Salamander Glutamate

Cross references:  Salamander Neurotransmitters    Glutamate    
Glutamate Gate   
Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor     



Searching for "salamander glutamate" yielded:         
        PubMed =
259    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=salamander+glutamate       
        Google = 52,600  
https://www.google.com/search?q=salamander+glutamate&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&channel=np&source=hp


    I'm surprised.  Most of the 259 references identified by this search were concerned with vision; the retina in particular.  I found only one that I considered useful and that was not concerned with other neurotransmitters in addition to glutamate.    See:  Salamander Neurotransmitters


2004 
    Activation of NMDA receptors is required for the initiation and maintenance of walking-like activity in the mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15523521 
    "
We hypothesized that blocking the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors prevents the initiation of walking-like activity and abolishes the ongoing rhythmic activity in the spinal cord-forelimb preparation from the mudpuppy. Robust walking-like movements of the limb and rhythmic alternating elbow flexor-extensor EMG pattern characteristic of walking were elicited when continuous perfusion of the spinal cord with solution containing D-glutamate. The frequency of the walking-like activity was dose-dependent on the concentration of D-glutamate in the bath over a range of 0.2 to 0.9 mmol/L. Elevation of potassium concentrations failed to induce walking-like activity. Application of the selective antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5) produced dose-dependent block of the initiation and maintenance of walking-like activity induced by D-glutamate. Complete block of the activity was achieved when the concentration of AP-5 reached 20 micromol/L. Furthermore, application of L-701,324 (a selective antagonist of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of NMDA receptor) (1-10 micromol/L) also resulted in complete block of the walking-like activity. In contrast, application of the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyno-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) (1-50 micromol/L) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the burst frequency but failed to result in a complete block. Only at concentration as high as 100 micromol/L, did CNQX cause complete block of the rhythmic activity, presumably through nonspecific action on the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of NMDA receptors. These results suggest that activation of NMDA receptors is required for the initiation and maintenance of walking-like activity. Operation of non-NMDA receptors plays a powerful role in the modulation of the walking-like activity in the mudpuppy."  









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