The system volume is the one in which your boot files are there.
Whatever partition is marked as active that partition is called system partition.
The boot volume is the one in which your system files are there.
Note: In Windows NT and Windows 2000 by default the system files will be copied to winnt directory and in Windows 2003 by default they are copied into Windows directory.
IF it is windows 2000 professional operating system, that may be standalone computer or a client in a domain.
If you can see the domain name, then it is client. If not it is standalone.
If it is Windows 2000 server family operating system, that may be standalone computer or member server or Domain controller.
If you can see the domain name, then it is either member server or Domain controller.
If not it is standalone computer.
You have domain name but you don’t have this computer option then it must be domain controller.
You have domain name and also you have this computer option then it is member server.
Unicast: Just from one computer to one computer.
Multicast: Those who ever register for a particular multicast group to those only.
Broadcast: To all the computers.
A computer's basic input/output system (BIOS) is a set of software through which the operating system (or Setup) communicates with the computer's hardware devices.
What is the advantage of NTFS over FAT?
You must use the NTFS file system on domain controllers. In addition, any servers that have any partition formatted with FAT or FAT32 will lack many security features. For example, on FAT or FAT32 partitions, a shared folder can be protected only by the permissions set on the share, not on individual files, and there is no software protection against local access to the partition.
· File and folder level security
· We can do disk compression
· We can do disk quotas
· We can encrypt files
· We can do remote storage
· We can do dynamic volume
· We can mount volumes to folders
· We can support Macintosh files
· POSIX sub system
Note: When you format the operating system with NTFS then Windows NT and Windows 2000 are only the operating systems that can read the data.
Note: The only reason to use FAT or FAT32 is for dual booting with previous versions windows 2000 O. S.
NetMeeting enables you to communicate with others over the Internet or your local intranet. Using NetMeeting you can:
· Talk to others
· Use video to see others and let others see you
· Share applications and documents with others
· Collaborate with others in shared applications
· Send files to others
· Draw with others in a shared Whiteboard
· Send messages to others in chat
What are the features will you get when you upgrade from Windows NT to Windows 2000?
Active Directory includes the following features:
* Simplified management of network-resource information and user information.
* Group Policy, which you can use to set policies that apply across a given site, domain, or organizational unit in Active Directory.
* Security and authentication features, including support for Kerberos V5, Secure Sockets Layer v3, and Transport Layer Security using X.509v3 certificates.
* Directory consolidation, through which you can organize and simplify the management of users, computers, applications, and devices, and make it easier for users to find the information they need. You can take advantage of synchronization support through interfaces based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and work wit
directory consolidation requirements specific to your applications.
* Directory-enabled applications and infrastructure, which make it easier to configure and manage applications and other directory-enabled network components.
* Scalability without complexity, a result of Active Directory scaling to millions of objects per domain and using indexing technology and advanced replication techniques to speed performance.
* Use of Internet standards, including access through Lightweight Directory Access Protocol and a namespace based on the Domain Name System (DNS).
* Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI), a powerful development environment.
* Additional features
The features in the following list are available when member servers are upgraded in a domain, regardless of whether domain servers have been upgraded. The features available when domain controllers are upgraded include not only the features in the following list, but also the features in the previous one.
* Management tools:
Microsoft Management Console Plug and
Play Device Manager Add/Remove Hardware wizard (in Control
Panel) Support for universal serial bus New Backup utility
* File system support:
Enhancements to the latest version of the NTFS file system include support for disk quotas, the ability to defragment directory structures, and compressed network I/O.
* Application services:
Win32 Driver Model DirectX 5.0 Windows Script Host
* Printer protocol support:
Device and protocol support allowing choices from more than 2,500 different printers. Other printing enhancements are included, for example, Internet Printing Protocol support, which allows users to print directly to a URL over an intranet or the Internet.
* Scalability and availability:
Improved symmetric multiprocessor support
Encrypting file system
Is there any situation to use the file system FAT or FAT32?
There is one situation in which you might want to choose FAT or FAT32 as your file system. If it is necessary to have a computer that will sometimes run an earlier operating system and sometimes run Windows 2000, you will need to have a FAT or FAT32 partition as the primary (or startup) partition on the hard disk.
