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Sub Netting
Class C sub netting

IP address        198.100.98.0
Decimal mask        255.255.255.224
Convert 224 into binary à 11100000(2)
Maximum no. of combinations = 2n (Where n is number of masked bits)
Note:     Masked bit     = 1, UN masked bit= 0.
Maximum number of subnets    à 2n-2
Maximum number of hosts/subnet    à 2m-2 (Where m is number of unmasked bits)

Now 224(10) = 11100000(2)
Maximum no. of combinations    = 2n = 23 = 8
Maximum no. of subnets        =2n-2 = 23-2 = 6
Maximum no. of hosts/subnet    =2m -2 =25 -2 = 30


Available combinations
0    è 000        (This is not used for assigning IP address)
1    à 001
2    à 010
3    à 011
4    à 100
5    à 101
6    à 110
7    à 111        (This is not used for assigning IP address)

Octant contains 8 bits, presently we have 3 bits (Remaining 5 bits are zeros)

00100000    = 32
01000000    = 64
01100000    = 96
10000000    = 128
10100000    = 160
11000000    = 192

Therefore modified subnets are
    255.255.255.32
    255.255.255.64
    255.255.255.96
    255.255.255.128
    255.255.255.160
    255.255.255.192



IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.32

First IP address    198.100.98.33
Subnet mask        255.255.255.32

Second IP address    198.100.98.34
Subnet mask        255.255.255.32

Third IP address    198.100.98.35
Subnet mask        255.255.255.32

Fourth IP address    198.100.98.36
Subnet mask        255.255.255.32

            ↓
            ↓
            ↓

Last IP address    198.100.98.63
Subnet mask        255.255.255.32

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.64

First IP address    198.100.98.64
Subnet mask        255.255.255.64

Second IP address    198.100.98.65
Subnet mask        255.255.255.64

Third IP address    198.100.98.66
Subnet mask        255.255.255.64

Fourth IP address    198.100.98.67
Subnet mask        255.255.255.64

            ↓
            ↓
            ↓

Last IP address    198.100.98.95
Subnet mask        255.255.255.64


        


IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.96

First IP address    198.100.98.64
Subnet mask        255.255.255.96

Second IP address    198.100.98.65
Subnet mask        255.255.255.96

Third IP address    198.100.98.66
Subnet mask        255.255.255.96

Fourth IP address    198.100.98.67
Subnet mask        255.255.255.96

            ↓
            ↓
            ↓

Last IP address    198.100.98.95
Subnet mask        255.255.255.96

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.128

First IP address    198.100.98.64
Subnet mask        255.255.255.128

Second IP address    198.100.98.65
Subnet mask        255.255.255.128

Third IP address    198.100.98.66
Subnet mask        255.255.255.128

Fourth IP address    198.100.98.67
Subnet mask        255.255.255.128

            ↓
            ↓
            ↓

Last IP address    198.100.98.95
Subnet mask        255.255.255.128






IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.160

First IP address    198.100.98.64
Subnet mask        255.255.255.160

Second IP address    198.100.98.65
Subnet mask        255.255.255.160

Third IP address    198.100.98.66
Subnet mask        255.255.255.160

Fourth IP address    198.100.98.67
Subnet mask        255.255.255.160

            ↓
            ↓

Last IP address    198.100.98.95
Subnet mask        255.255.255.160

IP addressing for subnet 255.255.255.192

First IP address    198.100.98.64
Subnet mask        255.255.255.192

Second IP address    198.100.98.65
Subnet mask        255.255.255.192

Third IP address    198.100.98.66
Subnet mask        255.255.255.192

Fourth IP address    198.100.98.67
Subnet mask        255.255.255.192

            ↓
            ↓

Last IP address    198.100.98.95
Subnet mask        255.255.255.192

Another Example:
        200.150.80.0
        255.255.255.192
192(10)à 11000000(2)

Class B Sub netting
Example:
    IP address    140.80.1.0
    Subnet mask    255.255.240.0

240(10)à 11110000(2)                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

Here    n=4        (Because 148.80.1.0à 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000)
    m= 12         (Because 148.80.1.0à 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000)
Maximum no. of combinations à 2n = 24 = 16
Max no. of subnets à 2n-2 = 14
Max no. of hosts/subnet    à 2m-2 =212-2 = 4096-2 =4094

