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How do determine the Operating system type that you are working on?
Right click on My computer è Select properties è on general tab you can see operating system type and version.

ADSI edit:
When you open ADSI edit you can see 3 database partitions, i.e., domain partition, configuration partition, and schema partition.  Under this you can see CN, and Distinguished names of different objects.

How to cluster two computers?
First go to one of the computer that is going to cluster.
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è Cluster administrator è You will get open connection to cluster dialogue box  (if you wont get this dialogue box, then click on file è click on open connection) è Select Create new cluster è Go through the wizard.

Then go to the 2nd computer
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è Cluster administrator è You will get open connection to cluster dialogue box (if you wont get this dialogue box, then click on file è click on open connection) è Select Add a node to the cluster è Go through the wizard.

Note:     In 2003 Cluster administrator installed by default.
    In 2000 Cluster administrator installed when Cluster service component is installed.

How to install cluster service component?
Start è Settings è Control panel è Add/remove programs è Add/remove windows components è Select Cluster services è Click ok

Note: By using cluster Administrator you can configure, control, manage and monitor clusters.

Note: Clustering is only supported with Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, Windows 2000 Advanced server and Data center server.
A cluster consists of at least two connected physical computers, or nodes, and a shared storage device, such as RAID-5 disk set channel. The cluster provides a redundant hardware solution. Because services can run on one or both of the nodes in the cluster, users can connect to either node in the same way that they would connect to a stand-alone server; thereby providing greater user availability.
What is failover?
Cluster service monitors the services on all nodes. If a node fails, Cluster service restarts or moves the services on the failed node to a functional node. This process is called failover. The ability to use multiple servers at all times reduces system costs while increasing reliability, because you do not have to dedicate servers for disaster recovery. When the failed node is restored, the resources may be returned to the original node. This process is called failback Failover and failback in a cluster can be performed manually by the people who maintain the cluster or can occur automatically when there is an unplanned hardware or application failure.

What is active/active clustering and active/passive clustering?
Active/active clustering describes clustering when both members of the cluster are online and able to accept user service requests. This is different from active/passive clustering where only one member of a cluster provides service to users at a time. Active/passive is the preferred recommended cluster configuration.
In an active/passive cluster, the cluster includes at least one passive node and one or more active nodes. A node is active if it runs an instance of an Exchange virtual server (EVS). A node is passive if it does not run an instance of EVS (Exchange Virtual Server) or any other application. A passive node is ready to take over the tasks of an active node whenever a failover occurs on any active node. Whether a node is active or passive may change over the lifetime of a node. After a failover, the passive node which now runs the failed-over EVS is an active node and the original node became a passive node. In an active/passive cluster, the active node is actively handling requests while the passive node is standing by waiting for another node to fail.
Similar to active/passive clustering, in active/active clustering, when one node fails or is taken offline, the other node in the cluster takes over for the failed node. However, because the failover causes the other node to take on additional processing operations, the overall performance of your Exchange cluster may be reduced.
Note: Microsoft recommends active/passive cluster configurations over active/active configurations. Active/active clusters have more limitations than active/passive clusters. Active/active clusters have a limit of 1,900 concurrent connections to a node hosting EVSs, and they are only supported on two nodes.
Note:    Windows 2000 Advanced server supports 2 nodes clustering.
        Windows 2000 Data center server supports 4 nodes clustering.
        Windows 2003 Enterprise and Data center supports 8 nodes clustering.
Features of Active Directory:

Table 1. Features Enabled or Enhanced by Active Directory
Feature    Enabled by Active Directory    Enhanced by Active Directory        
IntelliMirror    ?           
Remote OS Installation Services (RIS)    ?           
Delegation of Administration    ?           
Multimaster Replication    ?           
Global Catalog    ?           
Active Directory Sites    ?           
Kerberos Authentication    ?           
Domain Trusts     ?           
Quality of Service (QOS)    ?           
File Replication Service (FRS)    ?           
Group Policy        ?       
Security Groups        ?       
Domain Name System (DNS)        ?       
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)        ?       
Routing and Remote Access Service        ?       
Virtual Private Network (VPN)        ?       
IP Security (IP sec)        ?       
Telephony API (TAPI)        ?       
File Services        ?       
Distributed File System (DFS)        ?       
Encrypting File System (EFS)        ?       
Print Services        ?       
Internet Information Services (IIS)        ?       
Smart Cards        ?       
Terminal Services        ?       
Microsoft Certificate Server        ?       
Services for NetWare        ?       
Search Assistant        ?       
Message Queuing Services         ?       
Exchange 2000        ?    
Kerberos Authentication
Kerberos is the Internet standard security protocol for handling authentication of users or system identity.
Kerberos allows UNIX clients and servers to have Active Directory accounts and obtain authentication from a domain controller.
Services can impersonate users allowing middle-tier service to authenticate to a back-end data server on behalf of the user.

