Microsoft .Net Interview Questions And Answers 
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.NET FRAMEWORK

1. What is .NET Framework?


The .NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and the .NET Framework class library.
You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time, providing core services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness. The class library, is a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET, such as Web Forms and XML Web services.
2. What is CLR, CTS, CLS?
The .NET Framework provides a runtime environment called the Common Language Runtime or CLR (similar to the Java Virtual Machine or JVM in Java), which handles the execution of code and provides useful services for the implementation of the program. CLR takes care of code management at program execution and provides various beneficial services such as memory management, thread management, security management, code verification, compilation, and other system services. The managed code that targets CLR benefits from useful features such as cross-language integration, cross-language exception handling, versioning, enhanced security, deployment support, and debugging.
Common Type System (CTS) describes how types are declared, used and managed in the runtime and facilitates cross-language integration, type safety, and high performance code execution.
The CLS is simply a specification that defines the rules to support language integration in such a way that programs written in any language, yet can interoperate with one another, taking full advantage of inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, and other features. These rules and the specification are documented in the ECMA proposed standard document, "Partition I Architecture", http://msdn.microsoft.com/net/ecma/

3. What are the new features of Framework 1.1 ?
1. Native Support for Developing Mobile Web Applications
2. Enable Execution of Windows Forms Assemblies Originating from the Internet
Assemblies originating from the Internet zone—for example, Microsoft Windows® Forms controls embedded in an Internet-based Web page or Windows Forms assemblies hosted on an Internet Web server and loaded either through the Web browser or programmatically using the System.Reflection.Assembly.LoadFrom() method—now receive sufficient permission to execute in a semi-trusted manner. Default security policy has been changed so that assemblies assigned by the common language runtime (CLR) to the Internet zone code group now receive the constrained permissions associated with the Internet permission set. In the .NET Framework 1.0 Service Pack 1 and Service Pack 2, such applications received the permissions associated with the Nothing permission set and could not execute.
3. Enable Code Access Security for ASP.NET Applications
Systems administrators can now use code access security to further lock down the permissions granted to ASP.NET Web applications and Web services. Although the operating system account under which an application runs imposes security restrictions on the application, the code access security system of the CLR can enforce additional restrictions on selected application resources based on policies specified by systems administrators. You can use this feature in a shared server environment (such as an Internet service provider (ISP) hosting multiple Web applications on one server) to isolate separate applications from one another, as well as with stand-alone servers where you want applications to run with the minimum necessary privileges.
4. Native Support for Communicating with ODBC and Oracle Databases
5. Unified Programming Model for Smart Client Application Development
The Microsoft .NET Compact Framework brings the CLR, Windows Forms controls, and other .NET Framework features to small devices. The .NET Compact Framework supports a large subset of the .NET Framework class library optimized for small devices.
6. Support for IPv6
The .NET Framework 1.1 supports the emerging update to the Internet Protocol, commonly referred to as IP version 6, or simply IPv6. This protocol is designed to significantly increase the address space used to identify communication endpoints in the Internet to accommodate its ongoing growth.
http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework/technologyinfo/Overview/whatsnew.aspx

4. Is .NET a runtime service or a development platform?
Ans: It's both and actually a lot more. Microsoft .NET includes a new way of delivering software and services to businesses and consumers. A part of Microsoft.NET is the .NET Frameworks. The .NET frameworks SDK consists of two parts: the .NET common language runtime and the .NET class library. In addition, the SDK also includes command-line compilers for C#, C++, JScript, and VB. You use these compilers to build applications and components. These components require the runtime to execute so this is a development platform.

5. What is MSIL, IL?
When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) is a language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code.