Number of combinations (16)

    00000000    = 0     (This is not used for assigning IP address)
00010000    = 16
    00100000    = 32
    00110000    = 48
    01000000    = 64
    01010000    = 80
    01100000    = 96
    01110000    = 112
    10000000    = 128

        ↓
        ↓
    11100000    = 224
    11110000    = 240         (This is not used for assigning IP address)

Modified subnets are
255.255.16.0
        255.255.32.0
        255.255.48.0
        255.255.64.0
        255.255.80.0
        255.255.96.0
           
            ↓
            ↓

        255.255.224.0





IP addressing for modified subnets:

255.255.16.0 Subnet

IP address        140.80.16.1
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.16.254
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0

And

IP address        140.80.17.1
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.17.254
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0

And
IP address        140.80.18.1
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.18.254
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0

And
IP address        140.80.19.1
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.19.254
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0

And
IP address        140.80.20.1
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.20.254
Subnet mask        255.255.16.0

And 21, 22, 23, 24 up to 31.

255.255.32.0 Subnet

IP address        140.80.32.1
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.32.254
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0

And

IP address        140.80.33.1
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.33.254
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0

And
IP address        140.80.34.1
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.34.254
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0

And
IP address        140.80.35.1
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0
        ↓
        ↓
IP address        140.80.35.254
Subnet mask        255.255.32.0


And 36, 37, 38, 39 up to 48.

Next subnets are 64, 80, and 96, up to 224.   







Diagnostic Utilities
a) PING    b) finger    c) hostname     d) Nslookup    e) ipconfig    f) Netstat
g) NBTStat    h) Route    i) Tracer    j) ARP

PING:
    Verifies that TCP/IP is configured and another host is available.

FINGER:
    Retrieves system information from a remote computer that supports TCP/IP finger services

HOSTNAME:
    It displays the host name.

NSLOOKUP:
    Examines Entries in the DNS database, which pertains to a particular host or domain

NETSTAT:
    Displays protocol statistics and the current state of TCP/IP concepts.

NBTSTAT:
    Checks the state of current NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections, updates LMhost’s cache or determines your registered name or scope ID.

Route:
    Views or modifies the local routing table.

TRACERT
    Verifies the route from the local host to remote host

ARP
    Displays a cache of local resolved IP address to MAC address
 
What is Dedicated Line?
    Any telecommunications line that is continuously available for the subscriber with little or no latency. Dedicated lines are also referred to as “leased lines.”
Note: The other one is the Dial up line.

What is Dial up line?
Any telecommunications link that is serviced by a modem. Dial-up lines are ordinary phone lines used for voice communication, while dedicated or leased lines are digital lines with dedicated circuits. Dial-up lines are generally much less expensive to use, but they have less available bandwidth.
What is FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name)?

Hostname.Domain.com

Give an Example for FQDN?
For example, the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) barney.northwind.microsoft.com can be broken down as follows:
·    Host name: barney
·    Third-level domain: north wind (stands for North wind Traders Ltd., a fictitious Microsoft subsidiary)
·    Second-level domain: Microsoft (Microsoft Corporation)
·    Top-level domain: com (commercial domain)
The root domain has a null label and is not expressed in the FQDN

How to know port 3389 (Terminal services) is working or not? 
netstat -a           (Displays all connections and listening of ports)


What is a host?
Any device on a TCP/IP network that has an IP address. Example includes severs, clients, network interface print devices, routers.

How is the host identified in the network?
By a TCP/IP address.

What is a Host name?
An alias given to a computer on TCP/IP network to identify it on the network. Host names are friendlier way to TCP/IP hosts than IP address.
A host name can contain A-Z, 0-9, “.”, “-“, characters.


What is Logon Credentials?
The information authenticate a user, generally consisting of
User Name
Password
Domain Name


What is the Refresh interval for Group Policy?
Refresh interval for Domain Controllers is 5 minutes, and the refresh interval for all other computers in the network is 45 minutes (doubt).

How many ports are there?
There are 65535 ports are there.