Note: For anything other than a situation with multiple operating systems, however, the recommended file system is NTFS.
Some of the features you can use when you choose NTFS are:
* Active Directory, which you can use to view and control network resources easily.
* Domains, which are part of Active Directory, and which you can use to fine-tune security options while keeping administration simple. Domain controllers require NTFS.
* File encryption, which greatly enhances security.
* Permissions that can be set on individual files rather than just folders.
* Sparse files. These are very large files created by applications in such a way that only limited disk space is needed. That is, NTFS allocates disk space only to the portions of a file that are written to.
* Remote Storage, which provides an extension to your disk space by making removable media such as tapes more accessible.
* Recovery logging of disk activities, which helps you restore information quickly in the event of power failure or other system problems.
* Disk quotas, which you can use to monitor and control the amount of disk space used by individual users.
* Better scalability to large drives. The maximum drive size for NTFS is much greater than that for FAT, and as drive size increases, performance with NTFS doesn't degrade as it does with FAT.
It is recommended that you format the partition with NTFS rather than converting from FAT or FAT32. Formatting a partition erases all data on the partition, but a partition that is formatted with NTFS rather than converted from FAT or FAT32 will have less fragmentation and better performance.
What are the options do u get when you are shut downing?
Standby: Turns off your monitor and hard disks, and your computer use less power.
A state, in which your computer consumes less electric power when it is idle, but remains available for immediate use. Typically, you’d put your computer on stand by to save power instead of leaving it on for extended periods.
In stand by mode, information in computer memory is not saved on your hard disk. If the computer loses power, the information in memory will be lost.
This option appears only if your computer supports this feature and you have selected this option in Power Options. See Power Options overview in Help.
Hibernation: Turns off your monitor and hard disk, saves everything in memory on disk, and turns off your computer. When you restart your computer, your desktop is restored exactly as you left it.
A state in which your computer saves any Windows settings that you changed, writes any information that is currently stored in memory to your hard disk, and turns off your computer. Unlike shutting down, when you restart your computer, your desktop is restored exactly as it was before hibernation.
Hibernate appears only if your computer supports this feature and you have selected the Enable hibernate support option in Power Options. See Power Options overview in Help.
A state, in which your Terminal Services session is disconnected, but remains active on the server. When you reconnect to Terminal Services, you are returned to the same session, and everything looks exactly as it did before you disconnected.
Disconnect appears only if you are connected to a Windows 2000 Server running Terminal Services.
A state in which your computer saves any Windows settings that you changed and writes any information that is currently stored in memory to your hard disk. This prepares your computer to be turned off.
A state in which your computer saves any Windows settings that you changed, writes any information that is currently stored in memory to your hard disk, and then restarts your computer.
A state in which your computer closes all your programs, disconnects your computer from the network, and prepares your computer to be used by someone else.
When connected to a Windows 2000 Server running Terminal Services, Log off closes all programs running in your Terminal Services session, disconnects your session, and returns you to your Windows desktop.
What are the setup files that are used to install windows 2000?
If you are installing from the Operating system DOS the setup file is winnt.
If you are installing from Operating system windows 95/98, Win NT, Win 2000, the setup file is winnt32.
What is the error message do u get when you run “winnt” instead of winnt32 on 32 bit windows operating system (like Win 95/98, Win NT, and Win 2000)?
You will get the following message in DOS mode screen.
Windows 2000 Setup
This program does not run on any 32-bit version of Windows.
Use WINNT32.EXE instead.
What are the switches that are available with winnt32?
Sets up or upgrades Windows 2000 Server or Windows 2000 Professional. You can run the winnt32 command at a Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows NT command prompt.
winnt32 [/s:sourcepath] [/tempdrive:drive_letter] [/unattend[num]:[answer_file]] [/copydir:
folder_name] [/copysource:folder_name] [/cmd:command_line] [/debug[level]:[filename]] [/udf:id[,
UDF_file]] [/syspart:drive_letter] [/checkupgradeonly] [/cmdcons] [/m:folder_name] [
Specifies the source location of the Windows 2000 files. To simultaneously copy files from multiple servers, specify multiple /s sources. If you use multiple /s switches, the first specified server must be available or Setup will fail.