6. Can I write IL programs directly?
Yes. Peter Drayton posted this simple example to the DOTNET mailing list:
.assembly MyAssembly {}
.class MyApp {
.method static void Main() {
.entrypoint
ldstr "Hello, IL!"
call void System.Console::WriteLine(class System.Object)
ret
}
}
Just put this into a file called hello.il, and then run ilasm hello.il. An exe assembly will be generated.
Can I do things in IL that I can't do in C#?
Yes. A couple of simple examples are that you can throw exceptions that are not derived from System.Exception, and you can have non-zero-based arrays.
7. What is JIT (just in time)? how it works?
Before Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) can be executed, it must be converted by a .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code, which is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler.
Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as it is needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls.
The runtime supplies another mode of compilation called install-time code generation. The install-time code generation mode converts MSIL to native code just as the regular JIT compiler does, but it converts larger units of code at a time, storing the resulting native code for use when the assembly is subsequently loaded and executed.
As part of compiling MSIL to native code, code must pass a verification process unless an administrator has established a security policy that allows code to bypass verification. Verification examines MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe, which means that it is known to access only the memory locations it is authorized to access.
8. What is strong name?
A name that consists of an assembly's identity—its simple text name, version number, and culture information (if provided)—strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly.
9. What is portable executable (PE)?
The file format defining the structure that all executable files (EXE) and Dynamic Link Libraries (DLL) must use to allow them to be loaded and executed by Windows. PE is derived from the Microsoft Common Object File Format (COFF). The EXE and DLL files created using the .NET Framework obey the PE/COFF formats and also add additional header and data sections to the files that are only used by the CLR. The specification for the PE/COFF file formats is available at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/hwdev/hardware/pecoffdown.mspx
10. What is Event - Delegate? clear syntax for writing a event delegate
The event keyword lets you specify a delegate that will be called upon the occurrence of some "event" in your code. The delegate can have one or more associated methods that will be called when your code indicates that the event has occurred. An event in one program can be made available to other programs that target the .NET Framework Common Language Runtime.
// keyword_delegate.cs
// delegate declaration
delegate void MyDelegate(int i);
11. class Program
12. {
13. public static void Main()
14. {
15. TakesADelegate(new MyDelegate(DelegateFunction));
16. }
17. public static void TakesADelegate(MyDelegate SomeFunction)
18. {
19. SomeFunction(21);
20. }
21. public static void DelegateFunction(int i)
22. {
23. System.Console.WriteLine("Called by delegate with number: {0}.", i);
24. }
}
25. What is Code Access Security (CAS)?
CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk.
How does CAS work?
The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts - code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set.
For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the 'Zone - Internet' code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the 'Internet' named permission set. (Naturally the 'Internet' named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.)
Who defines the CAS code groups?
Microsoft defines some default ones, but you can modify these and even create your own. To see the code groups defined on your system, run 'caspol -lg' from the command-line. On my syystem it looks like this:
26. Level = Machine
27. Code Groups:
28.
29. 1. All code: Nothing
30. 1.1. Zone - MyComputer: FullTrust
31. 1.1.1. Honor SkipVerification requests: SkipVerification
32. 1.2. Zone - Intranet: LocalIntranet
33. 1.3. Zone - Internet: Internet
34. 1.4. Zone - Untrusted: Nothing
35. 1.5. Zone - Trusted: Internet
36. 1.6. StrongName - 0024000004800000940000000602000000240000525341310004000003
37. 000000CFCB3291AA715FE99D40D49040336F9056D7886FED46775BC7BB5430BA4444FEF8348EBD06
38. F962F39776AE4DC3B7B04A7FE6F49F25F740423EBF2C0B89698D8D08AC48D69CED0FC8F83B465E08
39. 07AC11EC1DCC7D054E807A43336DDE408A5393A48556123272CEEEE72F1660B71927D38561AABF5C
AC1DF1734633C602F8F2D5: Everything
Note the hierarchy of code groups - the top of the hierarchy is the most general ('All code'), which is then sub-divided into several groups, each of which in turn can be sub-divided. Also note that (somewhat counter-intuitively) a sub-group can be associated with a more permissive permission set than its parent.
How do I define my own code group?
Use caspol. For example, suppose you trust code from www.mydomain.com and you want it have full access to your system, but you want to keep the default restrictions for all other internet sites. To achieve this, you would add a new code group as a sub-group of the 'Zone - Internet' group, like this:
caspol -ag 1.3 -site www.mydomain.com FullTrust
Now if you run caspol -lg you will see that the new group has been added as group 1.3.1:
...
1.3. Zone - Internet: Internet
1.3.1. Site - www.mydomain.com: FullTrust
...
Note that the numeric label (1.3.1) is just a caspol invention to make the code groups easy to manipulate from the command-line. The underlying runtime never sees it.
How do I change the permission set for a code group?
Use caspol. If you are the machine administrator, you can operate at the 'machine' level - which means not only that the changes you make become the default for the machine, but also that users cannot change the permissions to be more permissive. If you are a normal (non-admin) user you can still modify the permissions, but only to make them more restrictive. For example, to allow intranet code to do what it likes you might do this:
caspol -cg 1.2 FullTrust
Note that because this is more permissive than the default policy (on a standard system), you should only do this at the machine level - doing it at the user level will have no effect.
Can I create my own permission set?
Yes. Use caspol -ap, specifying an XML file containing the permissions in the permission set. To save you some time, here is a sample file corresponding to the 'Everything' permission set - just edit to suit your needs. When you have edited the sample, add it to the range of available permission sets like this:
caspol -ap samplepermset.xml
Then, to apply the permission set to a code group, do something like this:
caspol -cg 1.3 SamplePermSet (By default, 1.3 is the 'Internet' code group)
I'm having some trouble with CAS. How can I diagnose my problem?
Caspol has a couple of options that might help. First, you can ask caspol to tell you what code group an assembly belongs to, using caspol -rsg. Similarly, you can ask what permissions are being applied to a particular assembly using caspol -rsp.