Note: The ports 0-1023 are called well known ports and all other ports are called Dynamic or private ports (i.e., 1024-65535)

How to do quick shutdown/restart?
Press Ctrl +Alt +Del, on the dialogue box you can shutdown button.
While pressing shutdown button hold CTRL key

What is native mode and what is mixed mode?
If some of your domain controller are Windows NT in the windows 2000 domain, that is called mixed mode. If you want to compatible with NT domain controller in windows 2000 domain you should be in mixed mode.
If all of your domain controllers are windows 2000 then you can change mixed mode to native mode. After changing to native mode you will some extra functionality to secure your windows 2000 domain.
Ex: On user account properties, click on dial-in tab then you can see some extra options.

How to change mixed mode to native mode?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è Active directory users and computers è Right click on Domain è Drag down to properties è on General tab click on Change mode button è Click Yes
Note: By default windows 2000 will be loaded in mixed mode. You can change windows 2000 from mixed mode to native mode, but once if you change mixed mode to native mode you cannot change from native mode to mixed mode.

Note: When you are formatting the disk, if you set the block size as default, windows 2000/XP/2003 divides the partition into 4 KB blocks. When you are creating a file or folder it allocates space to that file or folder in multiples of 4 KB. When you create a new file first time it allocates 4 KB, after 4 KB is filled up it allocates another 4 KB size, it goes on like this until the disk space is completed.

Note: With windows 2000 advanced server and data centre server we can NLB cluster 2 to 32 servers. It supports clustering up to 2 nodes.
Note: With disk quotas we can track the usage of disk space for each user. We can limit each user to use certain amount of space. 

What is latency?
    The required time for all updates to be completed throughout all domain controllers on the network domain or forest.

What is convergence?
    The state at which all domain controllers have the same replica contents of the Active Directory database.

How to force KCC to generate connection object immediately without delay?
Type the command repadmin /kcc. This command forces the KCC to generate connection object immediately without any delay.

What are the file names that we cannot create in Windows operating system?
The file names that cannot be created in Windows operating system are
Ø    Con
Ø    Prn
Ø    Lpt1, Lpt2, Lpt3, Lpt4, ….., Lpt9
Ø    Com1, com2 com3, com4, com5,….., com9
Ø    Nul
Ø    Aux
Note: The file name clock$ cannot be created in DOS 6.22 or earlier versions of DOS.


What is QoS?
QoS stands for Quality of Service. With QoS we can reserve bandwidth to certain applications.

What is NAT?
NAT stands for Network Address Translation. It is a device between the Internet (i.e., public network) and our private network. On one NIC card it has valid Internet address; on the other NIC it has our private (internal) network address.
    NAT is a device that translates one valid public IP address to more tuple internal private address.
    We load Windows 2000 RRAS (Routing and Remote Access service) service into this Windows 2000 server and we turn in to a router. Now we add NAT protocol, so now onwards our internal clients sends their traffic through this router to the internet, when it passing through this NAT server it stripes off the internal network IP address and assigns a valid public IP address. So goes out and communicates with that valid public IP address, comes back in the NAT server stripes off the public IP address and replaces private IP address, sends the traffic back to that particular client.
For client perspective they don’t know any thing except they are surfing internet.

We load RRAS in to windows 2000 server; we turn this server as router. Now we add NAT protocol, so that now on our clients can send traffic to internet through this router , as it passes through the NAT server this server stripes off the internal IP address and replaces with a valid public IP address. Then it goes to the internet surf the internet when it comes back through the NAT server, now NAT server stripes off the valid public IP address and replaces it with its internal IP address sends the traffic to that particular client. 





How to go to the NAT options?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è RRAS è IP routing è NAT

Note: Windows 2000 NAT can acts as a DHCP server. So it is possible to give IP address with our NAT server. When you are doing this make sure that you don’t have DHCP server in your network.
    If you have less clients (5 or 6) then there is no harm assigning IP address through NAT, but if your network is big then best is to use DHCP.

How to enable DHCP service through NAT?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è RRAS è IP routing è Right click on NAT è go to properties è Click on Address assignment è Select the option automatically assign IP address by using DHCP
Note: If don’t want to use your NAT server to assign IP addresses clear the check box.

Note: NAT server contains at least two NIC, because one for internal IP address and another one for external (Public IP).

How to add public IP address pools to our NAT server?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è RRAS è IP routing è click on NAT è on Right hand side you see network cards è click on external NIC (which has a valid public IP) èClick on Address pool tab è Click on add button è Give the pool of IP addresses.
Note: By default there is no access to the internal devices on the NAT network to out side clients. By default out side clients cannot access any thing in our Nat network.