Scripts are used to run commands automatically when a user logging on. Generally in small organizations scripts are used to map drives automatically.
How to create a Script?
Open note pad.
Write the script.
Save it as *.bat file in net logon folder.
Then go to the user properties for whom you want to run that particular script è Click on profile è type the file name in the logon script box. (Just type the file name, no need to give path of the file) è Click OK.
Example of a script for mapping drives.
Open a note pad file. Type the following information (with in the lines) as it is.
Net use p: \\liveserver\common
Net use x: \\liveserver\pdata

Save it as *.bat in net logon folder.
Note: The contents of a script file are nothing but command those we use at command prompt. A user can run these commands when he logs on and can get same functionality. But running all these commands at each log on will be difficult. So to automatically run all these commands at command prompt when ever a user logs on, we use scripts.
Note: The location of the net logon folder is My network places è Entire Network è Microsoft Windows Network è Click on Domain name è Click on Server name è Select NET LOGON folder.  
Note: Actually NET LOGON is not a folder but it is share name of the folder %systemroot%\sysvol\sysvol\\scripts. So there is no folder called NET LOGON in the server but it is share name scripts folder.
    So when you save a script file it will be saved in the Script folder
Note: You have store scripts in Scripts folder. So when Sysvol is replicated to all Domain controllers in the domain these scripts are also replicated.
Note: In Sysvol folder policies and Scripts are stored in respective sub folders.

Suppose you have deleted Active Directory Users and Computers from Administrative tools, how to restore it?
Start è Programs è Right click on Administrative tools è Select All Users è Right click in the window è drag down to New è Select short cut è click on Browse è My computer è C:\Windows\System32 è Select dsa.msc è Click OK è Give the name as Active Directory Users and Computers è Click OK.
Note: You can add all snap ins in Administrative tools like this only.
Note: The same procedure applied for any thing to place in start menu, just right click on the parent folder select open all users, and create a short cut there, that’s all.

How to dismount a volume through command line?
The command to dismount a volume through command prompt is
“fsutil volume dismount <volume pathname>”


How can I quickly find all the listening or open ports on my computer?
Usually, if you want to see all the used and listening ports on your computer, you'd use the NETSTAT command.
Open Command Prompt and type: C:\WINDOWS>netstat -an |find /i "listening"
This command displays all listening ports.
C:\netstat -an |find /i "listening" > c:\openports.txt
This command redirects the output to a file openport.txt in C drive.
C:\netstat -an |find /i "listening" > c:\openports.txt
This command is used to see what ports your computer actually communicates with.

Note: Suppose you have some roles on a domain controller. With out transferring the roles to other domain controller you have demoted the domain controller to a member server by the command dcpromo. Then what will happen?
When you demote a domain controller which has roles by the command dcpromo, during the demotion the roles will be transferred to the nearest domain controller.
What is the location of device manager?
Right click on My computer è drag down to properties è Click on hardware tab è Click on device manager
Start è programs è Administrative tools è computer management è device manager
Start è Run è type compmgmt.msc

Where do you get windows 2000 professional resource kit?
You get Windows 2000 professional resource kit along with Microsoft technet subscription.
 Note: If you want to know complete information about system hardware, software and everything regarding system use the command winmsd.exe.
Note: Disk quotas cannot be applied to groups in Windows 2000/2003.
You can apply disk quotas to groups in Unix.