I can't be bothered with all this CAS stuff. Can I turn it off?
Yes, as long as you are an administrator. Just run:
caspol -s off
http://www.codeproject.com/dotnet/UB_CAS_NET.asp
40. Which namespace is the base class for .net Class library?
Ans: system.object
41. What are object pooling and connection pooling and difference? Where do we set the Min and Max Pool size for connection pooling?
Object pooling is a COM+ service that enables you to reduce the overhead of creating each object from scratch. When an object is activated, it is pulled from the pool. When the object is deactivated, it is placed back into the pool to await the next request. You can configure object pooling by applying the ObjectPoolingAttribute attribute to a class that derives from the System.EnterpriseServices.ServicedComponent class.
Object pooling lets you control the number of connections you use, as opposed to connection pooling, where you control the maximum number reached.
Following are important differences between object pooling and connection pooling:
 Creation. When using connection pooling, creation is on the same thread, so if there is nothing in the pool, a connection is created on your behalf. With object pooling, the pool might decide to create a new object. However, if you have already reached your maximum, it instead gives you the next available object. This is crucial behavior when it takes a long time to create an object, but you do not use it for very long.
 Enforcement of minimums and maximums. This is not done in connection pooling. The maximum value in object pooling is very important when trying to scale your application. You might need to multiplex thousands of requests to just a few objects. (TPC/C benchmarks rely on this.)
COM+ object pooling is identical to what is used in .NET Framework managed SQL Client connection pooling. For example, creation is on a different thread and minimums and maximums are enforced.
42. What is Application Domain?
The primary purpose of the AppDomain is to isolate an application from other applications. Win32 processes provide isolation by having distinct memory address spaces. This is effective, but it is expensive and doesn't scale well. The .NET runtime enforces AppDomain isolation by keeping control over the use of memory - all memory in the AppDomain is managed by the .NET runtime, so the runtime can ensure that AppDomains do not access each other's memory.
Objects in different application domains communicate either by transporting copies of objects across application domain boundaries, or by using a proxy to exchange messages.
MarshalByRefObject is the base class for objects that communicate across application domain boundaries by exchanging messages using a proxy. Objects that do not inherit from MarshalByRefObject are implicitly marshal by value. When a remote application references a marshal by value object, a copy of the object is passed across application domain boundaries.
How does an AppDomain get created?
AppDomains are usually created by hosts. Examples of hosts are the Windows Shell, ASP.NET and IE. When you run a .NET application from the command-line, the host is the Shell. The Shell creates a new AppDomain for every application.
AppDomains can also be explicitly created by .NET applications. Here is a C# sample which creates an AppDomain, creates an instance of an object inside it, and then executes one of the object's methods. Note that you must name the executable 'appdomaintest.exe' for this code to work as-is.
43. using System;
44. using System.Runtime.Remoting;
45.
46. public class CAppDomainInfo : MarshalByRefObject
47. {
48. public string GetAppDomainInfo()
49. {
50. return "AppDomain = " + AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName;
51. }
52. }
53. public class App
54. {
55. public static int Main()
56. {
57. AppDomain ad = AppDomain.CreateDomain( "Andy's new domain", null, null );
58. ObjectHandle oh = ad.CreateInstance( "appdomaintest", "CAppDomainInfo" );
59. CAppDomainInfo adInfo = (CAppDomainInfo)(oh.Unwrap());
60. string info = adInfo.GetAppDomainInfo();
61. Console.WriteLine( "AppDomain info: " + info );
62. return 0;
63. }
}
64. What is serialization in .NET? What are the ways to control serialization?
Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization/Deserialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database).Serialization can be defined as the process of storing the state of an object to a storage medium. During this process, the public and private fields of the object and the name of the class, including the assembly containing the class, are converted to a stream of bytes, which is then written to a data stream. When the object is subsequently deserialized, an exact clone of the original object is created.
 Binary serialization preserves type fidelity, which is useful for preserving the state of an object between different invocations of an application. For example, you can share an object between different applications by serializing it to the clipboard. You can serialize an object to a stream, disk, memory, over the network, and so forth. Remoting uses serialization to pass objects "by value" from one computer or application domain to another.
 XML serialization serializes only public properties and fields and does not preserve type fidelity. This is useful when you want to provide or consume data without restricting the application that uses the data. Because XML is an open standard, it is an attractive choice for sharing data across the Web. SOAP is an open standard, which makes it an attractive choice.
