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81)What check points you will use to read and check text on the GUI and explain its syntax?

a.You can use text checkpoints in your test scripts to read and check text in GUI objects and in areas of the screen. While creating a test you point to an object or a window containing text. WinRunner reads the text and writes a TSL statement to the test script. You may then add simple programming elements to your test scripts to verify the contents of the text.

b.You can use a text checkpoint to:

i.Read text from a GUI object or window in your application, using obj_get_text and win_get_text

ii.Search for text in an object or window, using win_find_text and obj_find_text

iii.Move the mouse pointer to text in an object or window, using obj_move_locator_text and win_move_locator_text

iv.Click on text in an object or window, using obj_click_on_text and win_click_on_text

82)Explain Get Text checkpoint from object/window with syntax?

a.We use obj_get_text (<logical_name>, <out_text>) function to get the text from an object

b.We use win_get_text (window, out_text [, x1, y1, x2, y2]) function to get the text from a window.

1)83)Explain Get Text checkpoint from screen area with syntax?

A.We use win_get_text (window, out_text [, x1, y1, x2, y2]) function to get the text from a window.

84)Explain Get Text checkpoint from selection (web only) with syntax?

a.Returns a text string from an object.

web_obj_get_text (object, table_row, table_column, out_text [, text_before,

text_after, index]);

i.objectThe logical name of the object.

ii.table_rowIf the object is a table, it specifies the location of the row within a table. The string is preceded by the # character.

iii.table_columnIf the object is a table, it specifies the location of the column within a table. The string is preceded by the # character.

iv.out_textThe output variable that stores the text string.

v.text_beforeDefines the start of the search area for a particular text string.

vi.text_afterDefines the end of the search area fora particular text string.

vii.indexThe occurrence number to locate. (The default parameter number is numbered 1).

85)Explain Get Text checkpoint web text checkpoint with syntax?

a.We use web_obj_text_exists function for web text checkpoints.

web_obj_text_exists ( object, table_row, table_column, text_to_find [, text_before, text_after] );

a.objectThe logical name of the object to search.

b.table_rowIf the object is a table, it specifies the location of the rowwithin a table. The string is preceded by the character  #.

c.table_columnIf the object is a table, it specifies the location of the column within a table. The string is preceded by the character  #.

d.text_to_findThe string that is searched for.

e.text_beforeDefines the start of the search area for a particular text string.

f.text_afterDefines the end of the search area fora particular text string.

86)Which TSL functions you will use for

a.Searching text on the window

i.find_text (string, out_coord_array, search_area [,string_def ] );

stringThe string that is searched for. The string must be complete, contain no spaces, and it must be preceded and followed by a space outside the quotation marks. To specify a literal, case-sensitive string, enclose the string in quotation marks. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a string variable. In this case, the string variable can include a regular expression.

out_coord_arrayThe name of the array that stores the screen coordinates of the text (see explanation below).

search_areaThe area to search, specified as coordinates x1,y1,x2,y2. These define any two diagonal corners of a rectangle. The interpreter searches for the text in the area defined by the rectangle.

string_defDefines the type of search to perform. If no value is specified, (0 or FALSE, the default), the search is for a single complete word only. When 1, or TRUE, is specified, the search is not restricted to a single, complete word.

b.getting the location of the text string

i.win_find_text ( window, string, result_array [, search_area [, string_def ] ] );

windowThe logical name of the window to search.

stringThe text to locate. To specify a literal, case sensitive string, enclose the string in quotation marks. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a string variable. The value of the string variable can include a regular expression. The regular expression should not include an exclamation mark (!), however, which is treated as a literal character. For more information regarding Regular Expressions, refer to the "Using Regular Expressions" chapter in your User's Guide.

result_arrayThe name of the output variable that stores the location of the string as a four-element array.

search_areaThe region of the object to search, relative to the window. This area is defined as a pair of coordinates, with x1,y1,x2,y2 specifying any two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular search region. If this parameter is not defined, then the entire window is considered the search area.

string_defDefines how the text search is performed. If no string_def is specified, (0 or FALSE, the default parameter), the interpreter searches for a complete word only. If 1, or TRUE, is specified, the search is not restricted to a single, complete word.

c.Moving the pointer to that text string

i.win_move_locator_text (window, string [ ,search_area[ ,string_def ] ] );

windowThe logical name of the window.

stringThe text to locate. To specify a literal, case sensitive string, enclose the string in quotation marks. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a string variable. The value of the string variable can include a regular expression (the regular expression need not begin with an exclamation mark).

search_areaThe region of the object to search, relative to the window. This area is defined as a pair of coordinates, with x1, y1, x2, y2 specifying any two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular search region. If this parameter is not defined, then the entire window specified is considered the search area.

string_defDefines how the text search is performed. If no string_def is specified, (0 or FALSE, the default parameter), the interpreter searches for a complete word only. If 1, or TRUE, is specified, the search is not restricted to a single, complete word.

d.Comparing the text

i.compare_text (str1, str2 [, chars1, chars2]);

str1, str2 The two strings to be compared.

chars1One or more characters in the first string.

chars2One or more characters in the second string. These characters are substituted for those in chars1.