What are the limitations of Windows 2000 NAT?
Ø    Supports only TCP/IP
There is no support for IPX or other protocol.
No support for:
Ø    SNMP (so we cannot do SNMP monitoring for our NAT devices)
Ø    LDAP   
Ø    Com / Dcom
Ø    Kerberos V5
Ø    RPC
Ø    IPSec
Note: Windows 2000 NAT doesn’t allow L2TP traffic, it allows only PPTP traffic.

What is proxy?
NAT server helps the client to access Internet, where as proxy server does every thing for client. When a request comes from the client the proxy server surfs the internet and caches the results to its local disk, sends that result to the client.
    With proxy we have performance improvement, because results are cached to the local hard disk.
    With proxy we have security, because only one system in the internal network communicating with the Internet.
    Rather than allowing clients to access internet by changing IP address, the proxy server does all the surfing for clients and caches to its local disk and gives to the clients.
   
How to install proxy server 2.0 on windows 2000?
There is a patch to install proxy on windows 2000. It doesn’t install natively on windows 2000. You have to install along with the windows 2000 patch. You can download this patch from Microsoft website. Or you can get this in windows proxy CD.
Go to Proxy folder è Click on windows proxy update è click on the patch file è Go through the wizard.
This patch file invokes the proxy installation.
To configure the proxy settings
Start è Programs èMicrosoft proxy server è Microsoft management console è we get MMC for Internet Information Service, because our proxy server is incorporated with in IIS service.

With proxy we have two types of caching.
Active caching
Passive caching

How to set proxy setting to the clients?
 Right click Internet explorer è Click on connections è Click on LAN settings è Click use proxy server è type the IP address of the proxy server and port that we are using

What are the features of Microsoft proxy 2.0?
Active / Passive caching
User level control
IP filters
Access logs
Access to the internet for IPX clients

What we get with RRAS?
We will get with RRAS the ability to create a fully functional router with our windows 2000 server.
    We will get quite a bit of Remote connectivity functionality. It also can support clients dialing in through phone lines, or through the internet through a virtual private network.

What IAS does for us?
Internet Authentication server gives us RADIUS server. RADIUS stands for Remote Authentication Dial in User Server, RADIUS is an industry standard. 

Note: an IP address is assigned to every device that you want access on the network, and each have unique IP address. A client, server, every interface of router, printer and all devices on the network should have an IP address to communicate in the network.

Note:     In class C address we have 254 clients for each subnet.
    In class B address we have approximately 65,534 hosts per subnet.
    In class A address we have millions of hosts per subnet.
    Numbers can range from 0-255, but x.x.x.0 is used for identifying network and x.x.x.255 is used for broadcasting, so we use the numbers from 1-254.

Note: The portion between two firewalls is called screened subnet, in corporate network we call it as DMZ (De Militarized zone)




Who is responsible to assign Public IP address?
The responsible organization to assign IP address is IntetNIC (Internet Network Information Centre). This organization assigns public IP address to all individuals or organizations. But you can take IP address from ISP’s (Internet Service Providers), because ISP’s buys a pool IP addresses from InterNIC and then sells to others.

Note: Tracrt command traces the root (path) for which we are connecting.
    Pathping is combination of tracert and ping. It displays path and some other information.

Note:    When DNS stops you will see the event ID is 2.
    When DNS starts you will see the event ID is 3.
    When GC is enabled you will see the event ID 1119 on that particular server.
    When time synchronization enabled you can see event ID’s 35 and 37.

How to increase or decrease tomb stone interval?
By default tomb stone interval is 60 days. You can increase or decrease the tomb stone interval. You can decrease till 2 days. You can increase as much as you want.
    To decrease tomb stone interval we use ADSI edit.











With windows 2000 we have the advantage being able to configure our Windows 2000 server with RRAS service, and turn our windows 2000 server into a router.
   
What are the functionalities of RRAS?
Ø    Supports IP + IPX routing
Ø    Supports numerous interface types
Ø    IP filters
Ø    Integrates with active directory
Ø    Supports standard routing protocols
·    RIP version 1 or version 2    (Routing information protocol)
·    OSPF
·    IGMP    ( Internet Group Management Protocol)
This is for multicasting. Ex: Video conference sent to more people at a time.