Directs Setup to place temporary files on the specified partition and to install Windows 2000 on that partition.
Upgrades your previous version of Windows 2000, Windows NT 3.51–4.0, Windows 98, or Windows 95 in unattended Setup mode. All user settings are taken from the previous installation, so no user intervention is required during Setup.
Using the /unattend switch to automate Setup affirms that you have read and accepted the End User License Agreement (EULA) for Windows 2000. Before using this switch to install Windows 2000 on behalf of an organization other than your own, you must confirm that the end user (whether an individual, or a single entity) has received, read and accepted the terms of the Windows 2000 EULA. OEMs may not specify this key on machines being sold to end users.
Performs a fresh installation in unattended Setup mode. The answer file provides Setup with your custom specifications.
Num is the number of seconds between the time that Setup finishes copying the files and when it restarts your computer. You can use num on any computer running Windows NT or Windows 2000.
Answer_file is the name of the answer file.
Creates an additional folder within the folder in which the Windows 2000 files are installed. For example, if the source folder contains a folder called Private_drivers that has modifications just for your site, you can type /copydir:Private_drivers to have Setup copy that folder to your installed Windows 2000 folder. So then the new folder location would be C:\Winnt\Private_drivers. You can use /copydir to create as many additional folders as you want.
Creates a temporary additional folder within the folder in which the Windows 2000 files are installed. For example, if the source folder contains a folder called Private_drivers that has modifications just for your site, you can type /copysource:Private_drivers to have Setup copy that folder to your installed Windows 2000 folder and use its files during Setup. So then the temporary folder location would be C:\Winnt\Private_drivers. Unlike the folders /copydir creates, /copysource folders are deleted after Setup completes.
Instructs Setup to carry out a specific command before the final phase of Setup. This would occur after your computer has restarted twice and after Setup has collected the necessary configuration information, but before Setup is complete.
Creates a debug log at the level specified, for example, /debug4:C:\Win2000.log. The default log file is C:\
%Windir%\Winnt32.log, with the debug level set to 2. The log levels are as follows: 0-severe errors, 1-errors, 2-warnings, 3-information, and 4-detailed information for debugging. Each level includes the levels below it.
/udf:id[,UDB_file] indicates an identifier (id) that Setup uses to specify how a Uniqueness Database (UDB) file modifies an answer file (see the /unattend entry). The UDB overrides values in the answer file, and the identifier determines which values in the UDB file are used. For example, /udf:RAS_user,Our_company.udb overrides settings specified for the identifier RAS_user in the Our_company.udb file. If no UDB_file is specified, Setup prompts the user to insert a disk that contains the $Unique$.udb file.
Specifies that you can copy Setup startup files to a hard disk, mark the disk as active, and then install the disk into another computer. When you start that computer, it automatically starts with the next phase of the Setup . You must always use the /tempdrive parameter with the /syspart parameter.
The /syspart switch for Winnt32.exe only runs from a computer that already has Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, or Windows 2000 installed on it. It cannot be run from Windows 9x.
Checks your computer for upgrade compatibility with Windows 2000. For Windows 95 or Windows 98 upgrades, Setup creates a report named Upgrade.txt in the Windows installation folder. For Windows NT 3.51 or 4.0 upgrades, it saves the report to the Winnt32.log in the installation folder.
Adds to the operating system selection screen a Recovery Console option for repairing a failed installation. It is only used post-Setup.
Specifies that Setup copies replacement files from an alternate location. Instructs Setup to look in the alternate location first and if files are present, use them instead of the files from the default location.
Instructs Setup to copy all installation source files to your local hard disk. Use /makelocalsource when installing from a CD to provide installation files when the CD is not available later in the installation.
What is the location of “hcl.txt” (Hard ware compatibility list)?
In Windows 2000 (either professional or any kind of server) CD, there is a folder called “support”. In the support folder the HCL.txt is placed.
What is the location of winnt and winnt32?
They are located in “i386” folder.
Where is the location of support tools?
