Salamander Serotonin

Cross references:   Salamander Neurotransmitters   Serotonin    
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Serotonin Receptors    
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    The organization of serotonin-immunoreactive neuronal systems in the brain of the crested newt, Triturus cristatus carnifex Laur.  
The distribution of serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive structures has been investigated in the brain of the crested newt by means of indirect immunofluorescence, and unlabeled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase-complex (PAP) or biotin-avidin-system (BAS) techniques. In the newt, the bulk of the serotoninergic system extends from the raphe region of the medulla oblongata, through the isthmus, toward the mesencephalic tegmentum, and is characterized by pyriform neurons mainly located in a subependymal position, close to the midline. Also in the caudal hypothalamus, in addition to some 5-HT-positive adenohypophysial cells, many immunoreactive CSF-contacting neurons are found lining the paraventricular organ and the nucleus infundibularis dorsalis. A rich serotoninergic innervation was observed in the preoptic area and in the habenular complex. Concerning the telencephalon, immunopositive nerve fibers are encountered in the dorsal pallium, primordium hippocampi, striatum and olfactory bulbs. The general organization of serotoninergic systems in the newt brain exhibit close similarities to that described in higher vertebrates."  

    Organization of the serotoninergic system in the brain of two amphibian species, Ambystoma mexicanum (Urodela) and Typhlonectes compressicauda (Gymnophiona).  
An immunocytochemical investigation was made of the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain of larval and adult Ambystoma mexicanum and adult Typhlonectes compressicauda. Immunoreactive perikarya can be identified in the caudal diencephalon (paraventricular organ and infundibular nucleus), in the ventral mesencephalon (interpeduncular nucleus) and in the raphe of the rhombencephalon. Immunopositive fibers and terminal arborizations are widely distributed, extending from the whole telencephalon to the spinal lemniscus area. However, the retinorecipient structures of the thalamus and mesencephalon are either very weakly innervated (Ambystoma) or completely immunonegative (Typhlonectes). The habenular system also exhibits very few 5-HT-positive structures. The major serotoninergic neuron clusters, in both Urodela and Gymnophiona, tend to gather, from the paraventricular organ to the raphe, on both sides of the sagittal plane, showing no tendency to "lateralization". A new interpretation of the limited development of the serotoninergic system in amphibians is given."  

    Serotonergic systems in the spinal cord of the amphibian urodele Pleurodeles waltl.  
"The role of the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulating the neural networks underlying axial locomotor movements was studied in an adult amphibian urodele, Pleurodeles waltl. 5-HT was applied to an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation of P. waltl, which displayed fictive axial locomotor patterns following bath application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (5 microM) with D-serine (10 microM). Our results showed that 5-HT (1-25 microM) produces a reversible increase in the cycle duration and the duration of rhythmic bursting activity recorded extracellularly from ventral roots innervating the axial musculature. When applied alone, 5-HT does not trigger axial locomotor activity. The distribution pattern of 5-HT immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) cells along the spinal cord was investigated both in intact and in chronic spinal animals. The number of 5-HT-ir cell bodies is higher at brachial levels and decreases through crural levels. Sparse oval or fusiform 5-HT-ir somata are present within the gray matter, just ventrolateral to the central canal. Longitudinal fibers were detected throughout the entire white matter, except in the medial part of the dorsal funiculi. Two columns of intensely labeled and profusely branching thick and thin fibers associated with numerous varicosities run continuously along the ventrolateral surface of the spinal cord. Three weeks following full spinal cord transection at the level of the second spinal root, all longitudinal processes had disappeared, indicating their supraspinal origin, whereas the ventrolateral plexes remained, suggesting that they originated from intraspinal 5-HT-ir cell bodies. Our data showing that spinal 5-HT is organized according to a rostrocaudal gradient suggest that the 5-HT systems of P. waltl are not related to the presence of limb motor pools but more likely are related to axial central pattern generators (CPGs) networks down the length of the spinal cord. The possible involvement of these two sources (descending vs. intraspinal) of 5-HT innervation in the modulation of the axial CPGs is discussed."