87)What are the steps of creating a data driven test?

A.The steps involved in data driven testing are:

i.Creating a test

ii.Converting to a data-driven test and preparing a database

iii.Running the test

iv.Analyzing the test results.

88)Record a data driven test script using data driver wizard?

A.You can use the DataDriver Wizard to convert your entire script or a part of your script into a data-driven test. For example, your test script may include recorded operations, checkpoints, and other statements that do not need to be repeated for multiple sets of data. You need to parameterize only the portion of your test script that you want to run in a loop with multiple sets of data.

To create a data-driven test:

i.If you want to turn only part of your test script into a data-driven test, first select those lines in the test script.

ii.Choose Tools > DataDriver Wizard.

iii.If you want to turn only part of the test into a data-driven test, click Cancel. Select those lines in the test script and reopen the DataDriver Wizard. If you want to turn the entire test into a data-driven test, click Next.

iv.The Use a new or existing Excel table box displays the name of the Excel file that WinRunner creates, which stores the data for the data-driven test. Accept the default data table for this test, enter a different name for the data table, or use

v.The browse button to locate the path of an existing data table. By default, the data table is stored in the test folder.

vi.In the Assign a name to the variable box, enter a variable name with which to refer to the data table, or accept the default name, “table.”

vii.At the beginning of a data-driven test, the Excel data table you selected is assigned as the value of the table variable. Throughout the script, only the table variable name is used. This makes it easy for you to assign a different data table

viii.To the script at a later time without making changes throughout the script.

ix.Choose from among the following options:

1.Add statements to create a data-driven test: Automatically adds statements to run your test in a loop: sets a variable name by which to refer to the data table; adds braces ({and}), a for statement, and a ddt_get_row_count statement to your test script selection to run it in a loop while it reads from the data table; adds ddt_open and ddt_close statements

2.To your test script to open and close the data table, which are necessary in order to iterate rows in the table. Note that you can also add these statements to your test script manually.

3.If you do not choose this option, you will receive a warning that your data-driven test must contain a loop and statements to open and close your datatable.

4.Import data from a database: Imports data from a database. This option adds ddt_update_from_db, and ddt_save statements to your test script after the ddt_open statement.

5.Note that in order to import data from a database, either Microsoft Query or Data Junction must be installed on your machine. You can install Microsoft Query from the custom installation of Microsoft Office. Note that Data Junction is not automatically included in your WinRunner package. To purchase Data Junction, contact your Mercury Interactive representative. For detailed information on working with Data Junction, refer to the documentation in the Data Junction package.

6.Parameterize the test: Replaces fixed values in selected checkpoints and in recorded statements with parameters, using the ddt_val function, and in the data table, adds columns with variable values for the parameters. Line by line: Opens a wizard screen for each line of the selected test script, which enables you to decide whether to parameterize a particular line, and if so, whether to add a new column to the data table or use an existing column when parameterizing data.

7.Automatically: Replaces all data with ddt_val statements and adds new columns to the data table. The first argument of the function is the name of the column in the data table. The replaced data is inserted into the table.

x.The Test script line to parameterize box displays the line of the test script to parameterize. The highlighted value can be replaced by a parameter. The Argument to be replaced box displays the argument (value) that you can replace with a parameter. You can use the arrows to select a different argument to replace.

Choose whether and how to replace the selected data:

1.Do not replace this data: Does not parameterize this data.

2.An existing column: If parameters already exist in the data table for this test, select an existing parameter from the list.

3.A new column: Creates a new column for this parameter in the data table for this test. Adds the selected data to this column of the data table. The default name for the new parameter is the logical name of the object in the selected. TSL statement above. Accept this name or assign a new name.

xi.The final screen of the wizard opens.

1.If you want the data table to open after you close the wizard, select Show data table now.

2.To perform the tasks specified in previous screens and close the wizard, click Finish.

3.To close the wizard without making any changes to the test script, click Cancel.

89)What are the three modes of running the scripts?