There are two separate mechanisms provided by the .NET class library - XmlSerializer and SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter. Microsoft uses XmlSerializer for Web Services, and uses SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter for remoting. Both are available for use in your own code.
Why do I get errors when I try to serialize a Hashtable?
XmlSerializer will refuse to serialize instances of any class that implements IDictionary, e.g. Hashtable. SoapFormatter and BinaryFormatter do not have this restriction.
65. What is exception handling?
When an exception occurs, the system searches for the nearest catch clause that can handle the exception, as determined by the run-time type of the exception. First, the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement, and the associated catch clauses of the try statement are considered in order. If that fails, the method that called the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement that encloses the point of the call to the current method. This search continues until a catch clause is found that can handle the current exception, by naming an exception class that is of the same class, or a base class, of the run-time type of the exception being thrown. A catch clause that doesn't name an exception class can handle any exception.
Once a matching catch clause is found, the system prepares to transfer control to the first statement of the catch clause. Before execution of the catch clause begins, the system first executes, in order, any finally clauses that were associated with try statements more nested that than the one that caught the exception.
Exceptions that occur during destructor execution are worth special mention. If an exception occurs during destructor execution, and that exception is not caught, then the execution of that destructor is terminated and the destructor of the base class (if any) is called. If there is no base class (as in the case of the object type) or if there is no base class destructor, then the exception is discarded.
66. What is Assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.
Assemblies are a fundamental part of programming with the .NET Framework. An assembly performs the following functions:
 It contains code that the common language runtime executes. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code in a portable executable (PE) file will not be executed if it does not have an associated assembly manifest. Note that each assembly can have only one entry point (that is, DllMain, WinMain, or Main).
 It forms a security boundary. An assembly is the unit at which permissions are requested and granted.
 It forms a type boundary. Every type's identity includes the name of the assembly in which it resides. A type called MyType loaded in the scope of one assembly is not the same as a type called MyType loaded in the scope of another assembly.
 It forms a reference scope boundary. The assembly's manifest contains assembly metadata that is used for resolving types and satisfying resource requests. It specifies the types and resources that are exposed outside the assembly. The manifest also enumerates other assemblies on which it depends.
 It forms a version boundary. The assembly is the smallest versionable unit in the common language runtime; all types and resources in the same assembly are versioned as a unit. The assembly's manifest describes the version dependencies you specify for any dependent assemblies.
 It forms a deployment unit. When an application starts, only the assemblies that the application initially calls must be present. Other assemblies, such as localization resources or assemblies containing utility classes, can be retrieved on demand. This allows applications to be kept simple and thin when first downloaded.
 It is the unit at which side-by-side execution is supported.
Assemblies can be static or dynamic. Static assemblies can include .NET Framework types (interfaces and classes), as well as resources for the assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so on). Static assemblies are stored on disk in PE files. You can also use the .NET Framework to create dynamic assemblies, which are run directly from memory and are not saved to disk before execution. You can save dynamic assemblies to disk after they have executed.
There are several ways to create assemblies. You can use development tools, such as Visual Studio .NET, that you have used in the past to create .dll or .exe files. You can use tools provided in the .NET Framework SDK to create assemblies with modules created in other development environments. You can also use common language runtime APIs, such as Reflection.Emit, to create dynamic assemblies.
67. What are the contents of assembly?
In general, a static assembly can consist of four elements:
 The assembly manifest, which contains assembly metadata.
 Type metadata.
 Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code that implements the types.
 A set of resources.
68. What are the different types of assemblies?
Private, Public/Shared, Satellite
69. What is the difference between a private assembly and a shared assembly?
0. Location and visibility: A private assembly is normally used by a single application, and is stored in the application's directory, or a sub-directory beneath. A shared assembly is normally stored in the global assembly cache, which is a repository of assemblies maintained by the .NET runtime. Shared assemblies are usually libraries of code which many applications will find useful, e.g. the .NET framework classes.

