What are server controls?   

ASP.NET server controls are components that run on the server and encapsulate user-interface and other related functionality. They are used in ASP.NET pages and in ASP.NET code-behind classes.

What is the difference between Web User Control and Web Custom Control?
Custom Controls
Web custom controls are compiled components that run on the server and that encapsulate user-interface and other related functionality into reusable packages. They can include all the design-time features of standard ASP.NET server controls, including full support for Visual Studio design features such as the Properties window, the visual designer, and the Toolbox There are several ways that you can create Web custom controls: You can compile a control that combines the functionality of two or more existing

controls. For example if you need a control that encapsulates a button and a text box, you can create it by compiling the existing controls together.  If an existing server control almost meets your requirements but lacks some required features, you can customize the control by deriving from it and overriding its properties, methods, and events. if none of the existing Web server controls (or their combinations) meet your requirements, you can create a custom control by deriving from one of the base control classes. 

These classes provide all the basic functionality of Web server controls, so you can focus on programming the features you need. If none of the existing ASP.NET server controls meet the specific requirements of your applications, you can create either a Web user control or a Web custom control that encapsulates the functionality you need. The main difference between the two controls lies in ease of creation vs. ease of use at design time.

Web user controls are easy to make, but they can be less convenient to use in advanced scenarios. You develop Web user controls almost exactly the same way that you develop Web Forms pages. Like Web Forms, user controls can be created in the visual designer, they can be written with code separated from the HTML, and they can handle execution events. However, because Web user controls are compiled dynamically at run time they cannot be added to the Toolbox, and they are represented by a simple placeholder glyph when added to a page. This makes Web user controls harder to use if you are accustomed to full Visual Studio .NET design-time support, including the Properties window and Design view previews. Also, the only way to share the user control between applications is to put a separate copy in each application, which takes more maintenance if you make changes to the control.
Web custom controls are compiled code, which makes them easier to use but more difficult to create; Web custom controls must be authored in code. Once you have created the control, however, you can add it to the Toolbox and display it in a visual designer with full Properties window support and all the other design-time features of ASP.NET server controls. 

In addition, you can install a single copy of the Web custom control in the global assembly cache and share it between applications, which makes maintenance easier.Web user controls Web custom controls/Easier to create Harder to create/ Limited support for consumers who use a visual design tool Full visual design tool support for consumers A separate copy of the control is required in each application Only a single copy of the control is required, in the global assembly cache Cannot be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Can be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Good for static layout Good for dynamic layout

7. Application and Session Events
The ASP.NET page framework provides ways for you to work with events that can be raised when your application starts or stops or when an individual user's session starts or stops:
 Application events are raised for all requests to an application. For example, Application_BeginRequest is raised when any Web Forms page or XML Web service in your application is requested. This event allows you to initialize resources that will be used for each request to the application. A corresponding event, Application_EndRequest, provides you with an opportunity to close or otherwise dispose of resources used for the request.
 Session events are similar to application events (there is a Session_OnStart and a Session_OnEnd event), but are raised with each unique session within the application. A session begins when a user requests a page for the first time from your application and ends either when your application explicitly closes the session or when the session times out.
You can create handlers for these types of events in the Global.asax file.
8. Difference between ASP Session and ASP.NET Session?
asp.net session supports cookie less session & it can span across multiple servers.
9. What is cookie less session? How it works?
By default, ASP.NET will store the session state in the same process that processes the request, just as ASP does. If cookies are not available, a session can be tracked by adding a session identifier to the URL. This can be enabled by setting the following:
<sessionState cookieless="true" />
10. How you will handle session when deploying application in more than a server? Describe session handling in a webfarm, how does it work and what are the limits?
By default, ASP.NET will store the session state in the same process that processes the request, just as ASP does. Additionally, ASP.NET can store session data in an external process, which can even reside on another machine. To enable this feature:
 Start the ASP.NET state service, either using the Services snap-in or by executing "net start aspnet_state" on the command line. The state service will by default listen on port 42424. To change the port, modify the registry key for the service: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\aspnet_state\Parameters\Port
 Set the mode attribute of the <sessionState> section to "StateServer".
 Configure the stateConnectionString attribute with the values of the machine on which you started aspnet_state.
The following sample assumes that the state service is running on the same machine as the Web server ("localhost") and uses the default port (42424):
<sessionState mode="StateServer" stateConnectionString="tcpip=localhost:42424" />