A.WinRunner provides three modes in which to run tests—Verify, Debug, and Update. You use each mode during a different phase of the testing process.

i.Verify :Use the Verify mode to check your application.

ii.Debug:Use the Debug mode to help you identify bugs in a test script.

iii.Update: Use the Update mode to update the expected results of a test or to create a new expected results folder.

90)Explain the following TSL functions:

a.Ddt_open

i.Creates or opens a datatable file so that WinRunner can access it.

Syntax: ddt_open ( data_table_name, mode );

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

modeThe mode for opening the data table: DDT_MODE_READ (read-only) or DDT_MODE_READWRITE (read or write).

b.Ddt_save

i.Saves the information into a data file.

Syntax: dt_save (data_table_name);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table.

c.Ddt_close

i.Closes a data table file

Syntax: ddt_close ( data_table_name );

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The data table is a Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

d.Ddt_export

i.Exports the information of one data table file into a different data table file.

Syntax:ddt_export (data_table_namename1, data_table_namename2);

data_table_namename1The source data table filename.

data_table_namename2 The destination data table filename.

e.Ddt_show

i.Shows or hides the table editor of a specified data table.

Syntax:ddt_show (data_table_name [, show_flag]);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the

table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or

the full path and file name of the table.

show_flagThe value indicating whether the editor should be shown (default=1) or hidden (0).

f.Ddt_get_row_count

i.Retrieves the no. of rows in a data tables

Syntax:ddt_get_row_count (data_table_name, out_rows_count);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

out_rows_countThe output variable that stores the total number of rows in the data table.

g.ddt_next_row

i.Changes the active row in a database to the next row

Syntax: ddt_next_row (data_table_name);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names

of the parameters.

ddt_set_row

i.Sets the active row in a data table.

Syntax:ddt_set_row (data_table_name, row);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

rowThe new active row in the data table.

i.ddt_set_val

i.Sets a value in the current row of the data table

Syntax: ddt_set_val (data_table_name, parameter, value);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

parameterThe name of the column into which the value will be inserted.

valueThe value to be written into the table.

j.ddt_set_val_by_row

i.Sets a value in a specified row of the data table.

Syntax: ddt_set_val_by_row (data_table_name, row, parameter, value);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

rowThe row number in the table. It can be any existing row or the current row number plus 1, which will add a new row to the data table.

parameterThe name of the column into which the value will be inserted.

valueThe value to be written into the table.

k.ddt_get_current_row

i.Retrieves the active row of a data table.

Syntax:ddt_get_current_row ( data_table_name, out_row );

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

out_rowThe output variable that stores the active row in the data table.

l.ddt_is_parameter

i.Returns whether a parameter in a datatable is valid

Syntax: ddt_is_parameter (data_table_name, parameter);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

parameterThe parameter name to check in the data table.

mddt_get_parameters

i.Returns a list of all parameters in a data table.

Syntax: ddt_get_parameters ( table, params_list, params_num );

tableThe pathname of the data table.

params_listThis out parameter returns the list of all parameters in the data table, separated by tabs.

params_numThis out parameter returns the number of parameters in params_list.

n.ddt_val

i.Returns the value of a parameter in the active roe in a data table.

Syntax: ddt_val (data_table_name, parameter);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

parameterThe name of the parameter in the data table.

o.ddt_val_by_row

i.Returns the value of a parameter in the specified row in a data table.

Syntax:ddt_val_by_row ( data_table_name, row_number, parameter );

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

row_numberThe number of the row in the data table.

parameterThe name of the parameter in the data table.

p.ddt_report_row

i.Reports the active row in a data table to the test results

Syntax:ddt_report_row (data_table_name);

data_table_nameThe name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

q.ddt_update_from_db

i.imports data from a database into a data table. It is inserted into your test script when you select the Import data from a database option in the DataDriver Wizard. When you run your test, this function updates the data table with data from the database.

91)How do you handle unexpected events and errors?

WinRunner uses exception handling to detect an unexpected event when it occurs and act to recover the test run

A..

Define Exception Handling

Activate Exception Handling

Define Exception

Define Handler Function

WinRunner enables you to handle the following types of exceptions:

Pop-up exceptions: Instruct WinRunner to detect and handle the appearance of a specific window.

TSL exceptions: Instruct WinRunner to detect and handle TSL functions that return a specific error code.

Object exceptions: Instruct WinRunner to detect and handle a change in a property for a specific GUI object.

Web exceptions: When the WebTest add-in is loaded, you can instruct WinRunner to handle unexpected events and errors that occur in your Web site during a test run.

92)How do you handle pop-up exceptions?