What are Unicast, Multicast, and Broad cast?
Unicast:     Just from one computer to one computer.
Multicast:     Those who ever register for a particular multicast group to those only.
Broadcast:    To all the computers.

Note: with RIP version 1 we cannot do CIDR /VLSM. To transfer the route table to the all routers RIP version 1 uses broad cast. With RIP version 2 we can do CIDR. To transfer the route table to all routers RIP version 2 uses multicast. Also with version 2 we have password authentication to transfer router table.

What is VPN?
VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. By using public media we are establishing a private secure connection. To communicate through VPN we use PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol) or L2TP (Layer2 Tunneling Protocol).
    Most cases we use L2TP because this is more secure. The only one case that we use PPTP is only when we are trying to use VPN through a NAT server, another reason to use is if don’t have windows clients that have capability to establish L2TP VPN connection.

 
 






RADIUS
   
    RADIUS stands for Remote Authentication Dial in User Service. It is used to authenticate remote users. Instead of authenticating users at individual RAS server, we pass a request to central server (RADIUS server), and let the authentication happen there. All RAS servers pass authentication requests to this central server (RADIUS server) that is doing the authentication. It is authenticating users based on Active Directory. It is also doing reporting, so it is doing .accounting and authentication. With RADIUS authentication will takes place at a central location. Now there is no need to maintain a local database of users for each RAS server. When ever authentication needed RAS server forwards query to RADIUS server.
Accounting means we keep tracking who is connected, how long, why they failed to connect etc., the information is all centralized here.
    By centralizing accountability and authentication we are doing our RAS servers as dumb devices. So when RAS server fails then there is no need to worry about the 100 or 1000 accounts we manually created on the RAS server, so that we can authenticate. All you need to do is swap out this device with another and configure it to pass the authentication to RADIUS server.
Note: Terminology wise the central server is RADIUS server. Clients for RADIUS are RAS servers.
 
How to configure RADIUS client?
RADIUS client is nothing but RAS server. In windows 2000 it is RRAS server.
Go to RRAS server è Start è Programs è Administrative tools è RRAS è Right click the server è drag down to the properties è click on security è Select Authentication provider as RADIUS server è Select Accounting provider as RADIUS server è Click on configure (at Authentication as well as at Accounting) è Add the server that is going to act as a RADIUS server è hit OK è Restart RRAS service.

How to create a RADIUS server?
To make server as a RADIUS server we install Internet Authentication Service.
 Start è Settings è Control panel è Add/Remove programs è Add/Remove windows components è Select Network services è click on details è Select Internet Authentication service è Click on OK

Now you can open IAS MMC.
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è Internet Authentication Service è Right click on client è Add new client è give the names of RAS servers è Select the appropriate options è click finish

Note: One of thing you have to do is Register Internet Authentication service in Active Directory.
Administrative tools è Internet Authentication service è Right click at the root è select Register service in Active Directory
Now our IAS can access Active Directory so that it can authenticate users by using Active Directory our Active Directory database.

Note: Put your RAS server close to the clients. Put your RADIUS server close to the Active Directory database.  









































Tell me how to upgrade from 2000 to 2003?
Actually it is one month procedure. I will brief you important things.
Perform adprep /forestprep on the domain controller which has schema role.
This is one time operation per forest.
Perform adprep /domainprep on the domain controller which has IM role (You have to this in the domain for which you want up gradation)
This is one time operation per domain.
Now the following things are common to all domain controllers which you are upgrading from 2000 to 2003.
Ø    Remove administrative tools and support tools
Ø    Run the command winnt32.exe /checkupgrade only.
Ø    Install any hot fixes, if there are any suggested Microsoft, or suggested by End market administrator (if they have any own applications)
Ø    Then upgrade by running the command winnt32.exe from windows 20003 CD ROM

How do you take back ups?
On Monday we will take Normal backup.
Then we follow Incremental backup till Friday
Note: For incremental backup more no. of tapes are required. For differential backup much space is required on the tape, but we need only two tapes to restore the data.

How to know the MAC address of a Network interface card?
First type the Ping IP address (IP address of the Network interface card for which you want to know the MAC address)
Then it caches the MAC address.
Now type Arp –a
This command shows the cached MAC address of that particular NIC.