Note that if you try the sample above with this setting, you can reset the Web server (enter iisreset on the command line) and the session state value will persist.
11. What method do you use to explicitly kill a users session?
12. What are the different ways you would consider sending data across pages in ASP (i.e between 1.asp to 2.asp)?
public properties
13. What is State Management in .Net and how many ways are there to maintain a state in .Net? What is view state?
Web pages are recreated each time the page is posted to the server. In traditional Web programming, this would ordinarily mean that all information associated with the page and the controls on the page would be lost with each round trip.
To overcome this inherent limitation of traditional Web programming, the ASP.NET page framework includes various options to help you preserve changes — that is, for managing state. The page framework includes a facility called view state that automatically preserves property values of the page and all the controls on it between round trips.
However, you will probably also have application-specific values that you want to preserve. To do so, you can use one of the state management options.
Client-Based State Management Options:
View State
Hidden Form Fields
Query Strings
Server-Based State Management Options
Application State
Session State
Database Support
14. What are the disadvantages of view state / what are the benefits?
Automatic view-state management is a feature of server controls that enables them to repopulate their property values on a round trip (without you having to write any code). This feature does impact performance, however, since a server control's view state is passed to and from the server in a hidden form field. You should be aware of when view state helps you and when it hinders your page's performance.
15. When maintaining session through Sql server, what is the impact of Read and Write operation on Session objects? will performance degrade?
Maintaining state using database technology is a common practice when storing user-specific information where the information store is large. Database storage is particularly useful for maintaining long-term state or state that must be preserved even if the server must be restarted.
16. What are the contents of cookie?
17. How do you create a permanent cookie?
18. What is ViewState? What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?
19. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
Server side code will process at server side & it will send the result to client. Client side code (javascript) will execute only at client side.
20. Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines?
21. Which ASP.NET configuration options are supported in the ASP.NET implementation on the shared web hosting platform?
A: Many of the ASP.NET configuration options are not configurable at the site, application or subdirectory level on the shared hosting platform. Certain options can affect the security, performance and stability of the server and, therefore cannot be changed. The following settings are the only ones that can be changed in your site’s web.config file (s):
22. Briefly describe the role of global.asax?
23. How can u debug your .net application?
24. How do u deploy your asp.net application?
25. Where do we store our connection string in asp.net application?
26. Various steps taken to optimize a web based application (caching, stored procedure etc.)

