J2EE with EJBand WEBLOGIC Interview Questions
- What is the difference between URL instance and URLConnection instance? - A URL instance represents the location of a resource, and a URLConnection instance represents a link for accessing or communicating with the resource at the location.
- What are the two important TCP Socket classes? - Socket and ServerSocket. ServerSocket is used for normal two-way socket communication. Socket class allows us to read and write through the sockets. getInputStream() and getOutputStream() are the two methods available in Socket class.
- What technologies are included in J2EE? - The primary technologies in J2EE are: Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBsTM), JavaServer PagesTM (JSPsTM), Java Servlets, the Java Naming and Directory InterfaceTM (JNDITM), the Java Transaction API (JTA), CORBA, and the JDBCTM data access API.
- What is the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) 1.0? - The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a J2EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programing language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework that extends the Java 2 platform security architecture to support user-based authorization.
- What’s the difference between JNDI lookup(), list(), listBindings(), and search()? - lookup() attempts to find the specified object in the given context. I.e., it looks for a single, specific object and either finds it in the current context or it fails. list() attempts to return an enumeration of all of the NameClassPair’s of all of the objects in the current context. I.e., it’s a listing of all of the objects in the current context but only returns the object’s name and the name of the class to which the object belongs. listBindings() attempts to return an enumeration of the Binding’s of all of the objects in the current context. I.e., it’s a listing of all of the objects in the current context with the object’s name, its class name, and a reference to the object itself. search() attempts to return an enumeration of all of the objects matching a given set of search criteria. It can search across multiple contexts (or not). It can return whatever attributes of the objects that you desire. It’s by far the most complex and powerful of these options but is also the most expensive.
- Components of JNDI - Naming Interface- The naming interface organizes information hierarchically and maps human-friendly names to addresses or objects that are machine-friendly. It allows access to named objects through multiple namespaces. Directory Interface - JNDI includes a directory service interface that provides access to directory objects, which can contain attributes, thereby providing attribute-based searching and schema support. Service Provider Interface - JNDI comes with the SPI, which supports the protocols provided by third parties.
- What is the Max amount of information that can be saved in a Session Object? - As such there is no limit on the amount of information that can be saved in a Session Object. Only the RAM available on the server machine is the limitation. The only limit is the Session ID length(Identifier), which should not exceed more than 4K. If the data to be store is very huge, then it’s preferred to save it to a temporary file onto hard disk, rather than saving it in session. Internally if the amount of data being saved in Session exceeds the predefined limit, most of the servers write it to a temporary cache on Hard disk.
- Must my bean-managed persistence mechanism use the WebLogic JTS driver? - BEA recommend that you use the TxDataSource for bean-managed persistence.
- Do EJBs have to be homogeneously deployed across a cluster? Why? - Yes. Beginning with WebLogic Server version 6.0, EJBs must be homogeneously deployed across a cluster for the following reasons:
- To keep clustering EJBs simple
- To avoid cross server calls which results in more efficiency. If EJBs are not deployed on all servers, cross server calls are much more likely.
- To ensure that every EJB is available locally
- To ensure that all classes are loaded in an undeployable way
- Every server must have access to each EJB’s classes so that it can be bound into the local JNDI tree. If only a subset of the servers deploys the bean, the other servers will have to load the bean’s classes in their respective system classpaths which makes it impossible to undeploy the beans.
13.$ java ... -ms32m -mx32m ...
This allocates 32 megabytes of Java heap memory to WebLogic Server, which improves performance and allows WebLogic Server to handle more simultaneous connections. You can increase this value if necessary.
- What causes Java.io exceptions in the log file of WebLogic Server? - You may see messages like these in the log file:
16.java.io.IOException Connection Reset by Peer
17.java.io.EOFException Connection Reset by Peer
19.java.io.Exception: Broken pipe
These messages occur when you are using servlets. A client initiates an HTTP request, and then performs a series of actions on the browser:
- Click Stop or enter equivalent command or keystrokes
- Click Refresh or enter equivalent command or keystrokes
- Send a new HTTP request.
The messages indicate that WebLogic Server has detected and recovered from an interrupted HTTP request.
- What is the function of T3 in WebLogic Server? - T3 provides a framework for WebLogic Server messages that support for enhancements. These enhancements include abbreviations and features, such as object replacement, that work in the context of WebLogic Server clusters and HTTP and other product tunneling. T3 predates Java Object Serialization and RMI, while closely tracking and leveraging these specifications. T3 is a superset of Java Object. Serialization or RMI; anything you can do in Java Object Serialization and RMI can be done over T3. T3 is mandated between WebLogic Servers and between programmatic clients and a WebLogic Server cluster. HTTP and IIOP are optional protocols that can be used to communicate between other processes and WebLogic Server. It depends on what you want to do. For example, when you want to communicate between a browser and WebLogic Server-use HTTP, or an ORB and WebLogic Server-IIOP.