Note: If you install DCPROMO in member server then it will become Domain Controller, if you uninstall DCPROMO in Domain Controller then it will become Member server, if you are uninstalling DCPROMO on last domain controller then it will become standalone server.

Note: Always file size is less than or equal to file size on disk except when file compressed. If file is compressed file size greater than file size on disk.

    The data replicated between domain controllers is called data and also called naming context. Once a domain controller has been established only changes are replicated.

    The replication path that Active Directory data travels through an enterprise is called the replication topology.
    The change will be replicated to all domain controllers in the site with in 15 minutes since there can only be three hops.

Note: Each domain controller keeps a list of other known domain controllers and the last USN received from each controller.

What is propagation dampening?
    This is used to prevent unnecessary replication by preventing updates from being sent to the servers that are sent already. To prevent this domain controller uses up-to-vector numbers.

    In windows 2000 SYSVOL share is used to authenticate users. The sysvol share includes group policies information which is replicated to all local domain controllers. File replication service (FRS) is used to replicate sysvol share. The “Active Directory users and computers” tool is used to change the file replication service schedule.

    The DNS IP address and computer name is stored in Active Directory for Active Directory integrated DNS zones and replicated to all local domain controllers. DNS information is not replicated to domain controllers outside the domain.

What is the protocol that is used to replicate data?
Normally Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is used to replicate data and is always used for intrasite replication since it is required to support the FRS. RPC depends on IP (Internet Protocol) for transport.
    SMTP may be used for replication between sites, where each site is separate domain, because SMTP can’t replicate the domain partition.


Clustering: This is supported by only Windows 2000 advanced server and datacenter server. Cluster makes several computers appear as one to applications and clients. It supports clustering up to 2 nodes. You can cluster 2 to 32 servers. The “cluster service” must be installed to implement clustering.

Note:     FAT16 supports partitions up to 4 GB in Windows 2000.
    FAT32 supports partitions up to 32 GB in Windows 2000.
    NTFS supports partitions 7 MB to 2 TB.
    When you are formatting a partition,
Ø    If you enter the size less than 4 GB, on file system dialogue box you can see FAT, FAT32, and NTFS. 
Ø    If you enter the between 4 GB and 32 GB, on file system dialogue box you can see FAT32, and NTFS. 
Ø    If you enter the size more than 32 GB, on file system dialogue box you can see only NTFS. 
Note: You cannot compress or encrypt folders on FAT partition.


Internet Information Service (IIS)
This is used to host web sites.
First install the IIS service.
How to install IIS?
Start è Settings è Control panel è add/remove programs è Add/remove Windows components è Select Application server è Select Internet Information Service è Click OK

How to open IIS?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è IIS
Or
Start è Run è type inetmgr.exe è click OK

How to host a website?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è IIS è Right click on web sites è Select New è Select website è Click Next è give description of the web site è Enter the IP address to use web site, enter the port number (by default port 80) è Enter the path for home directory è Select Read, Run Scripts, and  Browse è Click finish

Note: If you want you can change the port number, but generally we don’t change the port number. If you have changed the port number, then when typing URL you have to type the port number followed by the URL.
Ex: www.google.com:83
If you haven’t typed any thing by default it takes the port number as 80.

OSI Layers & Functions
 
Layer    Protocol    Responsibility      
Application    FTP, HTTP, Telnet, DNS, TFTP, POP3, SMTP, News    Provides network services to the end users      
Presentation    PCT, TIFF, JPEG, MIDI, MPEG
          
Session    NFS, SQL, RPC, X Windows
          
Transport
    TCP, UDP          
Network    IP, IPX, ICMP, ARP, RIP, OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP, IPSec          
Data-Link    PPP, PPTP, L2TP, HDLC, Frame relay          
Physical
             









WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)

What is WINS and what it does?
WINS stands for Windows Internet Naming Service. It resolves NETBIOS names to IP addresses. WINS is used only when you need to access the NETBIOS resources.

What is NetBIOS?
NetBIOS stands for Network Basic Input Output System. It is naming interface by which client can access network resources. It manages data transfer between nodes on a network.

What is NETBIOS?
NETBIOS stands for Network Basic Input Output System. It is a naming interface, it is interface by which client can connect to access the lower level of the TCP/IP model to be able to communicate and access those resources.
We share resources with the NETBIOS interface in Windows NT. This means that we are using NetBIOS name to connect the client to the server.