        Windows Server 2003
When you first logon to a new installation of W2k3 the default desktop is blank apart from the Recycle bin. All the rest of the icons are moved to the start menu.
You can readjust  the desktop to the old Windows 2000 style by the following way.
Right click on Taskbar è Select Properties è Click on Start tab è Select Classic
Right click on Start menu è Select Properties è Select Classic Start menu

What is Manage your Server Wizard?
When you first logon to the Windows 2003 you will get Manage Your  Server Wizard.  
A host of configuration and management tools have been brought together in the Manage Your Server Wizard. It also includes the ability to configure a profile – called a server role.  There are 11 roles. (What are they?)
The roles are
·    File server
·    Print server
·    Application server (IIS, ASP.NET)
·    Mail Server (POP3, SMTP)
·    Terminal Server
·    Remote Access/ VPN server
·    Domain Controller (Active Directory)
·    DNS Server
·    DHCP server
·    Streaming Media Server
·    WINS server
There is a role called “application server” but this provides IIS, ASP.NET and Web development functionality only and should only be selected if these are required.
How to add a role to a server?
Click on start menu è Choose Manage Your Server è Click on Add or Remove Role Icon è Highlight the role you wish to Add è Click Next
Note: When adding a role, depending upon your choice, you may be prompted to provide additional information to configure the role. You may be also prompted for the W2K3 CD if additional files are required.
You can remove a role from the server using this Wizard.
Click on start menu è Choose Manage Your Server è Click on Add or Remove Role Icon è Highlight the role you wish to Add è Click Next
By this if a role has not been added, it can be added. If it has already been added, you can remove it.
Note: If the role you want to add or remove is not listed in Manage Your server Wizard, go to Add/Remove Programs.
Note: You can change the computer name by using Manage Your server Wizard, you can also add it to a Workgroup or Domain.
Remote Administration (formerly Terminal Services in Administration Mode)
Remote Administration is now installed by default, you do not need to install Terminal Services separately as this is now solely for user Terminal Sessions. It will need to be enabled and access granted to the appropriate users.
Administrator has access by default but you must have a password set or otherwise you will not be able to logon.
Remote Administation can be configured by
Right Click on My computer è Select properties è click on Remote tab
Adding/Removing Users to Remote Administration
Click on the Select Remote user button è click on Add/Remove button è If adding either enter the full user name (Domain\username) or select Advanced and search for the user locally or in a domain.

Volume Shadow copy (Currently Not Recommended)
Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) was specifically designed to provide point – in – time snapshots of volumes and eliminated problems with backups of open files. It can also provide recovery of files for end users or Administrators without having to do a restore from backup.
The shadow copy process works on a schedule and is not recommended to be done more than once per hour. The default schedule is twice a day.
In order for the copy to work you will need to set aside a certain amount of space on the same or another volume.
Users can access the previous versions of the files through Explorer. If they have Windows 2000 then they will require the installation of a software to enable the Explorer options.
Note: In Windows 2003 you can add upto 32 servers can work in a NLB.
In Windows 2003 you can add upto 8 server to participate in a cluster.

Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM)
Microsoft Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) provides resource management and enables the allocation of resources, including processor and memory resources, among multiple applications. It has uses in enabling consolidaion of applications but ensuring they are given the resources they require to run on a single server.
Note: WSRM only runs on Windows server 2003 Enterprise and Datacenter Editions.
WSRM allows administrators to control CPU and memory resource allocation to applications, services, and processors. This feature can be used to manage multiple applications on a single computer or multiple users on a computer that runs Microsoft Terminal Services. The WSRM architecture also allows administrators to manage resources on multiple systems. WSRM provides GUI as well as command line interfaces for resource management.

What is the location of the event log files in the system?
The location of event viewer log files is %systemroot%\system32\config\ . Here all event log files i.e., application log, security log, system log etc will be stored.

What are the switches that are available with repadmin?
Repadmin /showrepl è Shows replication status
Repadmin /failcache  è Show recent failed cached replication events.
Repadmin /syncall  è  Synchronizes replication to all domain controllers in entire forest. If you want to synchronize to only one domain controller type the FQDN of the domain controller followed by the repadmin /syncall.
Nltest è
Replmon è
Adsiedit.msc è

How to associate a existing subnet object with a site?
Associating existing subnet with a site under the following conditions.
Ø    When you are removing the site to which the subnet was associated.
Ø    When you have temporarily associated  the subnet with a different site and want to associate it with its permanent site.
Required credentials : Enterprise Admins
To associate an existing subnet object  with a site
Start è Programs è Administrative tools è Active Directory Sites and Services è Click on sites è Click on subnet container è Right click on the subnet with which you want to associate the site and click on properties è On the site box click the site with which you want to associate the subnet, click ok.