27. How does ASP.NET framework maps client side events to Server side events.

28. Security types in ASP/ASP.NET? Different Authentication modes?
29. How .Net has implemented security for web applications?
30. How to do Forms authentication in asp.net?
31. Explain authentication levels in .net ?
32. Explain autherization levels in .net ?
33. What is Role-Based security?
A role is a named set of principals that have the same privileges with respect to security (such as a teller or a manager). A principal can be a member of one or more roles. Therefore, applications can use role membership to determine whether a principal is authorized to perform a requested action.
34. How will you do windows authentication and what is the namespace? If a user is logged under integrated windows authentication mode, but he is still not able to logon, what might be the possible cause for this? In ASP.Net application how do you find the name of the logged in person under windows authentication?
35. What are the different authentication modes in the .NET environment?
36. <authentication mode="Windows|Forms|Passport|None">
37. <forms name="name"
38. loginUrl="url"
39. protection="All|None|Encryption|Validation"
40. timeout="30" path="/" >
41. requireSSL="true|false"
42. slidingExpiration="true|false">
43. <credentials passwordFormat="Clear|SHA1|MD5">
44. <user name="username" password="password"/>
45. </credentials>
46. </forms>
47. <passport redirectUrl="internal"/>
Attribute Option Description
mode Controls the default authentication mode for an application.
Windows Specifies Windows authentication as the default authentication mode. Use this mode when using any form of Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) authentication: Basic, Digest, Integrated Windows authentication (NTLM/Kerberos), or certificates.
Forms Specifies ASP.NET forms-based authentication as the default authentication mode.
Passport Specifies Microsoft Passport authentication as the default authentication mode.
None Specifies no authentication. Only anonymous users are expected or applications can handle events to provide their own authentication.
48. How do you specify whether your data should be passed as Query string and Forms (Mainly about POST and GET)
Through attribute tag of form tag.
49. What is the other method, other than GET and POST, in ASP.NET?
50. What are validator? Name the Validation controls in asp.net? How do u disable them? Will the asp.net validators run in server side or client side? How do you do Client-side validation in .Net? How to disable validator control by client side JavaScript?
A set of server controls included with ASP.NET that test user input in HTML and Web server controls for programmer-defined requirements. Validation controls perform input checking in server code. If the user is working with a browser that supports DHTML, the validation controls can also perform validation ("EnableClientScript" property set to true/false) using client script.
The following validation controls are available in asp.net:
RequiredFieldValidator Control, CompareValidator Control, RangeValidator Control, RegularExpressionValidator Control, CustomValidator Control, ValidationSummary Control.
51. Which two properties are there on every validation control?
ControlToValidate, ErrorMessage
52. How do you use css in asp.net?
Within the <HEAD> section of an HTML document that will use these styles, add a link to this external CSS style sheet that
follows this form:
<LINK REL="STYLESHEET" TYPE="text/css" HREF="MyStyles.css">
MyStyles.css is the name of your external CSS style sheet.
53. How do you implement postback with a text box? What is postback and usestate?
Make AutoPostBack property to true
54. How can you debug an ASP page, without touching the code?
55. What is SQL injection?
An SQL injection attack "injects" or manipulates SQL code by adding unexpected SQL to a query.
Many web pages take parameters from web user, and make SQL query to the database. Take for instance when a user login, web page that user name and password and make SQL query to the database to check if a user has valid name and password.
Username: ' or 1=1 ---
Password: [Empty]
This would execute the following query against the users table:
select count(*) from users where userName='' or 1=1 --' and userPass=''
56. How can u handle Exceptions in Asp.Net?
57. How can u handle Un Managed Code Exceptions in ASP.Net?
58. Asp.net - How to find last error which occurred?
A: Server.GetLastError();
Exception LastError;
String ErrMessage;
LastError = Server.GetLastError();
if (LastError != null)
ErrMessage = LastError.Message;
ErrMessage = "No Errors";
Response.Write("Last Error = " + ErrMessage);
59. How to do Caching in ASP?
A: <%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="None" %>
VaryByParam value Description
none One version of page cached (only raw GET)
* n versions of page cached based on query string and/or POST body
v1 n versions of page cached based on value of v1 variable in query string or POST body
v1;v2 n versions of page cached based on value of v1 and v2 variables in query string or POST body
60. <%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="none" %>
<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="*" %>
<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="name;age" %>
The OutputCache directive supports several other cache varying options
 VaryByHeader - maintain separate cache entry for header string changes (UserAgent, UserLanguage, etc.)
 VaryByControl - for user controls, maintain separate cache entry for properties of a user control
 VaryByCustom - can specify separate cache entries for browser types and version or provide a custom GetVaryByCustomString method in HttpApplicationderived class
61. What is the Global ASA(X) File?
62. Any alternative to avoid name collisions other then Namespaces.
A scenario that two namespaces named N1 and N2 are there both having the same class say A. now in another class i ve written
using N1;using N2;
and i am instantiating class A in this class. Then how will u avoid name collisions?
Ans: using alias
Eg: using MyAlias = MyCompany.Proj.Nested;
63. Which is the namespace used to write error message in event Log File?
64. What are the page level transaction and class level transaction?
65. What are different transaction options?
66. What is the namespace for encryption?
67. What is the difference between application and cache variables?
68. What is the difference between control and component?
69. You ve defined one page_load event in aspx page and same page_load event in code behind how will prog run?
70. Where would you use an IHttpModule, and what are the limitations of any approach you might take in implementing one?
71. Can you edit data in the Repeater control? Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control? How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control? What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from some data source to the Repeater control?
72. What is the use of web.config? Difference between machine.config and Web.config?
ASP.NET configuration files are XML-based text files--each named web.config--that can appear in any directory on an ASP.NET
Web application server. Each web.config file applies configuration settings to the directory it is located in and to all
virtual child directories beneath it. Settings in child directories can optionally override or modify settings specified in
parent directories. The root configuration file--WinNT\Microsoft.NET\Framework\<version>\config\machine.config--provides
default configuration settings for the entire machine. ASP.NET configures IIS to prevent direct browser access to web.config
files to ensure that their values cannot become public (attempts to access them will cause ASP.NET to return 403: Access
At run time ASP.NET uses these web.config configuration files to hierarchically compute a unique collection of settings for
each incoming URL target request (these settings are calculated only once and then cached across subsequent requests; ASP.NET
automatically watches for file changes and will invalidate the cache if any of the configuration files change).
73. What is the use of sessionstate tag in the web.config file?
Configuring session state: Session state features can be configured via the <sessionState> section in a web.config file. To double the default timeout of 20 minutes, you can add the following to the web.config file of an application:
74. What are the different modes for the sessionstates in the web.config file?
Off Indicates that session state is not enabled.
Inproc Indicates that session state is stored locally.
StateServer Indicates that session state is stored on a remote server.
SQLServer Indicates that session state is stored on the SQL Server.
75. What is smart navigation?
When a page is requested by an Internet Explorer 5 browser, or later, smart navigation enhances the user's experience of the page by performing the following:
 eliminating the flash caused by navigation.
 persisting the scroll position when moving from page to page.
 persisting element focus between navigations.
 retaining only the last page state in the browser's history.
Smart navigation is best used with ASP.NET pages that require frequent postbacks but with visual content that does not change dramatically on return. Consider this carefully when deciding whether to set this property to true.
Set the SmartNavigation attribute to true in the @ Page directive in the .aspx file. When the page is requested, the dynamically generated class sets this property.
76. In what order do the events of an ASPX page execute. As a developer is it important to undertsand these events?
77. How would you get ASP.NET running in Apache web servers - why would you even do this?
78. What tags do you need to add within the asp:datagrid tags to bind columns manually
79. What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
80. How can we create pie chart in asp.net?
81. Is it possible for me to change my aspx file extension to some other name?
Open IIS->Default Website -> Properties
Select HomeDirectory tab
Click on configuration button
Click on add. Enter aspnet_isapi details (C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.0.3705\aspnet_isapi.dll | GET,HEAD,POST,DEBUG)