1. Versioning: The runtime enforces versioning constraints only on shared assemblies, not on private assemblies.
70. What are Satellite Assemblies? How you will create this? How will you get the different language strings?
Satellite assemblies are often used to deploy language-specific resources for an application. These language-specific assemblies work in side-by-side execution because the application has a separate product ID for each language and installs satellite assemblies in a language-specific subdirectory for each language. When uninstalling, the application removes only the satellite assemblies associated with a given language and .NET Framework version. No core .NET Framework files are removed unless the last language for that .NET Framework version is being removed.
(For example, English and Japanese editions of the .NET Framework version 1.1 share the same core files. The Japanese .NET Framework version 1.1 adds satellite assemblies with localized resources in a \ja subdirectory. An application that supports the .NET Framework version 1.1, regardless of its language, always uses the same core runtime files.)
http://www.ondotnet.com/lpt/a/2637
**
71. How will u load dynamic assembly? How will create assemblies at run time?
**
72. What is Assembly manifest? what all details the assembly manifest will contain?
Every assembly, whether static or dynamic, contains a collection of data that describes how the elements in the assembly relate to each other. The assembly manifest contains this assembly metadata. An assembly manifest contains all the metadata needed to specify the assembly's version requirements and security identity, and all metadata needed to define the scope of the assembly and resolve references to resources and classes. The assembly manifest can be stored in either a PE file (an .exe or .dll) with Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code or in a standalone PE file that contains only assembly manifest information.
It contains Assembly name, Version number, Culture, Strong name information, List of all files in the assembly, Type reference information, Information on referenced assemblies.
73. Difference between assembly manifest & metadata?
assembly manifest - An integral part of every assembly that renders the assembly self-describing. The assembly manifest contains the assembly's metadata. The manifest establishes the assembly identity, specifies the files that make up the assembly implementation, specifies the types and resources that make up the assembly, itemizes the compile-time dependencies on other assemblies, and specifies the set of permissions required for the assembly to run properly. This information is used at run time to resolve references, enforce version binding policy, and validate the integrity of loaded assemblies. The self-describing nature of assemblies also helps makes zero-impact install and XCOPY deployment feasible.
metadata - Information that describes every element managed by the common language runtime: an assembly, loadable file, type, method, and so on. This can include information required for debugging and garbage collection, as well as security attributes, marshaling data, extended class and member definitions, version binding, and other information required by the runtime.
74. What is Global Assembly Cache (GAC) and what is the purpose of it? (How to make an assembly to public? Steps) How more than one version of an assembly can keep in same place?
Each computer where the common language runtime is installed has a machine-wide code cache called the global assembly cache. The global assembly cache stores assemblies specifically designated to be shared by several applications on the computer. You should share assemblies by installing them into the global assembly cache only when you need to.
Steps
- Create a strong name using sn.exe tool
eg: sn -k keyPair.snk
- with in AssemblyInfo.cs add the generated file name
eg: [assembly: AssemblyKeyFile("abc.snk")]
- recompile project, then install it to GAC by either
drag & drop it to assembly folder (C:\WINDOWS\assembly OR C:\WINNT\assembly) (shfusion.dll tool)
or
gacutil -i abc.dll
75. If I have more than one version of one assemblies, then how'll I use old version (how/where to specify version number?)in my application?
**
76. How to find methods of a assembly file (not using ILDASM)
Reflection
77. What is Garbage Collection in .Net? Garbage collection process?
The process of transitively tracing through all pointers to actively used objects in order to locate all objects that can be referenced, and then arranging to reuse any heap memory that was not found during this trace. The common language runtime garbage collector also compacts the memory that is in use to reduce the working space needed for the heap.
78. What is Reflection in .NET? Namespace? How will you load an assembly which is not referenced by current assembly?
