Cross references: Dopamine Dopamine Receptors Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Salamander Brain of the Tiger Salamander Salamander Neurotransmitters
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Comparative analysis of dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities in the brain of two amphibians, the anuran Rana ridibunda and the urodele Pleurodeles waltlii.
"To gain more insight into the dopaminergic system of amphibians and the evolution of catecholaminergic systems in vertebrates in general, the distribution of dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was studied in the brains of the anuran Rana ridibunda and the urodele Pleurodeles waltlii. In both species, dopamine-immunoreactive (DAi) cell bodies were observed in the olfactory bulb, the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus of the periventricular organ and its accompanying cells, the nucleus of the posterior tubercle, the pretectal area, the midbrain tegmentum, around the solitary tract, in the ependymal and subependymal layers along the midline of the caudal rhombencephalon, and ventral to the central canal of the spinal cord. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry revealed a similar pattern, although some differences were noted. For example, with the TH antibodies, additional cell bodies were stained in the internal granular layer of the olfactory bulb and in the isthmal region, whereas the same antibodies failed to stain the liquor contacting cells in the nucleus of the periventricular organ. Both antisera revealed an almost identical distribution of fibers in the two amphibian species. Remarkable differences were observed in the forebrain. Whereas the nucleus accumbens in Rana contains the densest DAi plexus, in Pleurodeles the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum prevails. Moreover, cortical structures of the newt contain numerous DAi fibers, whereas the corresponding structures in the frog are devoid of immunoreactivity. The dopaminergic system in amphibians appears to share many features not only with other anamniotes but also with amniotes."
Distribution of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic systems in forebrain and midbrain of the newt, Triturus alpestris (Urodela).
"Mapping of monoaminergic systems in the brain of the newt Triturus alpestris was achieved with antisera against (1) thyrosine hydroxylase (TH), (2) formaldehyde-conjugated dopamine (DA), and (3) formaldehyde-conjugated serotonin (5-HT). In the telencephalon, the striatum was densely innervated by a large number of 5-HT-, DA- and TH-immunoreactive (IR) fibers; IR fibers were more scattered in the amygdala, the medial and lateral forebrain bundles, and the anterior commissure. In the anterior and medial diencephalon, TH-IR perikarya contacting the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-C perikarya) were located in the preoptic recess organ (PRO), the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Numerous TH-IR perikarya, not contacting the CSF, were present in the posterior preoptic nucleus and the ventral thalamus. At this level, DA-IR CSF-C neurons were only located in the PRO. In the posterior diencephalon, large populations of 5-HT-IR and DA-IR CSF-C perikarya were found in the paraventricular organ (PVO) and the nucleus infundibularis dorsalis (NID); the dorsal part of the NID additionally presented TH-IR CSF-C perikarya. Most regions of the diencephalon showed an intense monoaminergic innervation. In addition, numerous TH-IR, DA-IR and 5-HT-IR fibers, originating from the anterior and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, extended ventrally and reached the median eminence and the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. In the midbrain, TH-IR perikarya were located dorsally in the pretectal area. Ventrally, a large group of TH-IR cell bodies and some weakly stained DA-IR and 5-HT-IR neurons were observed in the posterior tuberculum. No dopaminergic system equivalent to the substantia nigra was revealed. The possible significance of the differences in the distribution of TH-IR and DA-IR neurons is discussed, with special reference to the CSF-C neurons."
Monoamines and their metabolites in the amphibian (Ambystoma tigrinum) brain: quantitative changes during metamorphosis and captivity.
"1. Monoamine neurotransmitters (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and some of their metabolites (DOPEG, MHPG, DOPAC, 5-HIAA) were measured by HPLC in extracts from telencephalon (TEL) and diencephalon-midbrain (DM) before, during at the end of metamorphosis. 2. During metamorphosis MHPG increased and 5-HIAA decreased in TEL and DM while DOPEG decreased only in DM. 3. Monoamine levels were greater in the TEL and a larger increase in MHPG occurred there. 4. Captivity without metamorphosis also caused a significant depression of 5-HIAA in TEL and depression of DOPEG, MHPG and DOPAC in DM."
On the basal ganglia of amphibians: dopaminergic mesostriatal projections.
"Recent studies have revealed a rather dense dopaminergic innervation of basal forebrain areas in anurans and urodeles. The aim of the present study is not only to extend these observations to the third order of amphibians, i.e. the Gymnophiona, but also to determine the cells of origin of the dopaminergic projection to the basal forebrain by means of combined tract-tracing/transmitter-immunohistochemical techniques. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine (DA) demonstrated some remarkable differences in the distribution of DA fibers within the basal forebrain. Whereas in anurans the nucleus accumbens receives a major DA input, in urodeles the DA input to the striatum prevails. In gymnophionans, both basal forebrain structures receive an equally dense DA innervation. The double-labeling studies revealed also differences in the distribution of the cells of origin of the DA striatal input. Although in anurans and urodeles DA cells in both the posterior tubercle and the midbrain tegmentum contribute to this projection, the mesostriatal projection of urodeles is more elaborated than that of anurans."