In Windows 2000 (either professional or any kind of server) CD, there is a folder called “support”. In the support folder there is a sub folder called “Tools”
How to load support tools?
In the Windows 2000 CD (either professional or any kind of server),
Click on support è Click on tools è Click on setup.exe
How to load Admin Pack?
In windows 2000 CD (Only server family),
Click on i386 folder è Click on adminpak.msi
Go to command prompt (in server operating system only)è Go to winnt/system32 directory è type adminpak.msi or type Msiexec /i adminpak.msi
Note: Adminpak.msi is not included in the professional CD.
If you want to load the administrative tools in the local computer you can load. But you must have administrative permissions for the local computer to install and run Windows 2000 Administration Tools.
How do you install the Windows 2000 deployment tools, such as the Setup Manager Wizard and the System Preparation tool?
To install the Windows 2000 Setup Tools, display the contents of the Deploy. cab file, which is located in the Support\Tools folder on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM. Select all the files you want to extract, right-click a selected file, and then select Extract from the menu. You will be prompted for a destination, the location and name of a folder, for the extracted files.
To create a boot floppy, open windows 2000 CD.
Click on boot disk folder è click on either makeboot or makebt32
Note: If you want to boot from MS-DOS then create floppy disk by using the command
What is Desktop?
The desktop, which is the screen that you see after you log on to Windows 2000, is one of the most important features on your computer. The desktop can contain shortcuts to your most frequently used programs, documents, and printers.
Suppose if your CD is auto play CD. Then what is the key that is used to stop the auto play of the CD?
Hold the shift key for some time immediately after inserting the CD.
What is Netware?
Netware is a computer network operating system developed by Novell.
What is Network?
A network is a group of computers that can communicate with each other, share resources such as hard disks and printers, and access remote hosts or other networks.
The basic components of a network are:
· One or more servers
· Network Interface Cards
· Communication media
· Peripheral devices (such as printers)
What is network Interface card?
A Network Interface Card is a circuit board installed on each computer to allow servers and workstations to communicate with each other.
What are peripheral devices?
Peripheral devices are computer related devices, such as local printers, disk drivers and modems.
What is LAN driver?
The LAN driver controls the workstation’s Network Interface card.
A LAN driver serves as a link between an operating system of a station and the physical network parts.
Why should we logon?
Login enables the user to use the resources and services, such as files, printers and messaging, which are available in the Network.
When the user Identity is authenticated and his or her rights to resources and services are determined.
When the user logs out, he or she is then disconnected from all parts of the network.
Each workstation can assign up to 26 letters to regular drive mappings. Drive letters that are not used by local devices are available for network drives.
Generally the Drive letters A and B represents floppy disk drives and C represents the local hard disk.
What do you call the right hand side portion (i.e., where the clock and other icons exist) of task bar?
System Tray or Notification area
What is Plug and Play?
Plug and Play hardware, which Windows 2000 automatically detects, installs, and configures.
What is the command to encrypt a file from command prompt?
What is the minimum and maximum configuration to create a partition in NTFS?
The minimum size to create a partition in NTFS is 8 MB.
The maximum size to create a partition in NTFS is the disk capacity.
How many ways can you install Windows 2000?
1) Insert the CD, boot from the CD, and install the O.S. (This is the best way)
2) Boot from the floppy, insert the CD, and install the O.S.
3) Install over the network or install over the Hard disk. For this you have to run the files WinNT or winnt32.
Note: WinNT is used when you r installing from the operating system other than Windows NT or 2000. (I.e., DOS, windows 95/98 or any other)
Winnt32 is used if you are installing from O.S. Windows NT or Windows 2000.
What is WINS and what it does?
WINS stands for Windows Internet Naming Service. It resolves NETBIOS names to IP addresses. WINS is used only when you need to access the NETBIOS resources.
What is there in the network before wins?