All .NET compilers produce metadata about the types defined in the modules they produce. This metadata is packaged along with the module (modules in turn are packaged together in assemblies), and can be accessed by a mechanism called reflection. The System.Reflection namespace contains classes that can be used to interrogate the types for a module/assembly.
Using reflection to access .NET metadata is very similar to using ITypeLib/ITypeInfo to access type library data in COM, and it is used for similar purposes - e.g. determining data type sizes for marshaling data across context/process/machine boundaries.
Reflection can also be used to dynamically invoke methods (see System.Type.InvokeMember), or even create types dynamically at run-time (see System.Reflection.Emit.TypeBuilder).
79. What is Custom attribute? How to create? If I'm having custom attribute in an assembly, how to say that name in the code?
A: The primary steps to properly design custom attribute classes are as follows:
. Applying the AttributeUsageAttribute ([AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.All, Inherited = false, AllowMultiple = true)])
a. Declaring the attribute. (class public class MyAttribute : System.Attribute { // . . . })
b. Declaring constructors (public MyAttribute(bool myvalue) { this.myvalue = myvalue; })
c. Declaring properties
public bool MyProperty
{
get {return this.myvalue;}
set {this.myvalue = value;}
}
The following example demonstrates the basic way of using reflection to get access to custom attributes.
class MainClass
{
public static void Main()
{
System.Reflection.MemberInfo info = typeof(MyClass);
object[] attributes = info.GetCustomAttributes();
for (int i = 0; i < attributes.Length; i ++)
{
System.Console.WriteLine(attributes[i]);
}
}
}
80. What is the managed and unmanaged code in .net?
The .NET Framework provides a run-time environment called the Common Language Runtime, which manages the execution of code and provides services that make the development process easier. Compilers and tools expose the runtime's functionality and enable you to write code that benefits from this managed execution environment. Code that you develop with a language compiler that targets the runtime is called managed code; it benefits from features such as cross-language integration, cross-language exception handling, enhanced security, versioning and deployment support, a simplified model for component interaction, and debugging and profiling services.
81. How do you create threading in .NET? What is the namespace for that?
**
System.Threading.Thread
82. Serialize and MarshalByRef?
83. using directive vs using statement
You create an instance in a using statement to ensure that Dispose is called on the object when the using statement is exited. A using statement can be exited either when the end of the using statement is reached or if, for example, an exception is thrown and control leaves the statement block before the end of the statement.
The using directive has two uses:
 Create an alias for a namespace (a using alias).
 Permit the use of types in a namespace, such that, you do not have to qualify the use of a type in that namespace (a using directive).
84. Describe the Managed Execution Process?
The managed execution process includes the following steps:
0. Choosing a compiler.
To obtain the benefits provided by the common language runtime, you must use one or more language compilers that target the runtime.
1. Compiling your code to Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL).
Compiling translates your source code into MSIL and generates the required metadata.
2. Compiling MSIL to native code.
At execution time, a just-in-time (JIT) compiler translates the MSIL into native code. During this compilation, code must pass a verification process that examines the MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe.
3. Executing your code.
The common language runtime provides the infrastructure that enables execution to take place as well as a variety of services that can be used during execution.
85. What is Active Directory? What is the namespace used to access the Microsoft Active Directories? What are ADSI Directories?
Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) is a programmatic interface for Microsoft Windows Active Directory. It enables your applications to interact with diverse directories on a network, using a single interface. Visual Studio .NET and the .NET Framework make it easy to add ADSI functionality with the DirectoryEntry and DirectorySearcher components.
Using ADSI, you can create applications that perform common administrative tasks, such as backing up databases, accessing printers, and administering user accounts. ADSI makes it possible for you to:
 Log on once to work with diverse directories. The DirectoryEntry component class provides username and password properties that can be entered at runtime and communicated to the Active Directory object you are binding to.