What is the length of NETBIOS name?
A NETBIOS name is 16 characters long. The first fifteen characters you can use for the server name, the 16th character is an identifier for what type of service it is registering.

Note: Computer names are not the only names that are registered as a NetBIOS names, a domain name can be registered as NetBIOS name, any service on the network can be registered as the NetBIOS names, for example messenger service.
Note: Communication in the network happen IP address to IP address, ultimately MAC address to MAC address.

What is there in the network before WINS?
Initially the computers in the network used to communicate with broadcast. If there is less number of hosts, then there is no problem. But when there is more number of hosts on the network more traffic will be generated. So later they invented lmhost file (LAN Manager Host file). By this they configure the lmhost file of each computer with the entries of each computer’s IP address and NETBIOS name. So each computer will look into its lmhost file to resolve NETBIOS names. But configuring each computer lmhost file manually is time consuming and more difficult. Later then invented centralized lmhost file. By this they configure lmhost on one server, and configure each computer to use that lmhost file. But in this you need to configure the centralized lmhost file manually. So Microsoft introduced WINS. By this you need to install WINS on a server in the network and configure the computers to use that WINS server. That’s all, you need not configure any thing on WINS server. The WINS server makes an entry automatically when a client is initialized to use WINS.

Note: A UNIX does not have ability to register into WINS database. But if a UNIX server is there in network and you need to resolve it, then for this you need to configure manually the entry of that UNIX server in the WINS server.
 What is the location of lmhost file (LAN Manager Host file) in windows 2000?
Winnt/system32/drivers/etc/lmhost.sam
Note: Extension represents that it is a sample file. You can create lmhost file with out that extension.

What are Windows 2000 WINS enhancements when compare to the previous versions?
Better Management interface
Better clients
Replication can maintain persistent connections.
Supports automatic partner discovery
Integrates with DNS and DHCP
Supports burst mode handling

Note: Windows 2000 doesn’t use WINS for its naming structure. Windows 2000 uses DNS for its naming structure. The only time that you need WINS in Windows 2000 environment is when you want resolve NETBIOS based resources such as NT file server. In native Windows 2000 environment there is no need to use WINS.

How to install WINS?
Start è Settings è Control Panel è Add/remove programs è Add/remove Windows components è Select Network Services è Select WINS è Click next è insert the Windows 2000 CD è click OK è click on finish
This is all you have to do in WINS server. Now go to each and every client and configure them to use WINS server.

How to configure a client to use WINS server?
Go to the client computer è Open TCP/IP properties dialogue box è Click on Advanced button è Click on WINS tab è give the IP address of WINS server è click OK

How to open WINS?
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è WINS
Or
Start è Run è winsmgmt.msc

How to see records in WINS database?
Open WINS MMC è Right click on Active Registration è Select either find by owner or find by name è Provide appropriate details è Then you can see records in WINS database.

How to configure an entry manually in WINS?
Open WINS MMC è Click on Active Registration è Right click on right hand side è Select new static entry èEnter the NETBIOS name and IP address è Click OK


Note: You can configure as many as WINS servers as you want on the network. No matter that which client is using which WINS server, but all WINS server should be configured to replicate the data with each other.

How to configure the WINS servers to replicate database with other WINS servers on the network?
Open WINS MMC è Right click on Replication partners è Select New replication partner è Give the IP address of the other WINS server è click OK

Note: By default WINS makes its replications partners as push/pull replication partners.
































Note: Group policies won’t apply for Windows 95/98 clients.

First create a shared folder and put installation files on that shared folder.

What is the program that is used to create .msi files when .msi files are not available?
Wininstall

How to deploy software using Group Policy?
Open the Group Policy Object è Here you have two places to set deployment of software, one is software settings under computer configuration and another one is software settings under user configuration è to set a package for either user or computer right click on appropriate software installation è Select New è Select package
è Select the .msi file or .zap file of an application è Select either assign or publish
è Click OK.
Perform the above procedure for each application that you want to deploy through Group Policy.

What is the different between deploying applications per computer or per user basis?
If you deploy applications per computer that applications will be deployed to that computer when the computer has started. If you deploy applications per user basis then applications will be deployed when a users logs on.
For computers you can only assign packages.
For users you can assign or publish packages.