Initially the computers in the network used to communicate with broadcast. If there is less number of hosts, then there is no problem. But when there is more number of hosts on the network more traffic will be generated. So later they invented lmhost file (LAN Manager Host file). By this they configure the lmhost file of each computer with the entries of each computer’s IP address and NETBIOS name. So each computer will look into its lmhost file to resolve NETBIOS names. But configuring each computer lmhost file manually is time consuming and more difficult. Later then invented centralized lmhost file. By this they configure lmhost on one server, and tell each computer to use that lmhost file. But in this you need to configure the centralized lmhost file manually. So Microsoft introduced WINS. By this you need to install WINS on a server in the network and configure the computers to use that WINS server. That’s all, you need not configure any thing on WINS server. The WINS server makes an entry automatically when a client is initialized to use WINS.
Note: A UNIX does not have ability to register into WINS database. But if a UNIX server is there in network and you need to resolve it, then for this you need to configure manually the entry of that UNIX server in the WINS server.
What is NETBIOS?
NETBIOS stands for Network Basic Input Output System. It is a naming interface, it is interface by which client can connect to access the lower level of the TCP/IP model to be able to communicate and access those resources.
We share resources with the NETBIOS interface in windows NT. This means that we are using NetBIOS name to connect the client to the server.
What is the length of NETBIOS name?
A NETBIOS name is 16 characters long. The first fifteen characters you can use for the server name, the 16th character is an identifier for what type of service it is registering.
What is the location of lmhost file (LAN Manager Host file) in windows 2000?
Note: Extension represents that it is a sample file. You can create lmhost file with out that extension.
What are Windows 2000 WINS enhancements when compare to the previous versions?
· Better Management interface
· Better clients
· Replication can maintain persistent connections.
· Supports automatic partner discovery
· Integrates with DNS and DHCP
· Supports burst mode handling
What is the port used for Terminal Services?
Netstat -a (Displays all connections and listening of ports)
What are the different sub net classes are there?
What are the features and benefits of windows 2000 professional?
Ø Windows 2000 professional is an upgrade of Windows NT workstation. So we have the base code of Windows NT rather than Windows 95/98. So you get the security and stability of Windows NT. But from Windows 2000 we get some of the features of 95/98. Specifically Plug and Play, Device manager.
Ø We have personalized start menus with windows 2000.
Ø We can deploy software automatically.
Ø We also have Widows installer package.
Ø We have synchronization manager.
Ø We have Internet printing protocol.
Ø We have Kerberos V5 protocol technology.
Ø We have EFS (Encrypting file system).
Ø We have IPSec protocol.
Ø We have a support for smart card.
Ø We have secondary log on service.
Ø Kerberos 5 security protocol
And many more
Note: Suppose you have a computer in remote location. In that you have multiple operating systems. You want to restart it from here with a specific operating system. Then go to Properties of My computer è Advanced tab è settings è
At this place set default operating system as required operating system. Then restart the computer.
Note: In windows 2000 if you want to update objects immediately we use secedit /refreshpolicy refresh_machine and another one. In windows 2003 the alternate command for this is gpupdate, type this command at run prompt then it updates automatically.
How can you know that Active directory is installed properly?
It will create a folder called sysvol under c:\windows. With in the sysvol folder you should have four folders, namely Domain, staging, sysvol, staging area. Apart form this you should have NTDS folder (In c:\windows) containing ntds.dit file and four log files.
How can you see the post screen when the system started?
When the system starts press the Break key. Then it post screen is stopped there only, to continue press Enter.
When a user logs on the start up options will be loaded. How to stop them? (The notification area icons)
When a user types user name and password, and presses enter immediately hold down Shift key. Then the above things will not be loaded.
What are the features of Active directory?
See the “benefits of Active directory” document in this folder.
1. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses?
Class A 0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255
Class B 188.8.131.52 - 184.108.40.206
Class C 192.0.0.0 - 220.127.116.11
Class D 18.104.22.168 - 22.214.171.124
Class E 240.0.0.0 - 254.255.255.255
Note: Class A, Class B, Class C are used to assign IP addresses. Class D is used for Multicasting. Class E is reserved for the future (Experimental).
What is hot swapping?
Replacing the hard disks other than active disk, when the computers on.
What commands do you need to execute before upgrading to windows 2000 to windows 2003?
Before upgrading to windows 2000 to windows 2003 insert the CD of windows 2003 then open 1386 folder, then at command prompt type the following commands.