 Use a single application programming interface (API) to perform tasks on multiple directory systems by offering the user a variety of protocols to use. The DirectoryServices namespace provides the classes to perform most administrative functions.
 Perform "rich querying" on directory systems. ADSI technology allows for searching for an object by specifying two query dialects: SQL and LDAP.
 Access and use a single, hierarchical structure for administering and maintaining diverse and complicated network configurations by accessing an Active Directory tree.
 Integrate directory information with databases such as SQL Server. The DirectoryEntry path may be used as an ADO.NET connection string provided that it is using the LDAP provider.
using System.DirectoryServices;
86. How Garbage Collector (GC) Works?
The methods in this class influence when an object is garbage collected and when resources allocated by an object are released. Properties in this class provide information about the total amount of memory available in the system and the age category, or generation, of memory allocated to an object. Periodically, the garbage collector performs garbage collection to reclaim memory allocated to objects for which there are no valid references. Garbage collection happens automatically when a request for memory cannot be satisfied using available free memory. Alternatively, an application can force garbage collection using the Collect method.
Garbage collection consists of the following steps:
0. The garbage collector searches for managed objects that are referenced in managed code.
1. The garbage collector attempts to finalize objects that are not referenced.
2. The garbage collector frees objects that are not referenced and reclaims their memory.
87. Why do we need to call CG.SupressFinalize?
Requests that the system not call the finalizer method for the specified object.
public static void SuppressFinalize(
object obj
); The method removes obj from the set of objects that require finalization. The obj parameter is required to be the caller of this method.
Objects that implement the IDisposable interface can call this method from the IDisposable.Dispose method to prevent the garbage collector from calling Object.Finalize on an object that does not require it.
88. What is nmake tool?
The Nmake tool (Nmake.exe) is a 32-bit tool that you use to build projects based on commands contained in a .mak file.
usage : nmake -a all
89. What are Namespaces?
The namespace keyword is used to declare a scope. This namespace scope lets you organize code and gives you a way to create globally-unique types. Even if you do not explicitly declare one, a default namespace is created. This unnamed namespace, sometimes called the global namespace, is present in every file. Any identifier in the global namespace is available for use in a named namespace. Namespaces implicitly have public access and this is not modifiable.
90. What is the difference between CONST and READONLY?
Both are meant for constant values. A const field can only be initialized at the declaration of the field. A readonly field can be initialized either at the declaration or in a constructor. Therefore, readonly fields can have different values depending on the constructor used.
readonly int b;
public X()
{
b=1;
}
public X(string s)
{
b=5;
}
public X(string s, int i)
{
b=i;
}
Also, while a const field is a compile-time constant, the readonly field can be used for runtime constants, as in the following example:
public static readonly uint l1 = (uint) DateTime.Now.Ticks; (this can't be possible with const)
91. What is the difference between ref & out parameters?
An argument passed to a ref parameter must first be initialized. Compare this to an out parameter, whose argument does not have to be explicitly initialized before being passed to an out parameter.
92. What is the difference between Array and LinkedList?
93. What is the difference between Array and Arraylist?
As elements are added to an ArrayList, the capacity is automatically increased as required through reallocation. The capacity can be decreased by calling TrimToSize or by setting the Capacity property explicitly.
94. What is Jagged Arrays?
A jagged array is an array whose elements are arrays. The elements of a jagged array can be of different dimensions and sizes. A jagged array is sometimes called an "array-of-arrays."
95. What are indexers?
Indexers are similar to properties, except that the get and set accessors of indexers take parameters, while property accessors do not.
96. What is Asynchronous call and how it can be implemented using delegates?
97. How to create events for a control? What is custom events? How to create it?
98. If you want to write your own dot net language, what steps you will u take care?
99. Describe the difference between inline and code behind - which is best in a loosely coupled solution?
100. how dot net compiled code will become platform independent?
101. without modifying source code if we compile again, will it be generated MSIL again?
102. C++ & C# differences