Open machine.config(C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.0.3705\CONFIG) & add new extension under <httpHandlers> tag
<add verb="*" path="*.santhosh" type="System.Web.UI.PageHandlerFactory"/>
82. What is AutoEventWireup attribute for ?

What is view state and use of it?
The current property settings of an ASP.NET page and those of any ASP.NET server controls contained within the page. ASP.NET can detect when a form is requested for the first time versus when the form is posted (sent to the server), which allows you to program accordingly.

What are user controls and custom controls?
Custom controls:

A control authored by a user or a third-party software vendor that does not belong to the .NET Framework class library. This is a generic term that includes user controls. A custom server control is used in Web Forms (ASP.NET pages). A custom client control is used in Windows Forms applications.

User Controls:
In ASP.NET: A user-authored server control that enables an ASP.NET page to be re-used as a server control. An ASP.NET user control is authored declaratively and persisted as a text file with an .ascx extension. The ASP.NET page framework compiles a user control on the fly to a class that derives from the System.Web.UI.UserControl class.

What are the validation controls?
A set of server controls included with ASP.NET that test user input in HTML and Web server controls for programmer-defined requirements. Validation controls perform input checking in server code. If the user is working with a browser that supports DHTML, the validation controls can also perform validation using client script.

What's the difference between Response.Write() andResponse.Output.Write()?
The latter one allows you to write formattedoutput.

What methods are fired during the page load? Init()
When the page is instantiated, Load() - when the page is loaded into server memory,PreRender () - the brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTML, Unload() - when page finishes loading.

Where does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class hierarchy?

Where do you store the information about the user's locale?

What's the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" and Src="MyCode.aspx.cs"?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.

What's a bubbled event?
When you have a complex control, likeDataGrid, writing an event processing routine for each object (cell, button,row, etc.) is quite tedious. The controls can bubble up their eventhandlers, allowing the main DataGrid event handler to take care of its constituents.
Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on MouseOver over a certain button.

Where do you add an event handler?
It's the Attributesproperty, the Add function inside that property.
e.g. btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onMouseOver","someClientCode();")

What data type does the RangeValidator control support?
Integer,String and Date.

What are the different types of caching?
Caching is a technique widely used in computing to increase performance by keeping frequently accessed or expensive data in memory. In context of web application, caching is used to retain the pages or data across HTTP requests and reuse them without the expense of recreating them.ASP.NET has 3 kinds of caching strategiesOutput CachingFragment CachingData

CachingOutput Caching: Caches the dynamic output generated by a request. Some times it is useful to cache the output of a website even for a minute, which will result in a better performance. For caching the whole page the page should have OutputCache directive.<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="state" %>

Fragment Caching: Caches the portion of the page generated by the request. Some times it is not practical to cache the entire page, in such cases we can cache a portion of page<%@ OutputCache Duration="120" VaryByParam="CategoryID;SelectedID"%>

Data Caching: Caches the objects programmatically. For data caching asp.net provides a cache object for eg: cache["States"] = dsStates;

What do you mean by authentication and authorization?
Authentication is the process of validating a user on the credentials (username and password) and authorization performs after authentication. After Authentication a user will be verified for performing the various tasks, It access is limited it is known as authorization.