What is assign of a application to a computer?
For computer we can only assign, we cannot publish. For computers assign means when the computer starts that time only those applications will be installed. For assigning applications to the computers we have to have .msi files.

What is difference between assign and publish of a package to a user?
When we assign an application
·    Icons are placed (in start menu or on desktop), but application will be installed on demand. i.e., when you click on the icon then only application will be installed.
Or application will be installed when you are trying corresponding document.
Or go to Add/Remove programs add corresponding package.
When we publish an application
·    Application will be installed when you are trying corresponding document.
Or go to Add/Remove programs add corresponding package.

Note: With assign we install a package in 3 ways where as with publish we can install in 2 ways.

To assign a package you have to have a .msi file.
To publish a package you have to have either .msi files or .zap files

Note: With assign you will get the more functionality than publish. So when it is possible for assign, choose assign only.
Note: When ever you have a .msi file then only you can repair or upgrade that application. With .zap you cannot do them.

How to install published applications through Add/Remove programs?
Start è Settings è Control panel è Add/Remove programs è Click on Add New programs è Click on required application è Click on add button.

How to upgrade an existing application in software installation folder of GPO?

How to apply service packs to an existing application in software installation folder of GPO?

How to delete a application from software installation folder of GPO?

 

How to set minimum password length through Group Policy?
Open GPO è Click on Computer configuration è Windows settings è Security settings  è Account policies è Password policies è select minimum password length è give the number è click OK

What do we call the area between two firewalls?
The area between two firewalls is called DMZ (De Militarized Zone) or Screened subnet.

Note: Depending on the situation, Windows 2000 can be licensed in a per-seat or per-server mode. Per-server can be changed to Per-Seat once. Per-seat is a permanent choice.
When licensing Windows 2000 Server, Client Access Licenses (CALs) must also be purchased for the number of clients that will be accessing the server, regardless of the desktop operating system that is installed on the clients.

Note: For Disk Management in Windows 2003 you can use command line tool diskpart.exe (New feature in Windows 2003). For more details type diskpart.exe at command prompt and then type “?”.

Note: ForeignSecurityPrincipals   Container for security principals from trusted external domains. Administrators should not manually change the contents of this container.
Note: By default Search doesn’t display hidden files. i.e., you are searching for a file which has hidden attribute, even though it is exists your search doesn’t display it.

Note: By default search doesn’t displays hidden files. But if you want to search hidden files also you can search by modifying the following key in registry.
Mycomputer\HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\EXPLORER\
Here you can search hidden attribute. Click on this and change value from 0 to 1.


File and folder Attributes:
Writeè Users can copy and paste new files and folders and users can change folder attributes. However, users cannot open or browse the folder unless you grant the Read permission.

Read è Users can see the names of files and subfolders in a folder and view folder attributes, ownership, and permissions. Users can open and view files, but they cannot change files or add new files.
List Folder Contents èUsers can see the names of files and subfolders in the folder. However, users cannot open files to view their contents.
Read & Execute è Users have the same rights as those assigned through the Read permission, as well as the ability to traverse folders. Traverse folders rights allow a user to reach files and folders located in subdirectories, even if the user does not have permission to access portions of the directory path.



What is the work FRS (File Replication Service?
It is used to replicate both the contents of the SYSVOL share between domain controllers and the contents of Distributed File System (DFS) replicas.

What are the contents of SYSVOL folder?
SYSVOL includes the actual SYSVOL file share, the NETLOGON file share, all Windows 9x and Windows NT System Policies, and all Win2K and later Group Policy Objects (GPOs).
SYSVOL also contains all user and computer logon and logoff (and startup and shutdown) scripts. By default, SYSVOL is stored in C:\Windows\Sysvol, exists on all domain controllers, and should be identical on each domain controller in a domain.

What is Distinguished Name (DN)?
The DN identifies the domain that holds the object, as well as it provides complete path through the container hierarchy by which the object is reached. A typical DN is as follows. CN=someone, CN=Users, DC=Microsoft, DC=com.

What is Relatively Distinguished Name (RDN)?
The RDN is part of the name that is an attribute of the object it self. In the above example The RDN of the someone user object is “CN=someone”. The RDN of the parent object is “CN=Users”.

Note: The replication happen for every 5 minutes. Because if replication happen immediately for each modification there will more traffic, so it replicates modifications collectively that are done during default interval.