A.A pop-up exception Handler handles the pop-up messages that come up during the execution of the script in the AUT. TO handle this type of exception we make WinRunner learn the window and also specify a handler to the exception. It could be

i.Default actions: WinRunner clicks the OK or Cancel button in the pop-up window, or presses Enter on the keyboard. To select a default handler, click the appropriate button in the dialog box.

ii.User-defined handler: If you prefer, specify the name of your own handler. Click User Defined Function Name and type in a name in the User Defined Function Name box.

93)How do you handle TSL exceptions?

a.A TSL exception enables you to detect and respond to a specific error code returned during test execution.

b.Suppose you are running a batch test on an unstable version of your application. If your application crashes, you want WinRunner to recover test execution. A TSL exception can instruct WinRunner to recover test execution by exiting the current test, restarting the application, and continuing with the next test in the batch.

c.The handler function is responsible for recovering test execution. When WinRunner detects a specific error code, it calls the handler function. You implement this function to respond to the unexpected error in the way that meets your specific testing needs.

d.Once you have defined the exception, WinRunner activates handling and adds the exception to the list of default TSL exceptions in the Exceptions dialog box. Default TSL exceptions are defined by the XR_EXCP_TSL configuration parameter in the wrun.ini configuration file.

94)How do you handle object exceptions?

a.During testing, unexpected changes can occur to GUI objects in the application you are testing. These changes are often subtle but they can disrupt the test run and distort results.

b.You could use exception handling to detect a change in property of the GUI object during the test run, and to recover test execution by calling a handler function and continue with the test execution

95)How do you comment your script?

A.We comment a script or line of script by inserting a ‘#’ at the beginning of the line.

96)What is a compile module?

a.A compiled module is a script containing a library of user-defined functions that you want to call frequently from other tests. When you load a compiled module, its functions are automatically compiled and remain in memory. You can call them directly from within any test.

b.Compiled modules can improve the organization and performance of your tests. Since you debug compiled modules before using them, your tests will require less error-checking. In addition, calling a function that is already compiled is significantly faster than interpreting a function in a test script.

97)What is the difference between script and compile module?

a.Test script contains the executable file in Win Runner while Compiled Module is used to store reusable functions. Complied modules are not executable.

b.Win Runner performs a pre-compilation automatically when it saves a module assigned a property value of “Compiled Module”.

c.By default, modules containing TSL code have a property value of "main". Main modules are called for execution from within other modules. Main modules are dynamically compiled into machine code only when WinRunner recognizes a "call" statement. Example of a call for the "app_init" script:

call cso_init();

call( "C:\\MyAppFolder\\" & "app_init" );

a.d.Compiled modules are loaded into memory to be referenced from TSL code in any module. Example of a load statement:

reload (“C:\\MyAppFolder\\" & "flt_lib");

or

load ("C:\\MyAppFolder\\" & "flt_lib");

98)Write and explain various loop command?

a.A for loop instructs WinRunner to execute one or more statements a specified number of times.

 It has the following syntax:

 for ( [ expression1 ]; [ expression2 ]; [ expression3 ] )

statement

i.First, expression1 is executed. Next, expression2 is evaluated. If expression2 is true, statement is executed and expression3 is executed. The cycle is repeated as long as expression2 remains true. If expression2 is false, the for statement terminates and execution passes to the first statement immediately following.

i.For example, the for loop below selects the file UI_TEST from the File Name list

ii.in the Open window. It selects this file five times and then stops.

set_window ("Open")

for (i=0; i<5; i++)

list_select_item("File_Name:_1","UI_TEST"); #Item Number2

b.A while loop executes a block of statements for as long as a specified condition is true.

It has the following syntax:

while ( expression )

statement ;

i.While expression is true, the statement is executed. The loop ends when the expression is false. For example, the while statement below performs the same function as the for loop above.

set_window ("Open");

i=0;

while (i<5){

i++;

list_select_item ("File Name:_1", "UI_TEST"); # Item Number 2

}

c.A do/while loop executes a block of statements for as long as a specified condition is true. Unlike the for loop and while loop, a do/while loop tests the conditions at the end of the loop, not at the beginning.

A do/while loop has the following syntax:

do

statement

while (expression);

i.The statement is executed and then the expression is evaluated. If the expression is true, then the cycle is repeated. If the expression is false, the cycle is not repeated.

ii.For example, the do/while statement below opens and closes the Order dialog box of Flight Reservation five times.

set_window ("Flight Reservation");

i=0;

do

{

menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");

set_window ("Open Order");

button_press ("Cancel");

i++;

}

while (i<5);

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