(i. e., f:\1386(2003)>adprep /forestprep and f:\1386(2003)>adprep /domainprep)
If you are upgrading entire forest type the adprep /forestprep at root domain.
If you are upgrading only a domain then type the adprep /domainprep at root domain.
Note: You have to type the above commands on the server which has IM role.
Then only you have to upgrade your systems.
How to take backup?
StartèProgramsèAccessoriesèSystem tools è backup è click on backup tab
There you can select the required one.
The system state backup includes the following files
· Boot files
· Com+ class registration database
If the system is domain controller then apart from above files it takes backup of the following files also.
· Active directory
· Sys vol
Note: If you want to restore the system state backup on a domain controller you have to restart the computer in Directory Services restore mode, because you are restoring Active Directory when it is in active. If you want to restore Active Directory it should not be in active. If you restart the computer in Directory services restore mode the Active directory is not in active, so you can restore the Active directory.
You can restore Active Directory in two ways
Non Authoritative restore
Non Authoritative restore
Restart the computer
Press F8 to select Directory services restore mode
Start è Programs èAccessories è system tools è Backup è Click on restore tab è Select the restore file è Click on restore now
Restart the computer
Authoritative Restore mode
Restart the computer
Press F8 to select Directory services restore mode
Start è Programs èAccessories è system tools è Backup è Click on restore tab è Select the restore file è Click on restore now
Open command prompt
Type authoritative restore
Note: Here you can restore authoritatively entire database or a particular OU. But you cannot restore a particular object.
Type restore sub tree distinguished name of OU
Ex: research is a OU under yahoo.com, then you have to type distinguished name like ou=research, dc=yahoo, dc=com
What are the logical components of Active Directory?
What are the physical components of Active Directory?
Who can create site level Group Policy?
Who can create Domain lever Group Policy?
Who can create Organization Unit lever Group Policy?
Who can create Local Group Policy?
Local Administrator or Domain Administrator
What is the hierarchy of Group Policy?
Sub OU Policy (If any are there)
Explain about Active Directory database.
The information stored in the Active Directory is called Active Directory database.
The information stored in the Active Directory (i. e., Active directory database) on every domain controller in the forest is partitioned into three categories. They are
· Domain Partition
· Configuration Partition
· Schema Partition
The domain partition contains all of the objects in the directory for a domain. Domain data in each domain is replicated to every domain controller in that domain, but not beyond its domain.
The schema partition contains all object types and their attributes that can be created in Active Directory. This data is common to all domain controllers in the domain tree or forest, and is replicated by Active Directory to all the domain controllers in the forest.
What is Global Catalogue?
The global catalogue holds a partial replica of domain data directory partitions for all domains in the forest. By default, the partial set of attributes stored in the global catalog includes those attributes most frequently used in search operations, because one of the primary functions of the global catalogue is to support clients querying the directory.
Explain about different groups in Active directory.
There are two types of groups are the in Active directory.
What is the protocol that is used for security in Windows 2000?
How many can you open Task Manager?
One can open Task Manager in three ways
1) Start èRun èTaskmgrèok
2) Right click on Task bar èSelect Task manager
3) Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE è click on Task Manager
4) Press CTRL+ Shift + ESC (short cut key)
How many ways do you have to determine whether a computer is Domain Controller or not?
There are several ways to determine
1) On log on Windows dialogue box see whether the log on field has this computer option or not. If it contains only domain names then it is a Domain Controller, if it contains this computer option then it is either Work station or Member server.
2) Start è Run èType netdom query fsmo è The computer names that have been listed there are Domain Controller.
3) Search for NTDS and Sysvol folder in system directory, if they are there then it is a Domain Controller.
4) StartèRun èRegedit32 èSearch for NTDS folder in HKEY_LOCALMACHINE
If you find that one then it is a Domain Controller.
5) Start è Programs èAdministrative tools è Active Directory Users and Computers è Click on Domain Controller OU è the names that are listed there are the names of the domain controllers.
6) In 2000 you cannot change the name of the Domain Controller so Right click on My computer èProperties èNetwork Identification è There Change button is grayed out.