When was .NET announced?
Bill Gates delivered a keynote at Forum 2000, held June 22, 2000, outlining the .NET 'vision'. The July 2000 PDC had a number of sessions on .NET technology, and delegates were given CDs containing a pre-release version of the .NET framework/SDK and Visual Studio.NET.

When was the first version of .NET released?
The final version of the 1.0 SDK and runtime was made publicly available around 6pm PST on 15-Jan-2002. At the same time, the final version of Visual Studio.NET was made available to MSDN subscribers.

What platforms does the .NET Framework run on?
The runtime supports Windows XP, Windows 2000, NT4 SP6a and Windows ME/98. Windows 95 is not supported. Some parts of the framework do not work on all platforms - for example, ASP.NET is only supported on Windows XP and Windows 2000. Windows 98/ME cannot be used for development.
IIS is not supported on Windows XP Home Edition, and so cannot be used to host ASP.NET. However, the ASP.NET Web Matrix

web server does run on XP Home.
The Mono project is attempting to implement the .NET framework on Linux.

What is the CLR?
CLR = Common Language Runtime. The CLR is a set of standard resources that (in theory) any .NET program can take advantage of, regardless of programming language. Robert Schmidt (Microsoft) lists the following CLR resources in his MSDN PDC# article:
Object-oriented programming model (inheritance, polymorphism, exception handling, garbage collection)
Security model
Type system
All .NET base classes
Many .NET framework classes
Development, debugging, and profiling tools
Execution and code management
IL-to-native translators and optimizers

What this means is that in the .NET world, different programming languages will be more equal in capability than they have ever been before, although clearly not all languages will support all CLR services.

What is the CTS?
CTS = Common Type System. This is the range of types that the .NET runtime understands, and therefore that .NET applications can use. However note that not all .NET languages will support all the types in the CTS. The CTS is a superset of the CLS.

What is the CLS?
CLS = Common Language Specification. This is a subset of the CTS which all .NET languages are expected to support. The idea is that any program which uses CLS-compliant types can interoperate with any .NET program written in any language.
In theory this allows very tight interop between different .NET languages - for example allowing a C# class to inherit from a VB class.

What is IL?
IL = Intermediate Language. Also known as MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) or CIL (Common Intermediate Language). All .NET source code (of any language) is compiled to IL. The IL is then converted to machine code at the point where the software is installed, or at run-time by a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler.

What does 'managed' mean in the .NET context?
The term 'managed' is the cause of much confusion. It is used in various places within .NET, meaning slightly different things.Managed code: The .NET framework provides several core run-time services to the programs that run within it - for example

exception handling and security. For these services to work, the code must provide a minimum level of information to the runtime.

Such code is called managed code. All C# and Visual Basic.NET code is managed by default. VS7 C++ code is not managed by default, but the compiler can produce managed code by specifying a command-line switch (/com+).
Managed data: This is data that is allocated and de-allocated by the .NET runtime's garbage collector. C# and VB.NET data is always managed. VS7 C++ data is unmanaged by default, even when using the /com+ switch, but it can be marked as managed using the __gc keyword.Managed classes: This is usually referred to in the context of Managed Extensions (ME) for C++. When using ME C++, a class can be marked with the __gc keyword. As the name suggests, this means that the memory for instances of the class is managed by the garbage collector, but it also means more than that. The class becomes a fully paid-up member of the .NET community with the benefits and restrictions that brings. An example of a benefit is proper interop with classes written in other languages - for example, a managed C++ class can inherit from a VB class. An example of a restriction is that a managed class can only inherit from one base class.

What is reflection?
All .NET compilers produce metadata about the types defined in the modules they produce. This metadata is packaged along with the module (modules in turn are packaged together in assemblies), and can be accessed by a mechanism called reflection. The System.Reflection namespace contains classes that can be used to interrogate the types for a module/assembly.
Using reflection to access .NET metadata is very similar to using ITypeLib/ITypeInfo to access type library data in COM, and it is used for similar purposes - e.g. determining data type sizes for marshaling data across context/process/machine boundaries.
Reflection can also be used to dynamically invoke methods (see System.Type.InvokeMember ) , or even create types dynamically at run-time (see System.Reflection.Emit.TypeBuilder).

What is the difference between Finalize and Dispose (Garbage collection) ?

Class instances often encapsulate control over resources that are not managed by the runtime, such as window handles (HWND), database connections, and so on. Therefore, you should provide both an explicit and an implicit way to free those resources. Provide implicit control by implementing the protected Finalize Method on an object (destructor syntax in C# and the Managed Extensions for C++). The garbage collector calls this method at some point after there are no longer any valid references to the object. In some cases, you might want to provide programmers using an object with the ability to explicitly release these external resources before the garbage collector frees the object. If an external resource is scarce or expensive, better performance can be achieved if the programmer explicitly releases resources when they are no longer being used. To provide explicit control, implement the Dispose method provided by the IDisposable Interface. The consumer of the object should call this method when it is done using the object.

Dispose can be called even if other references to the object are alive. Note that even when you provide explicit control by way of Dispose, you should provide implicit cleanup using the Finalize method. Finalize provides a backup to prevent resources from

permanently leaking if the programmer fails to call Dispose.



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