- What are the enhancements in EJB 2.0 specification with respect to Asynchronous communication? - EJB 2.0 mandates integration between JMS and EJB. We have specified the integration of Enterprise JavaBeans with the Java Message Service, and have introduced message-driven beans. A message-driven bean is a stateless component that is invoked by the container as a result of the arrival of a JMS message. The goal of the message-driven bean model is to make developing an enterprise bean that is asynchronously invoked to handle the processing of incoming JMS messages as simple as developing the same functionality in any other JMS MessageListener.
- What are the enhancements
in EJB 2.0 with respect to CMP? - EJB 2.0 extends CMP to include far
more robust modeling capability, with support for declarative management
of relationships between entity EJBs. Developers no longer need to
re-establish relationships between the various beans that make up their
application — the container will restore the connections automatically as
beans are loaded, allowing bean developers to navigate between beans much
as they would between any standard Java objects.
EJB 2.0 also introduces for the first time a portable query language, based on the abstract schema, not on the more complex database schema. This provides a database and vendor-independent way to find entity beans at run time, based on a wide variety of search criteria.
- Can you briefly describe local interfaces? - EJB was originally designed around remote invocation using the Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) mechanism, and later extended to support to standard CORBA transport for these calls using RMI/IIOP. This design allowed for maximum flexibility in developing applications without consideration for the deployment scenario, and was a strong feature in support of a goal of component reuse in J2EE. Many developers are using EJBs locally - that is, some or all of their EJB calls are between beans in a single container. With this feedback in mind, the EJB 2.0 expert group has created a local interface mechanism. The local interface may be defined for a bean during development, to allow streamlined calls to the bean if a caller is in the same container. This does not involve the overhead involved with RMI like marshalling etc. This facility will thus improve the performance of applications in which co-location is planned. Local interfaces also provide the foundation for container-managed relationships among entity beans with container-managed persistence.
- What are the special design care that must be taken when you work with local interfaces? - It is important to understand that the calling semantics of local interfaces are different from those of remote interfaces. For example, remote interfaces pass parameters using call-by-value semantics, while local interfaces use call-by-reference. This means that in order to use local interfaces safely, application developers need to carefully consider potential deployment scenarios up front, then decide which interfaces can be local and which remote, and finally, develop the application code with these choices in mind. While EJB 2.0 local interfaces are extremely useful in some situations, the long-term costs of these choices, especially when changing requirements and component reuse are taken into account, need to be factored into the design decision.
- What happens if remove( ) is never invoked on a session bean? - In case of a stateless session bean it may not matter if we call or not as in both cases nothing is done. The number of beans in cache is managed by the container. In case of stateful session bean, the bean may be kept in cache till either the session times out, in which case the bean is removed or when there is a requirement for memory in which case the data is cached and the bean is sent to free pool.
- What is the difference between creating a distributed application using RMI and using a EJB architecture? - It is possible to create the same application using RMI and EJB. But in case of EJB the container provides the requisite services to the component if we use the proper syntax. It thus helps in easier development and lesser error and use of proven code and methodology. But the investment on application server is mandatory in that case. But this investment is warranted because it results in less complex and maintainable code to the client, which is what the end client wants. Almost all the leading application servers provide load balancing and performance tuning techniques. In case of RMI we have to code the services and include in the program the way to invoke these services.
- Why would a client application use JTA transactions? - One possible example would be a scenario in which a client needs to employ two (or more) session beans, where each session bean is deployed on a different EJB server and each bean performs operations against external resources (for example, a database) and/or is managing one or more entity beans. In this scenario, the client’s logic could required an all-or-nothing guarantee for the operations performed by the session beans; hence, the session bean usage could be bundled together with a JTA UserTransaction object. In the previous scenario, however, the client application developer should address the question of whether or not it would be better to encapsulate these operations in yet another session bean, and allow the session bean to handle the transactions via the EJB container. In general, lightweight clients are easier to maintain than heavyweight clients. Also, EJB environments are ideally suited for transaction management.
28.Context c = new InitialContext(); UserTransaction ut = (UserTransaction)
31.// perform multiple operations...
- Can the bean class implement the EJBObject class directly? If not why? - It is better not to do it will make the Bean class a remote object and its methods can be accessed without the containers? security, and transaction implementations if our code by mistake passed it in one of its parameters. Its just a good design practice.
- What does isIdentical() method return in case of different type of beans? - Stateless - true always. Stateful - depends whether the references point to the same session object. Entity - Depends whether the primary key is the same and the home is same.
- How should you type cast a remote object? Why? - A client program that is intended to be interoperable with all compliant EJB Container implementations must use the javax.rmi.PortableRemoteObject.narrow(…) method to perform type-narrowing of the client-side representations of the remote home and remote interfaces. Programs using the cast operator for narrowing the remote and remote home interfaces are likely to fail if the Container implementation uses RMI-IIOP as the underlying communication transport.
- What should you do in a
passive method? - You try to make all nontransient variables, which
are not one of the following to null. For the given list the container
takes care of serializing and restoring the object when activated.
Serializable objects, null, UserTransaction, SessionContext, JNDI contexts
in the beans context, reference to other beans, references to connection
Things that must be handled explicitly are like a open database connection etc. These must be closed and set to null and retrieved back in the activate method.