates in different places.  But this doesn't let you run the clock backwards or violate causality. 

A quantum system is basically a bunch of complex exponentials scaled and added together. Every quantum system has some space around it, some space-time. There is a quantum mechanics description of space-time, although I don't know if anyone has really thought about it in this way.

Whatever else space does, it transmits frequencies of light. That means, it has to have available bandwidth to use. How can a photon cross space if the photon's frequency is not available. But empty space has all of the frequencies available, in the form of wave functions. In this way, empty space is a quantum system that includes all available frequencies as wave-functions.

So let's say that two protons fly by each other at relativistic speeds. Each of these protons is a quantum system. Each of these protons has some space around them which are also quantum systems. So two sets of wave functions are overlapping in some very complicated way. Convolution comes to mind. If a photon is emitted by one of the protons, it's frequency and wavelength are required to equal c because the wave function fixes the speed of light because permittivity and permeability are characteristics of the wave-function; the physics community hasn't quite figured this out. The photon's frequency and wavelength are,


By some strange luck, the emitted photon doesn't miss, but is absorbed by the other proton. Somehow, that photon navigated the convolution of two bandwidths of space and arrived at the second proton with frequency and wavelength,


The reason that time dilation, redshift and the relativistic Doppler effect are observed is because photons have to cross from one chunk of space to another; they have to transition from the wave function of one patch of space to the wave-function of another patch of space (space-time).

What is gravity?  Conservation of energy says that energy can neither created nor destroyed, it can only change forms.  You can put a cosmologist "on the spot" by asking where the energy from the Big Bang came from.  But the real answer is:  it came from gravity.  Gravity is a negative energy that cancels out the positive energy. 

Fun fact #3: New energy can be created.  When new energy is created, it also produces an equal amount of negative gravitational energy which expands outwards at the speed of light until the negative energy reaches equilibrium in the form of the Einstein equations. 

The reason that gravity seems to act instantaneously across space, without a speed of light delay, and across the event horizon of a black hole, is because gravity is caused by space-time curvature.  But space-time is an extended object as big as the universe; it's like a huge stocking 14 billion light years across.  Every particle has an aura or field of gravitational potential energy.  Stars are born from cosmic dust particles, each of which has it's own tiny gravitaitonal impression upon the space-time continuum in the form of curvature. 

Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: - Mathew 7:7, King James Bible

Superluminal drive technology is possible, if you are willing to look; the physics community is not willing.  For them, faster than light know-how lies beyond the limit of what man is willing to consider.   General Relativity is already too difficult for human beings to understand, on there own.  Life places another cruel obstacle before us; we are tempted with wondrous things that we cannot achieve on our own.  The faithful leave all things in the hands of a Higher Power; the mighty intellect can conceive only that which man is capable; and there are few, if any, who will bow there mighty intellect before this Higher Power. 

I am but a pauper among the intellectual kings and royalty in the land of epistemology.  But I do have a basic understanding of physics.  I have sought out the secrets to the space-time continuum, and the superluminal drive.  With great humility, I present before you my understanding of how to approach this lofty goal, and how it is onnected to general relativity, quantum mechanics and the laws that govern this physical world.
I promised you secrets of the Space-Time Continuum.  What are they?
1.  The experts in general relativity do not understand what causes physics to work.  In fact, they are not allowed to even speculate about what causes physics.  Those who do speculate are branded as crackpots.  Lack of a physics concept greatly hampers efforts to unify general relativity and quantum mechanics.
2.  There exists a very simple concept that explains relativity theory, quantum mechanics, the four forces, matter and the Higgs field.  This simple concept is the fiberino.   
3.  Between any two massive particles, there exists a fiberino extended between them that implements the physics for both of them.  All particles are in relative motion because fiberinos interconnect them.  Both particles will emit and observe a photon traveling at the speed of light because ... 
4.  The energy of the big bang came from the negative energy supplied by the curvature of space-time.  Conservation of energy is observed by fiberinos and the space-time continuum.  However, there exists a way to create new energy; see shift photons
5.  The space-time continuum is an object the size of the universe; it is made out of fiberinos.  Since fiberinos are ...
6.  Space-time can be parceled out into a volume of space.  A parcel of space(-time) can be treated like a particle moving through superluminal space. 

Albert Einstein was right about relativity theory.  It is indeed true that the space-time continuum exists and that the speed of light is observed to be the same for all observers.   A hundred years ago, it was believed that light was a ripple in the luminiferous aether.   The Michelson-Morley experiment demonstrated that the earth's movement through the aether could not be detected.  The experiment proved that the aether is not a gas of particulate particles; unfortuntaely, nobody considered that the aether was something other than a point particle.
The lumiferous aether exists.  But it is not a point particle gas.  It is a network.  Particles with mass are connected to each other and to the space-time continuum via fibers made of space-time.  Just as a gallon of water is made out of H2O molecules, the space-time continuum is made out of fibers that interconnect between particles. 
Hyper-drives and superluminal interplanetary travel is a facinating topic; the interest in UFO's and television shows such as Star Trek is evidence that alot of people wish we would.  But the physics community appears to be resistant to the idea.  But why?  Why is the scientific community unwilling to talk about hyperdrives and superluminal travel?  The answer is this:  Einstein special and general relativity are experimentally verified, and they tell us that we can't go faster than the speed of light, c.
More accurately, the physics community has considered this question of superluminal travel, which is, hypothetically possible.  It is a solution to the Einstein equations and is called the Alcubierre drive.   You see, the Alcubierre drive tells us that a superluminal drive or hyper-drive could be built if, if: we know how to curve space-time.  The curvature of space-time is a fancy way of saying:  generate a gravity field.   Some people say that they don't know what gravity is; but really they do.  Gravity is what happens when you hold a brick in front of you, and release it.  It falls on your foot, and it hurts.   The brick, for no apparent reason, accelerated and struck your foot.  
General relativity says that gravity is the result of a curvature in the space-time continuum.   The Einstein equations are a very complicated way of saying that large amounts of mass and energy will curve space-time in such a way that anything in the neighborhood of the curved space-time will fall in.